Voiceless alveolar fricative

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A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth. This refers to a class of sounds, not a single sound. There are at least six types with significant perceptual differences:

The first three types are sibilants, meaning that they are made with the teeth closed and have a piercing, perceptually prominent sound.

Voiceless coronal fricatives
Dental Alveolar Post-alveolar
retracted retroflex Palato-alveolar Alveolo-palatal
sibilant ʂ ʃ ɕ
non-sibilant θ θ̠/θ͇/ɹ̝̊ ɻ̝̊

Voiceless alveolar sibilant[edit]

Voiceless alveolar sibilant
s
IPA number 132
Encoding
Entity (decimal) s
Unicode (hex) U+0073
X-SAMPA s
Kirshenbaum s
Braille ⠎ (braille pattern dots-234)
Sound
Voiceless dental sibilant
Voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant
Encoding
Entity (decimal) s​̺
Unicode (hex) U+0073 U+033A
Sound

The voiceless alveolar sibilant is a common consonant sound in vocal languages. It is the sound in English words such as sea and pass, and is represented in the International Phonetic Alphabet with s. It has a characteristic high-pitched, highly perceptible hissing sound. For this reason, it is often used to get someone's attention, using a call often written as sssst! or psssst!.

The voiceless alveolar sibilant [s] is one of the most common sounds cross-linguistically. If a language has fricatives, it will most likely have [s].[2] However, some languages have a related sibilant sound, such as [ʃ], but no [s]. In addition, sibilants are absent from Australian Aboriginal languages, where fricatives are rare; even the few indigenous Australian languages that have developed fricatives do not have sibilants.[citation needed]

The voiceless alveolar retracted sibilant (commonly termed the voiceless apico-alveolar sibilant) is a fricative that is articulated with the tongue in a hollow shape, and usually with tip of the tongue (apex) against the alveolar ridge. It is a linguistically unusual sibilant sound that is found most notably in a number of languages in a linguistic area covering northern and central Iberia, and is most well known from its occurrence in the Spanish of this area. In the Middle Ages, it occurred in a wider area, covering Romance languages spoken throughout France, Portugal, and Spain, as well as Old and Middle High German.

There is no single IPA symbol used for this sound. The symbol is often used, with a diacritic indicating an apical pronunciation. However, this is potentially problematic in that not all alveolar retracted sibilants are apical (see below), and not all apical alveolar sibilants are retracted. The ad-hoc non-IPA symbols and S are often used in the linguistic literature, even when IPA symbols are used for other sounds;[citation needed] , however, is a common transcription of the retroflex sibilant [ʂ].

Often, to speakers of languages or dialects that do not have the sound, it is said to have a "whistling" quality, and to sound similar to palato-alveolar [ʃ]. For this reason, when borrowed into such languages or represented with non-Latin characters, it is often replaced with [ʃ]. This occurred, for example, in English borrowings from Old French (e.g., push from pousser, cash from caisse); in Polish borrowings from medieval German (e.g., kosztować from kosten, żur from sūr (contemporary sauer); and in representations of Mozarabic (an extinct medieval Romance language once spoken in southern Spain) in Arabic characters. The similarity between retracted [s̺] and [ʃ] has resulted in many exchanges in Spanish between the sounds, during the medieval period when Spanish had both phonemes. Examples are jabón (formerly xabón) "soap" from Latin sapō, sapōnem, jibia "cuttlefish" (formerly xibia) from Latin sēpia, and tijeras "scissors" (earlier tixeras < medieval tiseras) from Latin cīsōrias (with initial t- due to influence from tōnsor "shaver").

One of the clearest descriptions of this sound is from Obaid:[3] "There is a Castilian s, which is a voiceless, concave, apicoalveolar fricative: The tip of the tongue turned upward forms a narrow opening against the alveoli of the upper incisors. It resembles a faint /ʃ/ and is found throughout much of the northern half of Spain".

Many dialects of Modern Greek have a very similar-sounding sibilant that is pronounced with a laminal articulation.[4]

It occurs as the normal voiceless alveolar sibilant in Astur-Leonese, Castilian Spanish, Catalan, Galician, working-class Glaswegian English, northern European Portuguese, and some Occitan dialects. It also occurs in Basque and Mirandese, where it is opposed to a different voiceless alveolar sibilant, the more common [s]; the same distinction occurs in a few dialects of northeastern Portuguese. Outside of this area, it also occurs in a few dialects of Latin American Spanish (e.g., Antioqueño, in Colombia), and in many dialects of Modern Greek (with a laminal articulation).

