Voiced velar fricative

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Voiced velar fricative[edit]

Voiced velar fricative
ɣ
IPA number 141
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɣ
Unicode (hex) U+0263
X-SAMPA G
Kirshenbaum Q
Braille ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
Sound

The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages. It is not found in English today, but did exist in Old English. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɣ, a Latinized variant of the Greek letter gamma, γ, which has this sound in Modern Greek. It should not be confused with the graphically similar ɤ, the IPA symbol for a close-mid back unrounded vowel. The symbol ɣ is also sometimes used to represent the velar approximant, though that is more accurately written with the lowering diacritic: [ɣ̞] or [ɣ˕]. The IPA also provides a dedicated symbol for a velar approximant, [ɰ], though there can be stylistic reasons to not use it in phonetic transcription.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced velar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abaza бгъьы [bɣʲǝ] 'leaf'
Adyghe Адыгэ [aːdəɣa] 'adyghe'
Alekano gamó [ɣɑmɤʔ] 'cucumber'
Aleut agiitalix [aɣiːtalix] 'with'
Angor ranihı [ɾɑniɣə] 'brother'
Angas γür [ɣyr] 'to pick up'
Arabic Modern Standard[1] غريب [ˈɣɑriːb] 'stranger' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect and word.[2] See Arabic phonology
Asturian gadañu [ɣaˈd̪ãɲʊ] 'scythe' Allophone of /ɡ/ in almost all positions
Azerbaijani ağac [ɑɣɑd͡ʒ] 'tree'
Basque[3] hego [heɣo] 'wing' Allophone of /ɡ/
Catalan[4] figuera [fiˈɣeɾə] 'fig tree' Allophone of /ɡ/. See Catalan phonology
Chechen гӀала / ġala [ɣaːla] 'town'
Czech bych byl [bɪɣ bɪl] 'I would be' Occurs when 'ch' [x] is before voiced consonant.
Dawsahak  ? [zoɣ] 'war'
Dinka ɣo [ɣo] 'us'
Dutch Some dialects gaan [ɣaːn] 'to go' More common in northern dialects.[5] See Dutch phonology
Standard Netherlandic
Netherlandic liegen [ˈliɣə(n)] 'to lie' Intervocallic allophone of [χ ~ x], written g. Present in many dialects. See Dutch phonology
Georgian[6] არიბი [ɣɑribi] 'poor' May actually be post-velar or uvular
German[7][8] damalige [ˈdaːmaːlɪɣə] 'then, former' Intervocalic allophone of /g/ in casual speech.[7][8] See German phonology
Ghari cheghe [tʃeɣe] 'five'
Greek γάλα gála [ˈɣala] 'milk' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati વા [ʋɑ̤̈ɣəɽ̃] 'tigress' See Gujarati phonology
Gweno [ndeɣe] 'bird'
Gwich’in videeghàn [viteːɣân] 'his her chest'
Haitian Creole diri [diɣi] 'rice'
Hän dëgëghor [təkəɣor] 'I am playing'
Hebrew Yemenite מגדּל [miɣdʌl] 'tower' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Icelandic saga [ˈsaːɣaː] 'saga' See Icelandic phonology
Irish dhorn [ɣoːɾˠn̪ˠ] 'fist' See Irish phonology
