Voiced uvular fricative

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Voiced uvular fricative[edit]

Voiced uvular fricative
ʁ
ʁ̝
IPA number 143
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʁ
Unicode (hex) U+0281
X-SAMPA R
Kirshenbaum g"
Braille ⠔ (braille pattern dots-35) ⠼ (braille pattern dots-3456)
Sound
Voiced uvular approximant
ʁ
ʁ̞

The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʁ, an inverted small uppercase letter ʀ,[1] or in broad transcription ɣ or (if rhotic) r. This consonant is one of several collectively called guttural R when found in European languages.

Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) note that "There is, however, a complication in the case of uvular fricatives in that the shape of the vocal tract may be such that the uvula vibrates."[2] See voiced uvular raised non-sonorant trill for more information.

Because the IPA symbol stands for both the uvular fricative and the uvular approximant, the fricative nature of this sound may be specified by adding the uptack to the letter: ʁ̝. The approximant can be specified by adding the downtack: ʁ̞.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced uvular fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. In many languages it is closer to an approximant, however, and no language distinguishes the two at the uvular articulation.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

In Western Europe, a uvular trill pronunciation of rhotic consonants spread from northern French[citation needed] to several dialects and registers of Basque,[3] Catalan, Danish, Dutch, German, Hebrew, Judaeo-Spanish, Norwegian, Occitan, Portuguese and Swedish. However, not all of these remain a uvular trill today. In Danish, the r is a pharyngeal approximant in all but the most conservative speech. In Brazilian Portuguese, it is usually a velar fricative ([x], [ɣ]), voiceless uvular fricative [χ], or glottal transition ([h], [ɦ]), except in southern Brazil and Rio de Janeiro, where alveolar, velar and uvular trills and the voiced uvular fricative predominate. Because such uvular rhotics often do not contrast with alveolar ones, IPA transcriptions may often use r to represent them for ease of typesetting. For more information, see guttural R.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz цыҕ [tsəʁ] 'marten' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe тыгъэ ğă About this sound [təʁa]  'sun'
Aleut Atkan dialect chamĝul [tʃɑmʁul] 'to wash'
Arabic Modern Standard[4] غرفة [ˈʁurfɐ] 'room' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[5] See Arabic phonology
Archi гъӀабос [ʁˤabos][1] 'croak'
Armenian Eastern[6] ղեկ About this sound [ʁɛk]  'rudder'
Avar тIагъур [tʼaˈʁur] 'cap'
Berber Kabyle bbeɣ [bːəʁ] 'to dive'
Chilcotin [ʁəlkɪʃ] 'he walks'
Danish rød [ʁ̞ɶð̞] 'red' Most often an approximant. See Danish phonology
Dutch[7][8][9][10][11] Belgian Limburg[10][12] rad [ʁɑt] 'wheel' Either a fricative[10][13][14][15] or an approximant,[10][16][17][18] depending on the speaker. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Central Netherlands[19]
East Flanders[12]
Northern Netherlands[19]
Randstad[19]
Southern Netherlands[19]
English Dyfed[20] red [ʁɛd] 'red' Not all speakers.[20] Alveolar in other Welsh accents.
Gwynedd[20]
North-east Leinster[21] Corresponds to [ɹ ~ ɾ ~ ɻ] in other Irish dialects.
Northumbrian dialect[22][23] Described both as a fricative[22] and an approximant.[23] More rarely it's a trill [ʀ].[22] It's a dialectal "Northumbrian Burr", mostly found in eastern Northumberland, declining. See English phonology
Sierra Leonean[22] More rarely a trill [ʀ].[22]
French rester [ʁɛste] 'to stay' See French phonology
German Lower Rhine[24] Rost [ʁɔst] 'rust' Either a fricative or, more often, an approximant. In free variation with a uvular trill. See German phonology
Standard[24]
Swabian German[25] [ʁ̞oʃt] An approximant.[25] It's the realization of /ʁ/ in onsets,[25] otherwise it's an epiglottal approximant.[25]
Hebrew רע [ʁa] 'bad' May also be trilled. See Modern Hebrew phonology
Inuktitut East Inuktitut dialect marruuk [mɑʁʁuuk] 'two'
Kabardian гъэ [ʁa] 'year'
Kazakh саған sağan [sɑˈʁɑn] 'you (singular dative)'
Kyrgyz жамгыр [dʒɑmˈʁɯr] 'rain'
Lakota aǧúyapi [aʁʊjapɪ] 'bread'
Malay Perak dialect Perak [peʁɑk̚] 'Perak (name of state)' See Malay phonology
Norwegian Southern dialects rar [ʁ̞ɑːʁ̞] 'strange' Either an approximant or, more rarely, a fricative. See Norwegian phonology
Southwestern dialects
Portuguese European[26] carro [ˈkaʁu] 'car' By French influence Setúbal's dialect entirely merged /ɾ/ into /ʁ/. Often trilled. See Portuguese phonology
Setubalense[27] ruralizar [ʁuʁəɫiˈzaʁ] 'to ruralize'
Fluminense[27][28] ardência [ɐʁˈdẽsjə] 'burning feeling', 'stinging' By French influence Rio de Janeiro's dialect merged coda /ɾ/ into /ʁ/, what was later expanded to General Brazilian because of its intolerance to coda liquids.[29] Often trilled (what is associated with emphatic speech in most of Brazil). If as coda, generally in free variation with [ɣ], [ʕ] and [ɦ] before voiced, and [x], [χ], [ħ] and [h] before voiceless consonants
Sulista arroz [ɐˈʁos] 'rice'
Sakha тоҕус tog‘us [toʁus] 'nine'
Swedish Southern dialects rör [ʁɶʁ] 'pipe(s)' See Swedish phonology
Tatar яңгыр, yañğır [jɒŋˈʁɯr] 'rain'
Tsez агъи ’ag‘i [ˈʔaʁi] 'bird'
Ubykh [ʁa] 'his' Ubykh has ten different uvular fricatives. See Ubykh phonology
Upper Saxon Chemnitz dialect[30] Rock [ʁɔkʰ] 'skirt' Either a fricative or an approximant;[30] they're free variation with [ʀ̥], [χ] and [q].[30] Doesn't occur in the coda.[30]
Yiddish רעגן [ˈʁɛɡŋ] 'rain' See Yiddish phonology
Zhuang roek [ʁɔ̌k] 'six'

