Voiceless alveolar affricate

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Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate
t͡s
t͜s
IPA number 103 132
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʦ
Unicode (hex) U+02A6
X-SAMPA ts
Kirshenbaum ts
Sound

The voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with t͡s or t͜s (formerly with ʦ). The voiceless alveolar affricate occurs in such languages as German, Cantonese, Russian, Japanese and Mandarin Chinese, among many others. International auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto, Ido and Interlingua also include this sound.

Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate[edit]

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • The stop component of this affricate is laminal alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge. For simplicity, this affricate is usually called after the sibilant fricative component.
  • There are at least three specific variants of the fricative component:
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar (commonly called "dental"), which means it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth, with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of [s] is very strong.[1]
    • Non-retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Retracted alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue slightly behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal. Acoustically, it is close to [ʃ] or laminal [ʂ].
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

The following sections are named after the fricative component.

Dentalized laminal alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[2] ցանց About this sound [t̻͡s̪ʰan̪t̻͡s̪ʰ]  'net' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms
Basque[3] hotz [o̞t̻͡s̪] 'cold' Contrasts with a sibilant affricate with an apical fricative component.[3]
Belarusian[4] цеканне [ˈt̻͡s̪ekän̪ʲe] 'tsekanye' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian цена [t̻͡s̪ɛˈn̪a] 'price'
Chechen церг [t̻͡s̪erg] 'tooth'
Chinese Mandarin[5][6] 早餐 zǎocān [t̻͡s̪ɑʊ˨˩ t̻͡s̪ʰan˥] 'breakfast' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Czech[7] co [t̻͡s̪o̝] 'what' See Czech phonology
Hungarian[8] cica [ˈt̻͡s̪it̻͡s̪ɒ] 'kitten' See Hungarian phonology
Kashubian[9] [example needed]
Kazakh[10] [example needed] Only in loanwords from Russian[11]
Kyrgyz[12] [example needed] Only in loanwords from Russian.[12] See Kyrgyz phonology
Latvian[13] cena [ˈt̻͡s̪en̪ä] 'price' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[14] цвет [t̻͡s̪ve̞t̪] 'flower' See Macedonian phonology
Polish[15] co About this sound [t̻͡s̪ɔ]  'what' See Polish phonology
Romanian[16] preţ [pre̞t̻͡s̪] 'price' See Romanian phonology
Russian[17] царь [t̻͡s̪ärʲ] 'Tsar' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[18][19] циљ / cilj [t̻͡s̪íːʎ] 'target' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak cudzí [ˈt̻͡s̪ud̪͡z̪iː] 'foreign'
Slovene[20] cvet [t̻͡s̪ʋéːt̪] 'bloom' See Slovene phonology
Spanish Mexican exterior [e̞t̻͡s̪t̪e̞ˈɾjo̞r] 'exterior'
Ukrainian[21] цей [t̻͡s̪ɛj] 'this one' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[22] cybla [ˈt̻͡s̪ɪblä] 'onion'
Uzbek[23] [example needed]