In medieval times, it occurred in a wider area, including the Romance languages spoken in most or all of France and Iberia (Old Spanish, Galician-Portuguese, Catalan, French, etc.), as well as in the Old and Middle High German of central and southern Germany.[4] In all of these languages, the retracted "apico-alveolar" sibilant was opposed to a non-retracted sibilant much like English [s], and in many of them, both voiceless and voiced versions of both sounds occurred. In general, the retracted "apico-alveolar" variants were written s or ss, while the non-retracted variants were written z, c or ç. In the Romance languages, the retracted sibilants derived from Latin /s/, /ss/ or /ns/, while the non-retracted sibilants derived from earlier affricates [t͡s] and [d͡z], which in turn derived from palatalized /k/ or /t/. The situation was similar in High German, where the retracted sibilants derived largely from Proto-Germanic /s/, while the non-retracted sibilants derived from instances of Proto-Germanic /t/ that were shifted by the High German sound shift. Minimal pairs were common in all languages. Examples in Middle High German, for example, were wizzen "to know" (Old English witan, cf. "to wit") vs. wissen "known" (Old English wissen), and weiz "white" (Old English wīt) vs. weis "way" (Old English wīs, cf. "-wise").

This distinction has since vanished from most of these languages:

  • In most dialects of Spanish, the four alveolar sibilants have merged into the non-retracted [s].
  • In French and most dialects of Portuguese, the four alveolar sibilants have merged into non-retracted [s] and [z], while in European Portuguese, most other Old World Portuguese variants and some recently European-influenced dialects of Brazil all coda [s̺], voiced [z̺] before voiced consonants, was backed to [ɕ], [ʑ], while in most of Brazilian Portuguese this phenomenon is much rarer, being essentially absent in the dialects that conservated the most archaic Portuguese forms and/or had a greater Indigenous and/or non-Portuguese European influence.
  • In the remaining dialects of Portuguese, found in northern Portugal, they merged into the retracted [s̺] [z̺], or, as in Mirandese (which is, however, not a Portuguese dialect, but belongs to Asturian-Leonese), conservated the mediaeval distinction.
  • In central and northern Spanish, the non-retracted [s] was fronted to [θ] after merging with non-retracted [z], while the retracted [s̺] remains.
  • In German, most instances of [s̺] were fronted to [s], but some were backed to become [ʃ] (initially before a consonant, and following /r/; in many modern High German dialects, also non-initially before a consonant), postalveolar as in European and fluminense Portuguese.

Because of the widespread medieval distribution, it has been speculated that retracted [s̺] was the normal pronunciation in spoken Latin. However, it equally well could have been an areal feature inherited from the prehistoric languages of Western Europe, as evidenced by its occurrence in modern Basque.

Comparison with the Spanish apico-alveolar sibilant[edit]

The term "voiceless alveolar sibilant" is potentially ambiguous in that it can refer to at least two different sounds. Various languages of northern Iberia (e.g. Astur-Leonese, Catalan, Basque, Galician, Portuguese and Spanish) have a so-called "voiceless apico-alveolar sibilant" which lacks the strong hissing of the [s] described in this article, but rather has a duller, more "grave" sound quality somewhat reminiscent of a voiceless retroflex sibilant. Basque, Mirandese and some Portuguese dialects in northeast Portugal (as well as medieval Spanish and Portuguese in general) have both types of sounds in the same language.

There is no general agreement about what actual feature distinguishes these sounds. Spanish phoneticians normally describe the difference as apical (for the northern Iberian sound) vs. laminal (for the more common sound), but Ladefoged and Maddieson[5] claim that English /s/ can be pronounced apical, which is evidently not the same as the apical sibilant of Iberian Spanish and Basque, In addition, Adams[6] asserts that many dialects of Modern Greek have a laminal sibilant with a sound quality similar to the "apico-alveolar" sibilant of northern Iberia.