Iwaidja [mulaɣa] 'hermit crab'
Japanese[9] はげ hage [haɣe] 'baldness' Allophone of /ɡ/, especially in fast or casual speech. See Japanese phonology
Kabardian гын [ɣən] 'powder'
Limburgish Weert dialect[10] good [ɣo̟ə̯t] 'good' Pre-velar before and after front vowels;[11] it may also replace /g/ in younger speakers.[11]
Lithuanian humoras [ˈɣʊmɔrɐs̪] 'humour' Preferred over [ɦ]. See Lithuanian phonology
Macedonian Bukovo accent глава [ˈɡɣa(v)a] 'head' Allophone of /l/ instead of usual [ɫ]. See Prilep-Bitola dialect
Berovo accent дувна [ˈduɣna] 'it blew' Corresponds to etymological /x/ of other dialects, before sonorants. See Maleševo-Pirin dialect and Macedonian phonology
Navajo ’aghá [ʔaɣa] 'best'
Ngwe Mmockngie dialect [nøɣə̀] 'sun'
Occitan Gascon digoc [diˈɣuk] 'said (3sg.)'
Pashto غاتر [ɣɑtər] 'mule'
Persian حقیقت [hæɣiːˈɢæt] 'truth' See Persian phonology
Polish niechże [ˈɲeɣʐɛ] 'let [intensified]' (imperative particle) Allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese European[12] agora [əˈɣɔɾə] 'now' Allophone of /ɡ/, mainly in European Portuguese.[13] In Brazil, this lenition can also occur in some particular contexts. See Portuguese phonology
Some Brazilian dialects[citation needed] amiga [ɐˈmiɣə] 'friend' (f.)
Some Brazilian dialects[14] rmore [ˈmaɣmuɾi] 'marble', 'sill' Allophone of rhotic consonant (voiced equivalent to [x], itself allophone of /ʁ/) between voiced sounds, most often as coda before voiced consonants.
Punjabi ਗ਼ਰੀਬ [ɣəɾiːb] 'poor'
Northern Qiang  ? [ɣnəʂ] 'February'
Romani γoines [ɣoines] 'good'
Russian Southern дорога [dɐˈro̞ɣa] 'a way' Corresponds to /ɡ/ in other dialects
Standard Господи [ˈɣʷo̞s̪pədʲɪ] 'Lord'
'three-day'
Occurs in interjections, some religious (stylized as Old Church Slavonic) words, and as an allophone of /x/ before voiced consonants. See Russian phonology
Sardinian Nuorese dialect ghere [ˈsuɣɛrɛ] 'to suck' Allophone of /ɡ/
Scottish Gaelic laghail [ɫ̪ɤɣal] 'lawful' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Sindhi غم [ɣəmʊ] 'sadness'
Spanish amigo [ˌäˈmiɣo̞] 'friend' Allophone of /ɡ/, see Spanish phonology
Swahili ghali [ɣali] 'expensive'
Swedish Westrobothnian[15] jag [jɑ̝ːɣ] 'I' Allophone of /ɡ/. Occurs between vowels and in word-final positions.
Tajik ғафс [ɣafs] 'thick'
Tamazight aɣilas (aghilas) [aɣilas] 'leopard'
Turkish ağa [aɣa] 'agha' Deleted in most dialects. See Turkish phonology
Tutchone Northern ihghú [ihɣǔ] 'tooth'
Southern ghra [ɣra] 'baby'
Ukrainian голос [ˈɣolos] 'voice, vote' Appears in some dialects. Used as common as [ɦ]. See Ukrainian phonology
Urdu غریب [ɣəriːb] 'poor' See Hindustani phonology
Vietnamese[16] ghế [ɣe˧˥] 'chair' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian drage [ˈdraːɣə] 'to carry' Never occurs in word-initial positions.
Yi we [ɣɤ˧] 'win'

