Voiced retroflex affricate
IPA number 106 (137)
(hex) U+0256 U+0361 U+0290
voiced retroflex affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is 〈 ɖ͡ʐ 〉, sometimes simplified to 〈 dʐ 〉. It occurs in such languages as [1 ] Polish (the laminal affricate dż) and Northwest Caucasian languages (apical).
Some scolars transcribe the laminal variant of this sound as
/d͡ʒ/, even though it is not palatalized. In such cases the voiced palato-alveolar affricate is transcribed /d͡ʒʲ/.
Features [ edit ]
Features of the voiced retroflex affricate:
manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence. Its
place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat). Its
phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds or lenis lax. It is an
oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only. It is a
central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides. The
airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
Occurrence [ edit ]
See also [ edit ]
References [ edit ]
Bibliography [ edit ]
Hamann, Silke (2004), "Retroflex fricatives in Slavic languages", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 53–67, doi: 10.1017/S0025100304001604
Hanulíková, Adriana; Hamann, Silke (2010), "Slovak", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (3): 373–378, doi: 10.1017/S0025100310000162
Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi: 10.1017/S0025100303001191
Lightner, Theodore M. (1972), Problems in the Theory of Phonology, I: Russian phonology and Turkish phonology, Edmonton: Linguistic Research, inc
Lunsford, Wayne A. (2001), "An overview of linguistic structures in Torwali, a language of Northern Pakistan", M.A. thesis, University of Texas at Arlington