Some authors have instead suggested that the difference lies in tongue shape. Adams[6] describes the northern Iberian sibilant as "retracted". Ladefoged and Maddieson[5] appear to characterize the more common hissing variant as grooved, and some phoneticians (e.g. J. Catford) have characterized it as sulcal (which is more or less a synonym of "grooved"), but in both cases there is some doubt about whether all and only the "hissing" sounds in fact have a "grooved" or "sulcal" tongue shape.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolar sibilant:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • There are at least three specific variants of [s]:
    • Laminal alveolar, meaning that it is articulated with the tongue blade at the alveolar ridge just behind the gums, with the tongue tip resting behind the lower front teeth or their roots. It can also be retracted, meaning that it's articulated behind, rather than at the alveolar ridge, making it sound closer to [ʃ] or laminal [ʂ].
    • Dentalized laminal alveolar[7] (commonly called "dental"), meaning that it is articulated with the tongue blade very close to the upper front teeth,[7] with the tongue tip resting behind lower front teeth. The hissing effect in this variety of /s/ is very strong.[7]
    • Apical alveolar, meaning that it is articulated with the tongue tip at the alveolar ridge. It can also be retracted, meaning that it's articulated behind, rather than at the alveolar ridge, making it sound closer to [ʃ] or laminal [ʂ]. According to Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) about half of English speakers use a non-retracted apical articulation.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Laminal alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe сэ [sa] 'I'
Arabic Modern Standard[8] جَلَسَ [ˈdʒælæsɐ] 'to sit' See Arabic phonology
Burmese [sə sá bjì] 'I am eating now'
Chinese Cantonese sim2 [siːm˧˥] 'twinkle' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard[9] steen [steːn] 'stone' See Dutch phonology
Holland zijn [sɛi̯n] 'to be' In dialects that merge /s/ and /z/ into [s]
Estonian sõna ['sɤnɑ] 'word'
English sand [sænd] 'sand' See English phonology
Faroese sandur [sandʊɹ] 'sand'
Finnish[10] sinä [sinæ] 'you (sg.)' May be retracted for other speakers.[10][11] See Finnish phonology
Georgian[12] ამი [ˈsɑmi] 'three'
German Standard[13] Biss [bɪs] 'bite' Laminal.[13] May be dentalized[13] or apical[13] instead. See German phonology
Greek Athens dialect[6] σαν san [s̻an] 'as' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew ספר [ˈsefeʁ] 'book' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Hindi साल [saːl] 'year' See Hindustani phonology
Japanese[14] 複数形 fukusūkē [ɸɯkɯsɯːkeː] 'plural' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian сэ [sa] 'I'
Korean so [so] 'ox' See Korean phonology
Malay satu [satu] 'one'
Maltese iebes [eaˈbes] 'hard'
Marathi सपाट [səpaːʈ] 'flat' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian sand [sɑn] 'sand' See Norwegian phonology
Occitan Limousin maichent [mejˈsẽ] 'bad'
Persian سیب/sib [sib] 'apple' See Persian phonology
Portuguese[15] caço [ˈkasu] 'I hunt' See Portuguese phonology
Punjabi ਸੱਪ [səpː] 'snake'
Spanish[16] Latin American saltador [s̻al̪t̪aˈð̞o̞r] 'jumper' See Spanish phonology and Seseo
Urdu سال [saːl] 'year' See Hindustani phonology
Vietnamese[17] xa [saː˧] 'far' See Vietnamese phonology
Yi sy [sɿ˧] 'die'
Dentalized laminal alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[18] սար About this sound [s̪ɑɾ]  'mountain'
Azerbaijani[19] su [s̪u] 'water'
Basque gauza [ɡäus̪ä] 'thing' Contrasts with voiceless apico-alveolar sibilant []
Belarusian[20] стагоддзе [s̪t̪äˈɣod̪d̪͡z̪ʲe] 'century' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[21] всеки [ˈvs̪ɛki] 'everyone' Contrasts with palatalized form
Chinese Mandarin[22][23] sān [s̪a̋n] 'three' See Mandarin phonology
Czech[24] svět [s̪vjɛt̪] 'world' See Czech phonology
French[25][26][27] façade [fäs̪äd̪] 'front' See French phonology
German Austrian Biss [bɪs̪] 'bite'
Standard[13] May be non-dentalized[13] or apical[13] instead. See German phonology
Hungarian[28] sziget [ˈs̪iɡɛt̪] 'island' See Hungarian phonology
Italian Standard[29][30] sali [ˈs̪äːli] 'you go up' May be apical alveolar instead.[30] See Italian phonology