Non-retracted alveolar[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz хьаца [χaˈtsa] 'hornbeam' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe цэ [t͡sa] 'tooth'
Ainu チュㇰ [t͡suk̚] 'autumn'
Arabic Najdi[24] ك‍يف [t͡saif] 'how' Corresponds to /k/ in other dialects
Albanian cimbidh [t͡simbið] 'tongs'
Asturian Some dialects[25] otso [ot͡so] 'eight' Corresponds to standard /t͡ʃ/
Azerbaijani Some Western dialects çay/چای [t͡sɑj] 'tea' Corresponds to /t͡ʃ/ in other dialects
Basque[3] hots [ot̻͡s̺] 'sound' The fricative component is apical. Contrasts with a laminal affricate with a dentalized fricative component.[3]
Berber Kabyle iḥeşşeḇ [iħət͡sːəβ] 'he counts'
Catalan[26] potser [puˈtt̻͡s̺e] 'maybe' The fricative component is apical. See Catalan phonology
Central Alaskan Yup'ik[27] cetaman [t͡səˈtaman] 'four' Allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before schwa
Cherokee ᏣᎳᎩ tsa-la-gi [t͡salaɡi] 'Cherokee'
Chinese Cantonese zai1 [t͡sɐi˥] 'squeeze' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Cantonese phonology
Esperanto ceceo [t͡seˈt͡seo] 'tsetse fly' See Esperanto phonology
French Quebec petit [pət͡si] 'small' Allophone of /t/ before /i/ and /y/. See Quebec French phonology
Georgian[28] კა [kʼɑt͡si] 'man'
Greek κορίτσι korítsi [ko̞ˈɾit͡si] 'girl' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew צבע [ˈt͡se̞vä] 'color' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Japanese なみ tsunami [t͡su͍namʲi] 'tsunami' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian цы [t͡sə] 'hair'
Khowar څیڅیق [t͡sit͡seq] 'children'
Kiowa ch [t͡séː] 'short'
Marathi [t͡səv] 'taste' See Marathi phonology; depending on the word, the letter च may also be pronounced as /tʃə/
Maltese zokk [t͡sokː] '(tree) trunk'
Nez Perce cíickan [ˈt͡siːt͡skan] 'blanket'
Pashto څه [t͡sə] 'what'
Portuguese European[29] parte sem vida [ˈpaɾt͡sẽj ˈviðə] 'lifeless part' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (like [ ~ ], including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced), or as a result of vowel elision leading to sandhi, generally in the context of unstressed /e ~ ɨ ~ i/ (e.g. epenthesis, vowel reduction), even past the development of the [tʃ ~ tɕ] allophony. Use in Brazil is in current expansion.[30]
Brazilian[29][30] participação [pɐχt͡sipɐˈsɜ̃w] 'participation'
Most speakers[31] shiatsu [ɕiˈat͡su] 'shiatsu' Marginal sound. Many Brazilians might break the affricate with epenthetic [i], often subsequently palatalizing /t/, specially in pre-tonic contexts (e.g. tsunami [tɕisuˈnɜ̃mʲi]).[32] See Portuguese phonology
Sardinian Campidanese petza [ˈpɛt͡sa] 'meat'
Spanish Madrid[33] ancha [ˈänʲt͡sʲä] 'wide (sg. fem.)' Palatalized;[33] with an apical fricative component. It corresponds to [t͡ʃ] in standard Spanish; old Spanish [t͡s] evolved to modern /θ/ in Castilian Spanish or indirectly deaffricated /s/ in most other dialects. See Spanish phonology
Tanacross dzeen [t͡seːn] 'day'
West Frisian tsiis [t͡siːs] 'cheese'
Yi zy [t͡sɪ˧] 'to plant' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

Variable[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
German Standard[34] Zweck [t͡svɛk] 'purpose' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal, non-retracted laminal and non-retracted apical.[34] See German phonology
Italian Standard[35] grazia [ˈɡrät͡sjä] 'grace' The fricative component varies between dentalized laminal and non-retracted apical. In the latter case, the stop component is laminal denti-alveolar.[35] See Italian phonology

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate[edit]

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative
t͡θ̠
t͡θ͇

Features[edit]

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Italian Sicily[36] straniero [st͡θ̠äˈnjɛɾo] 'foreign' Apical.[36] Regional realization of the sequence /tr/;[36] may be a sequence [tθ̠] or [tð̠] instead.[37] See Italian phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  2. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 6.
  3. ^ a b c d Hualde, Lujanbio & Zubiri (2010:1). Although this paper discusses mainly the Goizueta dialect, the authors state that it has "a typical, conservative consonant inventory for a Basque variety".
  4. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 48-49.
  5. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), pp. 109-110.
  6. ^ Lin (2001), pp. 17-25.
  7. ^ Palková (1994), pp. 234-235.
  8. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  9. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  10. ^ Kara (2002), p. 10.
  11. ^ Kara (2002), p. 11.
  12. ^ a b Kara (2003), p. 11.
  13. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  14. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  15. ^ Rocławski (1976), pp. 160.
  16. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  17. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  18. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  19. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  20. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  21. ^ S. Buk, J. Mačutek, A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system" (PDF). Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  22. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22 and 38).
  23. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 12.
  24. ^ Lewis jr. (2013), p. 5.
  25. ^ (Asturian) Normes ortográfiques, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Page 14
  26. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2007), p. 144.
  27. ^ Jacobson (1995), p. 2.
  28. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  29. ^ a b (Portuguese) Palatalization of dental occlusives /t/ and /d/ in the bilingual communities of Taquara and Panambi, RS – Alice Telles de Paula Page 14
  30. ^ a b Seqüências de (oclusiva alveolar + sibilante alveolar) como um padrão inovador no português de Belo Horizonte – Camila Tavares Leite
  31. ^ Adaptações fonológicas na pronúncia de estrangeirismos do Inglês por falantes de Português Brasileiro – Ana Beatriz Gonçalves de Assis
  32. ^ A influência da percepção inferencial na formação de vogal epentética em estrangeirismos – Aline Aver Vanin
  33. ^ a b "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler". 
  34. ^ a b Mangold (2005), pp. 50 and 52.
  35. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 75–76.
  36. ^ a b c Canepari (1992), p. 64.
  37. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 65.

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Jacobson, Steven (1995), A Practical Grammar of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik Eskimo Language, Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, ISBN 978-1-55500-050-9 
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  • Kara, Dávid Somfai (2003), Kyrgyz, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3895868434 
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