Voiced palato-alveolar sibilant

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Voiced palato-alveolar sibilant
ʒ
IPA number 135
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʒ
Unicode (hex) U+0292
X-SAMPA Z
Kirshenbaum Z
Braille ⠮ (braille pattern dots-2346)
Sound

The voiced palato-alveolar sibilant or voiced domed postalveolar sibilant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʒ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is Z. An alternative symbol used in some older and American linguistic literature is ž, a z with a háček. The sound occurs in many languages and, as in English and French, may have simultaneous lip rounding ([ʒʷ]), although this is rarely indicated in transcription.

Although present in English, apart from loanwords, mainly from French (thus written with g and j), the sound is not represented by a specific letter or digraph, but is formed by yod-coalescence of [z] and [j] in words such as measure. In some transcriptions of alphabets such as Cyrillic, as well as the Wikipedia pronunciation respelling for English, the sound is represented by the digraph zh.

Some scholars[who?] use the symbol /ʒ/ to transcribe the laminal variant of the voiced retroflex sibilant. In such cases, the voiced palato-alveolar sibilant is transcribed /ʒʲ/[importance?].

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced palato-alveolar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is palato-alveolar, that is, domed (partially palatalized) postalveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, and the front of the tongue bunched up ("domed") at the palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe жакӀэ About this sound [ʒaːtʃa]  'beard'
Albanian zhurmë [ʒuɾmə] 'noise'
Angas zhaam [ʒaːm] 'chin'
Arabic Maghrebi[1] زوج [ʒuʒ] 'two' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] ժամ About this sound [ʒɑm]  'hour'
Avar жакъа [ˈʒaqʼːa] 'today'
Azerbaijani jmürdə/پژمرده [pæʒmyrˈdæ] 'sad'
Berber Kabyle jeddi [ʒəddi] 'my grandfather'
Berta [ŋɔ̀nʒɔ̀ʔ] 'honey'
Bulgarian мъжът [mɐˈʒɤ̞t] 'the man'
Chechen ? / ƶiy [ʒiː] 'sheep'
Corsican ghjesgia [ˈjeːʒa] 'church' Also in Gallurese
Czech muži [ˈmuʒɪ] 'men' See Czech phonology
Dutch garage [ɣäˈräːʒə] 'garage' See Dutch phonology
English vision [ˈvɪʒən] 'vision' See English phonology
Zabrze [ˈzɑːbʒe] 'A city in southern Poland'
Esperanto manĝaĵo [maɲˈd͡ʒaʒo̞] 'food' See Esperanto phonology
French[3] jour [ʒuʁ] 'day' See French phonology
German Garage [ɡaˈʁaːʒə] 'garage' See German phonology
Georgian[4] ურნალი [ʒuɾnali] 'magazine'
Goemai zhiem [ʒiem] 'sickle'
Greek Cypriot γαλάζ̌ο [ɣ̞ɐˈlɐʒːo̞] 'sky blue'
Gwich’in zhòh [ʒôh] 'wolf'
Hän zhùr [ʒûr] 'wolf'
Hebrew ז׳אנר [ʒaneʁ] 'genre' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi झ़दहा [əʒd̪əhaː] 'dragon' See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Hungarian zsa [ˈr̪oːʒɒ] 'rose' See Hungarian phonology
Ingush жий žii [ʒiː] 'sheep'
Italian Marked accents of Emilia-Romagna[5] caso [ˈkäːʒo] 'case' Apical;[5] not labialized;[5] may be [z̺ʲ] or [ʐ] instead.[5] It corresponds to [z] in standard Italian. See Italian phonology
Tuscan language pigiare [piˈʒare] 'press' See Italian phonology
Judaeo-Spanish mujer [muˈʒɛʀ] 'woman'
Juǀ'hoan [ʒu] 'person'
Kabardian жыг [ʒəɣʲ] 'tree'
Kashubian[6] [example needed]
Kazakh жеті [ʒeti] 'seven'