Ticino[31] Often labiodentalized [s̪v],[31] may be apical alveolar instead.[32] See Italian phonology
Kashubian[33] [example needed]
Kazakh[34] сом [s̪u̯ʊm] 'pure'
Kyrgyz[35] сабиз [s̪äˈbis̪] 'carrot'
Latvian[36] sens [s̪en̪s̪] 'ancient' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[37] скока [ˈs̪kɔkä] 'jump' See Macedonian phonology
Mirandese [example needed] Mirandese and neighboring Portuguese dialects were the only surviving oral tradition to preserve all seven mediaeval Ibero-Romance sibilants: ch /t͡ʃ/, x /ʃ/, g/j /ʒ/, c/ç /s̪/, z //, s/-ss- /s̺/, -s- //
Polish[7][38] sum About this sound [s̪um]  'catfish' See Polish phonology
Romanian[39] surd [s̪ur̪d̪] 'deaf' See Romanian phonology
Russian[40] волосы About this sound [ˈvo̞ɫ̪əs̪ɨ̞]  'hair' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[41] Slàinte [ˈs̪ɫ̪äːn̪t̪ʰʲə] 'cheers' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian[42][43] сам / sam [s̪ȃ̠m] 'alone' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak svet [s̪vɛt̪] 'world'
Slovene[44] svet [s̪ʋéːt̪] 'world'
Spanish European[45] estar [e̞s̪ˈt̪är] 'to be' Allophone of /s/ before dental consonants.[45] See Spanish phonology
Swedish[46] Central Standard[47][48] säte [ˈs̪ɛːt̪e] 'seat' Retracted in some southern dialects.[11] See Swedish phonology
Toda[49][50] [kɔs̪] 'money'
Turkish[25][51] su [s̪u] 'water' See Turkish phonology
Ukrainian[52] село [s̪ɛˈɫ̪ɔ] 'village' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[53] sowa [ˈs̪ovä] 'owl'
Uzbek[54] [example needed]
Vietnamese Hanoi[55] xa [s̪äː] 'far' See Vietnamese phonology
(Retracted) apical alveolar or retracted laminal alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian pasu [ˈpäs̺u] 'step' Apical; retracted
Basque[56] su [s̺u] 'fire' Apical; retracted. Contrasts with /s̻/
Catalan[57][58] set [ˈs̺ɛt̪] 'seven' Apical; retracted. See Catalan phonology
Danish[11][59] sælge [ˈs̺ɛljə] 'sell' Apical.[59] See Danish phonology
Dutch Some speakers steen [s̠teːn] 'stone' Not retracted for other speakers
English Glasgow[60] sun [s̺ʌn] 'sun' Retracted. Working-class pronunciation, other speakers may use a non-retracted [s]
Finnish[10][11] sinä [s̠inæ] 'you (sg.)' Retracted;[10][11] may be not retracted for other speakers.[10] See Finnish phonology
Galician saúde [s̺äˈuðe] 'health' Apical; retracted
German Standard[13] Biss [bɪs̺] 'bite' Apical.[13] May be (dentalized) laminal[13] instead. See German phonology
Icelandic[61][62] segi [s̺ɛːjɪ] 'I say' Apical.[61][62] See Icelandic phonology
Italian Central Italy[63] sali [ˈs̠äːli] 'you go up' Retracted,[64] present in Lazio north of Cape Linaro,[63] most of Umbria[63] (save Perugia and
the extreme south)[63] and Le Marche south of the Potenza.[63]
Northern Italy[64][65] Apical,[31] retracted.[64][31] Present in many areas north of the La Spezia–Rimini Line.[66][67]
See Italian phonology
Sicily[63] Retracted.[63] Present south and west of a line drawn from Syracuse to Cefalù.[63]
Marked accents
of Emilia-Romagna[68]
[ˈs̺ʲäːli] Palatalized;[68] apical;[68] may be [ʂ] or [ʃ] instead.[68] See Italian phonology
Standard[30] [ˈs̺äːli] Apical;[30] not retracted.[30] It may be dentalized laminal instead.[30] See Italian phonology
Ticino[31] Apical;[32] not retracted;[32] often labiodentalized [s̺v].[31] It may be dentalized laminal instead.[32]
See Italian phonology
Leonese pasu [ˈpäs̺ʊ] 'step' Apical; retracted
Low German[11] [example needed] Retracted.[11]
Mirandese passo [ˈpäs̺u] 'step' Apical; retracted. Contrasts with /s̪/.
Occitan Gascon dos [d̻ys̺] 'two' See Occitan phonology
Languedocien [d̻us̺]
Portuguese[15][69] European,
inland northern
cansaço [kə̃ˈs̺äs̻u] 'weariness' Apical; retracted. Contrasts with /s̻/. See Portuguese phonology
European,
coastal northern
cansaço [kə̃ˈs̺äs̺u] Merges with /s̻/. See Portuguese phonology
Inland and
southern capixaba
pescador [pe̞s̺kɐˈd̻oχ] 'fisherman' Allophone of /S/ (single coda sibilant phoneme), much as coda postalveolars elsewhere in the
Portuguese-speaking world
Carioca do brejo escadas [is̺ˈkäd̻əs̺] 'stairs'
Spanish Castilian[16] saltador [s̺äl̪t̪äˈð̞o̞ɾ] 'jumper' Apical; retracted. See Spanish phonology and Seseo
Paisa region
Swedish Blekinge[11] säte [ˈs̠ɛːte] 'seat' Retracted.[11] See Swedish phonology
Bohuslän[11]
Halland[11]
Scania[11]
West Frisian[70] sâlt [s̺ɔːt] 'salt' Apical.[70]

