Voiced velar stop

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Voiced velar stop
ɡ
IPA number 110
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɡ
Unicode (hex) U+0261
X-SAMPA g
Kirshenbaum g
Braille ⠛ (braille pattern dots-1245)
Sound

The voiced velar stop is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɡ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is g. Strictly, the IPA symbol is the so-called single-story G Opentail g.svg, though the double-story G Looptail g.svg is considered an acceptable alternative. The Unicode character "Latin small letter G" (U+0067) renders as either a single-story G or a double-story G depending on font, while the character "Latin small letter script G" (U+0261) is always a single-story G, but is generally available only in fonts with the IPA Extensions character block.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced velar stop:

Varieties of [ɡ][edit]

IPA Description
ɡ plain ɡ
ɡʱ or ɡ̈ breathy voiced or murmured ɡ
ɡʲ palatalized ɡ
ɡʷ labialized ɡ
ɡ̚ ɡ with no audible release
ɡ̊ voiceless or slack voiced ɡ

Occurrence[1][edit]

Of the six stops that would be expected from the most common pattern world-wide—that is, three places of articulation plus voicing ([p b, t d, k ɡ])—[p] and [ɡ] are the most frequently missing, being absent in about 10% of languages that otherwise have this pattern. Absent stop [p] is an areal feature (see also Voiceless bilabial stop). Missing [ɡ], on the other hand, is widely scattered around the world. (A few languages, such as Modern Standard Arabic, are missing both.) It seems that [ɡ] is somewhat more difficult to articulate than the other basic stops. Ian Maddieson speculates that this may be due to a physical difficulty in voicing velars: Voicing requires that air flow into the mouth cavity, and the relatively small space allowed by the position of velar consonants means that it will fill up with air quickly, making voicing difficult to maintain in [ɡ] for as long as it is in [d] or [b]. This could have two effects: [ɡ] and [k] might become confused, and the distinction is lost, or perhaps a [ɡ] never develops when a language first starts making voicing distinctions. (with uvulars, where there is even less space between the glottis and tongue for airflow, the imbalance is more extreme: Voiced [ɢ] is much rarer than voiceless [q]). Many Indo-Aryan languages, such as Hindustani, have a two-way contrast between aspirated and plain [ɡ].

Examples[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz ажыга [aˈʐəɡa] 'shovel' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe Shapsug гьанэ [ɡʲaːna] 'shirt' Dialectal. Corresponds to [dʒ] in other dialects.
Arabic[2] Egyptian راجل [ˈɾˤɑːɡel] 'man' Corresponds to [dʒ] or [ʒ] in other dialects. See Arabic phonology
Yemeni قال [ɡɑːl] 'he said' Some dialects.
Armenian Eastern[3] գանձ About this sound [ɡɑndz]  'treasure'
Azerbaijani qara [ɡɑɾɑ] 'black'
Basque galdu [ɡaldu] 'lose'
Bengali গান [ɡan] 'song' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Bengali phonology
Bulgarian гора [ɡora] 'wood'
Catalan[4] gros [ɡɾɔs] 'large' See Catalan phonology
Czech gram [ɡram] 'gram' See Czech phonology
Dutch All dialects zakdoek About this sound [ˈzɑɡduk]  'handkerchief' Allophone of /k/, occurring only before voiced consonants in native words. See Dutch phonology
Standard[5]
Many speakers goal About this sound [ɡoːɫ]  'goal' Only in loanwords. Some speakers may realize it as [ɣ] ~ [ʝ] ~ [χ] ~ [x] (like a normal Dutch g), or as [k].
Amelands goëd [ɡuə̯t] 'good'
English gaggle [ˈɡæɡɫ̩] 'gaggle' See English phonology
French[6] gain [ɡɛ̃] 'earnings' See French phonology
Georgian[7] ული [ˈɡuli] 'back'
German ge [ˈlyːɡə] 'lie' See German phonology
Greek γκάρισμα gkárisma [ˈɡaɾizma] 'donkey's bray' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati ગાવું vu [needs IPA] 'to sing' See Gujarati phonology
Hebrew גב [ɡav] 'back' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindustani गाना / گانا [ɡɑːnɑː] 'song' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian engedély [ɛŋɡɛdeːj] 'permission' See Hungarian phonology
Irish gaineamh [ˈɡanʲəw] 'sand' See Irish phonology
Italian[8] gare [ˈɡare] 'competitions' See Italian phonology
Japanese[9] がん•癌 gan [ɡaɴ] 'cancer' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian Baslaney гьанэ [ɡʲaːna] 'shirt' Corresponds to [dʒ] in other dialects.
Turkish Kabardians
Kagayanen[10] ? [kað̞aɡ] 'spirit'
Korean 메기 megi [meɡi] 'catfish' See Korean phonology
Macedonian гром [ɡrɔm] 'thunder' See Macedonian phonology
Malay guni [ɡuni] 'sack'
Marathi वत [ɡəʋət] 'grass' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian gull [ɡʉl] 'gold' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[11] gmin About this sound [ɡmʲin̪]  'plebs' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[12] língua [ˈɫĩɡwɐ] 'tongue' See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[13] gând [ɡɨnd] 'thought' See Romanian phonology
Russian[14] голова About this sound [ɡəlɐˈva]  'head' See Russian phonology
Slovak miazga [mjazɡa] 'lymph' See Slovak phonology
Somali gaabi [ɡaːbi] 'to shorten' See Somali phonology
Spanish[15] gato [ˈɡät̪o̞] 'cat' See Spanish phonology
Swedish god [ɡuːd] 'tasty' See Swedish phonology
Turkish salgın [säɫˈɡɯn] 'epidemic' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian ґанок [ˈɡɑ.n̪ɔk] 'steps' See Ukrainian phonology
West Frisian gasp [ɡɔsp] 'buckle' (n.)
Yi gge [ɡɤ˧] 'hear'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[16] gan [ɡaŋ] 'will be able' Depending on speaker and carefulness of speech, [ɡ] may be lenited to [ɣ]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Gussenhoven, Carlos (1992), "Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (2): 45–47, doi:10.1017/S002510030000459X 
  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina (2003), "Castilian Spanish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 38 (1): 107–114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344 
  • Okada, Hideo (1991), "Phonetic Representation:Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Olson, Kenneth; Mielke, Jeff; Sanicas-Daguman, Josephine; Pebley, Carol Jean; Paterson, Hugh J., III (2010), "The phonetic status of the (inter)dental approximant", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 40 (2): 199–215, doi:10.1017/S0025100309990296 
  • Padgett, Jaye (2003), "Contrast and Post-Velar Fronting in Russian", Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 21 (1): 39–87, doi:10.1023/A:1021879906505 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Shosted, Ryan K.; Chikovani, Vakhtang (2006), "Standard Georgian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 36 (2): 255–264, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002659 
  • Thompson, Laurence (1959), "Saigon phonemics", Language 35 (3): 454–476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232 
  • Watson, Janet (2002), The Phonology and Morphology of Arabic, New York: Oxford University Press