Voiced pre-velar fricative[edit]

Voiced pre-velar fricative
ɣ̟

The voiced pre-velar fricative or voiced post-palatal fricative is a fricative consonant occurring in Belgian Dutch and in the The Netherlands, primarily in the provinces of Brabant and Limburg and parts of Gelderland. The sound, the so-called 'soft g', is sometimes - erroneously - described as a voiced palatal fricative. It would however be correct to consider the sound a voiced post-palatal fricative.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced pre-velar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is pre-velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue raised between the hard and the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Southern geld [ɣ̟ɛl̪t̪] 'money' Not all dialects. See Hard and soft G in Dutch and Dutch phonology
Greek Standard Modern[17][18] γένος About this sound [ˈʝ̠e̞no̞s]  'gender' See Modern Greek phonology
Limburgish Weert dialect[11] gèr [ʝ̠ɛ̈ːʀ̝̊] 'gladly' Allophone of /ɣ/ before and after front vowels.[11]

Voiced post-velar fricative[edit]

Voiced post-velar fricative
ɣ̄
ʁ̟

The voiced post-velar fricative or voiced pre-uvular fricative is a fricative consonant occurring in Hindi and Uzbek.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced post-velar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is post-velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue raised between the soft palate and the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Some of these consonants may actually be trill fricatives.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Modern Standard[2] غرفة [ˈʁ̟urfɐ] 'room' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[2] See Arabic phonology
Some Iraqi dialects[19] رأس [ʁ̟ɑʔs] 'head' Corresponds to [r] in other dialects.[19] See Arabic phonology
Hindi[20] ग़रीब [ɣ̄əriːb] 'poor' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Uzbek[21] ёмғир yomg‘ir [ʝɒ̜mˈʁ̟ɨɾ̪] 'rain'


See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Watson (2002), pp. 17 and 19-20.
  2. ^ a b c Watson (2002), pp. 17, 19-20, 35-36 and 38.
  3. ^ Hualde (1991), pp. 99–100.
  4. ^ Wheeler (2005), p. 10.
  5. ^ Pieter van Reenen; Nanette Huijs (2000). "De harde en de zachte g, de spelling gh versus g voor voorklinker in het veertiende-eeuwse Middelnederlands.". Taal en Tongval, 52(Thema nr.), 159–181 (in Dutch). Retrieved 2009-05-04. 
  6. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  7. ^ a b Krech et al. (2009:108)
  8. ^ a b Sylvia Moosmüller (2007). "Vowels in Standard Austrian German: An Acoustic-Phonetic and Phonological Analysis". p. 6. Retrieved March 9, 2013. 
  9. ^ Okada (1991), p. 95.
  10. ^ Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), pp. 108-109.
  11. ^ a b c d Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  12. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 92.
  13. ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000), p. 11.
  14. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 228.
  15. ^ http://runeberg.org/nfaq/0347.html
  16. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  17. ^ Nicolaidis (2003:?)
  18. ^ Arvaniti (2007:20)
  19. ^ a b Watson (2002), p. 16.
  20. ^ Kachru (2006), p. 20.
  21. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 13.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art, Journal of Greek Linguistics 8: 97–208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv 
  • Barbosa, Plínio A.; Albano, Eleonora C. (2004), Brazilian Portuguese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 227–232, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001756 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), European Portuguese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Heijmans, Linda; Gussenhoven, Carlos (1998), The Dutch dialect of Weert, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28: 107–112, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006307 
  • Hualde, José Ignacio (1991), Basque phonology, New York: Routledge 
  • Kachru, Yamuna (2006), Hindi, John Benjamins Publishing, ISBN 90-272-3812-X 
  • Krech, Eva Maria; Stock, Eberhard; Hirschfeld, Ursula; Anders, Lutz-Christian (2009), Deutsches Aussprachewörterbuch, Berlin, New York: Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 978-3-11-018202-6 
  • Mateus, Maria Helena; d'Andrade, Ernesto (2000), The Phonology of Portuguese, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-823581-X 
  • Nicolaidis, Katerina (2003), "An Electropalatographic Study of Palatals in Greek", in D. Theophanopoulou-Kontou; C. Lascaratou; M. Sifianou; M. Georgiafentis; V. Spyropoulos, Current trends in Greek Linguistics (in Greek), Athens: Patakis, pp. 108–127 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), Japanese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), Standard Georgian, Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), Saigon phonemics, Language 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232 
  • Watson, Janet C. E. (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press 
  • Wheeler, Max W (2005), The Phonology Of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7 

External links[edit]