Voiced post-velar fricative[edit]

Voiced post-velar fricative
ɣ̄
ʁ̟

The voiced post-velar fricative or voiced pre-uvular fricative is a fricative consonant occurring in Hindi and Uzbek.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced post-velar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is post-velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue raised between the soft palate and the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Some of these consonants may actually be trill fricatives.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Modern Standard[5] غرفة [ˈʁ̟urfɐ] 'room' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[5] See Arabic phonology
Some Iraqi dialects[31] رأس [ʁ̟ɑʔs] 'head' Corresponds to [r] in other dialects.[31] See Arabic phonology
Hindi[32] ग़रीब [ɣ̄əriːb] 'poor' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Uzbek[33] ёмғир yomg‘ir [ʝɒ̜mˈʁ̟ɨɾ̪] 'rain'


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Based on the approximant ɹ and the general tendency to rotate letters in the IPA rather than invert them, might be expected. However, early in the history of the IPA, that letter had been used for the voiceless fricative, now written χ, paralleling ᴙ ʀ for the voiceless and voiced trills.
  2. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167)
  3. ^ Grammar of Basque, page 30, José Ignacio Hualde, Jon Ortiz De Urbina, Walter de Gruyter, 2003
  4. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17.
  5. ^ a b c Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  6. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:13)
  7. ^ Booij (1999:8)
  8. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:39, 54, 179, 196, 199-201, 291)
  9. ^ Goeman & Van de Velde (2001:91-92, 94-95, 97, 99, 101-104, 107-108)
  10. ^ a b c d Verhoeven (2005:245)
  11. ^ Verstraten & Van de Velde (2001:51-55)
  12. ^ a b Verstraten & Van de Velde (2001:52)
  13. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:39, 54, 179, 199-201, 291)
  14. ^ Goeman & Van de Velde (2001:91-92, 94-95, 97, 99, 101-104, 107-108)
  15. ^ Verstraten & Van de Velde (2001:51-55)
  16. ^ Collins & Mees (2003:54, 196, 199-201)
  17. ^ Goeman & Van de Velde (2001:91-92, 94-95, 97, 102)
  18. ^ Verstraten & Van de Velde (2001:51-55)
  19. ^ a b c d Verstraten & Van de Velde (2001:54)
  20. ^ a b c Wells (1982:390)
  21. ^ Hickey (2007:?)[page needed]
  22. ^ a b c d e Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:236)
  23. ^ a b Ogden (2009:93)
  24. ^ a b Hall (1993:89)
  25. ^ a b c d Markus Hiller. "Pharyngeals and "lax" vowel quality". Mannheim: Institut für Deutsche Sprache. 
  26. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
  27. ^ a b (Portuguese) Rhotic consonants in the speech of three municipalities of Rio de Janeiro: Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty. Page 11.
  28. ^ (Portuguese) The process of Norm change for the good pronunciation of the Portuguese language in chant and dramatics in Brazil during 1938, 1858 and 2007 Page 36.
  29. ^ (Portuguese) The acoustic-articulatory path of the lateral palatal consonant's allophony. Pages 229 and 230.
  30. ^ a b c d Khan & Weise (2013:235)
  31. ^ a b Watson (2002), p. 16.
  32. ^ Kachru (2006), p. 20.
  33. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 13.

Bibliography[edit]