Voiced pharyngeal fricative

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Voiced pharyngeal fricative
ʕ
ʕ̝
IPA number 145
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʕ
Unicode (hex) U+0295
X-SAMPA ?\
Kirshenbaum H<vcd>
Braille ⠖ (braille pattern dots-235) ⠆ (braille pattern dots-23)
Sound
Voiced pharyngeal approximant
ʕ̞
ɑ̯

The voiced pharyngeal approximant or fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʕ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ?\. Epiglottals and epiglotto-pharyngeals are often mistakenly taken to be pharygeal.

Although traditionally placed in the fricative row of the IPA chart, ʕ is usually an approximant. The IPA symbol itself is ambiguous, but no language is known to make a phonemic distinction between fricatives and approximants at this place of articulation. The approximant is sometimes specified as ʕ̞ or as ɑ̯.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced pharyngeal approximant fricative:

Occurrence[edit]

Pharyngeal consonants are not widespread. Sometimes, a pharyngeal approximant develops from a uvular approximant, as with the rhotic of Danish when it precedes [ɑ]. Many languages that have been described as having pharyngeal fricatives or approximants turn out on closer inspection to have epiglottal consonants instead. For example, the candidate /ʕ/ sound in Arabic and standard Hebrew (not modern Hebrew – Israelis of eastern European background generally pronounce this as a glottal stop) has been variously described as a voiced epiglottal fricative, an epiglottal approximant,[1] or a pharyngealized glottal stop.[2]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abaza гӀапынхъамыз [ʕaːpənqaːməz] 'March'
Arabic Egyptian عامود [ʕæˈmuːd] 'column' See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Avar гӀоркь [ʕortɬʼː] 'handle'
Berber Kabyle ɛemmi [ʕəmːi] 'my (paternal) uncle' Written as â in most other Berber languages.[3]
Chechen Ӏан / jan About this sound [ʕan]  'winter'
Hebrew Iraqi עברית [ʕibˈriːθ] 'Hebrew language' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Yemenite About this sound [ʕivˈriːθ] 
Sephardi About this sound [ʕivˈɾit] 
Kurdish ewr [ʕɑwr] 'cloud' Both Sorani and Kurmanji dialects have this sound.
Marshallese enana [ɛ̯ɛnæ͡ɑʕnæ͡ɑʕ] 'it is bad' See Marshallese phonology
Occitan southern Auvergnat pala [ˈpaʕa] 'shovel' See Occitan phonology
Portuguese Fluminense armando [ɐʕˈmɜ̃du] 'arming', 'setting', 'framing' In free variation with [ɣ], [ʁ] and [ɦ], before voiced consonants. Does not occur in onset position. See Portuguese phonology
Somali caadi About this sound [ʕaːdi]  'normal' See Somali phonology
Sioux Stoney marazhud [maʕazud] 'rain'
Syriac Turoyo ܐܰܪܥܳܐ [arʕo] 'earth (planet)' ʕ is often not pronounced in Eastern Syriac varieties.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]