Latvian žāvēt [ˈʒäːveːt̪] 'to dry' See Latvian phonology
Lithuanian žmona [ʒmoːˈn̪ɐ] 'wife'
Livonian ž [kuːʒ] 'six'
Lombard Western resgiôra [reˈʒu(ː)ra] 'matriarch'
Macedonian жaбa [ˈʒaba] 'toad' See Macedonian phonology
Megrelian ირი [ʒiɾi] 'two'
Navajo łizh [ɬiʒ] 'urine'
Ngwe Mmockngie dialect [ʒíá] 'to split'
Occitan Auvergnat argent [aʀʒẽ] 'money' Southern dialects
Gascon [arʒen]
Pashto ژوول [ʒowul] 'chew'
Persian مژه [moʒe] 'eyelash' See Persian phonology
Polish Gmina Istebna zielony [ʒɛˈlɔn̪ɘ] 'green' /ʐ/ and /ʑ/ merge into [ʒ] in these dialects. In standard Polish, /ʒ/ is commonly used to transcribe what actually is a laminal voiced retroflex sibilant.
Lubawa dialect[7]
Malbork dialect[7]
Ostróda dialect[7]
Warmia dialect[7]
Portuguese European[8] beringela [bɯ̟ɾĩˈʒɛlɐ] 'eggplant' National spellings diverge in its representation with j or g in many words. May have simultaneous palatalization ([ʑ]), specially in Brazil. See Portuguese phonology
Brazilian jenipapo [ʒẽ̞n̠ʲiˈpapu] 'genipap'
Romanian jar [ʒar] 'embers' See Romanian phonology
Serbo-Croatian жут / žut [ʒûːt̪] 'yellow' May be laminal retroflex instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Silesian Gmina Istebna[9] [example needed] These dialects merge /ʐ/ and /ʑ/ into [ʒ].
Jablunkov[9]
Sioux Lakota waŋži [wãˈʒi] 'one'
Slovenian žito [ʒito][tone?] 'cereal'
Spanish Rioplatense[10] yo [ʒo̞] 'I' Some dialects.[10] See Spanish phonology and yeísmo
Tadaksahak [ˈʒɐwɐb] 'to answer'
Tagish [ʒé] 'what'
Turkish jale [ʒäːlɛ][stress?] 'dew' See Turkish phonology
Turkmen žiraf [ʒiraf] 'giraffe'
Tutchone Northern zhi [ʒi] 'what'
Southern zhǜr [ʒɨ̂r] 'berry'
Ukrainian жaбa [ˈʒɑbɐ] 'frog' See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu اژدہا [əʒd̪ahaː] 'dragon' See Hindi–Urdu phonology
Veps ž [viːʒ] 'five'
Welayta [aʒa] 'bush'
West Frisian bagaazje [bɑˈɡaʒǝ] 'luggage'
Yiddish אָראַנזש [ɔʀanʒ] 'orange' See Yiddish phonology
Zapotec Tilquiapan[11] llan [ʒaŋ] 'anger'

The sound in Russian denoted by ж is commonly transcribed as a palato-alveolar fricative but is actually a laminal retroflex fricative.

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative[edit]

Voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative
ɹ̠˔
IPA number 151 414 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA r\_-_r

The voiced postalveolar non-sibilant fricative is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the post-alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), this sound is usually transcribed ɹ̠˔ (retracted constricted [ɹ]). The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\_-_r.

Features[edit]

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch[12] meer [meːɹ̠˔] 'more' A rare post-vocallic allophone of /r/.[13] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Dąbrowska, Anna (2004), Język polski, Wrocław: wydawnictwo Dolnośląskie, ISBN 83-7384-063-X 
  • Dubisz, Stanisław; Karaś, Halina; Kolis, Nijola (1995), Dialekty i gwary polskie, Warsaw: Wiedza Powszechna, ISBN 83-2140989-X 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Goeman, Ton; Van de Velde, Hans (2001), "Co-occurrence constraints on /r/ and /ɣ/ in Dutch dialects", in Van de Velde, Hans; van Hout, Roeland, 'r-atics, Brussels: Etudes & Travaux, pp. 91–112, ISSN 0777-3692 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press