Voiced velar implosive

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Voiced velar implosive
ɠ
IPA number 166
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɠ
Unicode (hex) U+0260
X-SAMPA g_<
Kirshenbaum g`

The voiced velar implosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɠ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g_<.

Features[edit]

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Since the consonant is also oral, with no nasal outlet, the airflow is blocked entirely, and the consonant is a stop.
  • Its place of articulation is velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue at the soft palate.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages (like Swiss German) it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is implosive (glottalic ingressive), which means it is produced by pulling air in by pumping the glottis downward. Since it is voiced, the glottis is not completely closed, but allows a pulmonic airstream to escape through it.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Af Maay qalang [ɠalaŋ] 'pen' Corresponds to /q/ in Standard Somali
Ega[1] [ɠà] 'count'
Fula[2] example needed -- --
Jamaican[3] good [ɠuːd] 'good' Allophone of /ɡ/ in the onset of prominent syllables
Sindhi ڳرو əro [ɠəro] 'heavy'
Tera[4] qaandi [ɠaːndi] '(a greeting)'
Zulu ukuza [uˈɠuːza] 'to come' Allophone of /k/

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Connell, Bruce; Ahoua, Firmin; Gibbon, Dafydd (2002), "Ega", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 32 (1): 99–104, doi:10.1017/S002510030200018X 
  • Devonish, H; Harry, Otelamate G. (2004), "Jamaican phonology", in Kortman, B; Shneider E. W., A Handbook of Varieties of English, phonology 1, Berlin: Mouton De Gruyter, pp. 441–471 
  • Keer, Edward (1999), Geminates, The OCP and The Nature of CON, Rutgers University 
  • Tench, Paul (2007), "Tera", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (1): 228–234