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative[edit]

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative
θ̠
θ͇
ɹ̝̊
IPA number 130 414
Encoding
Entity (decimal) &#952;​&#817;
Unicode (hex) U+03B8 U+0331
Sound

The voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative (also known as a "slit" fricative) is a consonantal sound. As the International Phonetic Alphabet does not have separate symbols for the alveolar consonants (the same symbol is used for all coronal places of articulation that aren't palatalized), this sound is usually transcribed θ̠, occasionally θ͇ (retracted or alveolarized [θ], respectively), or ɹ̝̊ (constricted voiceless [ɹ]).

Features[edit]

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. However, it does not have the grooved tongue and directed airflow, or the high frequencies, of a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch[71] One of many possible realizations of /r/; distribution unclear.[71] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[72] Italy [ˈɪθ̠əli] 'Italy' Occasional allophone of /t/.[72]
Received Pronunciation[73] Common allophone of /t/.[73]
Irish[74] [ˈɪθ̠ɪli] Allophone of /t/. See English phonology
Scouse[75][76] attain [əˈθ̠eɪn] 'attain'
Icelandic[62][77] þakið [θ̠akið̠] 'roof' Laminal.[62][77] See Icelandic phonology
Italian Bologna[31] sali [ˈθ̠äːli] 'you go up' Laminal;[31] a hypercorrective variant of /s/ for some young speakers.[31] Either non-sibilant,[31] or "not sibilant enough".[31] See Italian phonology

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Pandeli et al. (1997), p. ?.
  2. ^ Maddieson (1984), p. ?.
  3. ^ Obaid (1973), p. ?.
  4. ^ a b Adams (1975), p. ?.
  5. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. ?.
  6. ^ a b c Adams (1975), p. 283.
  7. ^ a b c d Puppel, Nawrocka-Fisiak & Krassowska (1977:149), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:154)
  8. ^ Thelwall (1990), p. 37.
  9. ^ Gussenhoven (1992:45)
  10. ^ a b c d e Suomi, Toivanen & Ylitalo (2008), p. 27.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Adams (1975), p. 289.
  12. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Mangold (2005), p. 50.
  14. ^ Okada (1991), p. 94.
  15. ^ a b Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
  16. ^ a b Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258)
  17. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458–461.
  18. ^ Kozintseva (1995), p. 7.
  19. ^ Axundov (1983), pp. 115, 128-131.
  20. ^ Padluzhny (1989), p. 47.
  21. ^ Klagstad Jr. (1958), p. 46.
  22. ^ Lee & Zee (2003), pp. 109-110.
  23. ^ Lin (2001), pp. 17-25.
  24. ^ Palková (1994), p. 228.
  25. ^ a b Adams (1975), p. 288.
  26. ^ André (1900), p. 62.
  27. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1999), p. 79.
  28. ^ Szende (1999), p. 104.
  29. ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 132.
  30. ^ a b c d e f Canepari (1992), p. 68.
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Canepari (1992), p. 72.
  32. ^ a b c d Canepari (1992), pp. 68 and 72.
  33. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  34. ^ Kara (2002), p. 10.
  35. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  36. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  37. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  38. ^ Rocławski (1976), pp. 149.
  39. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie". Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  40. ^ Chew (2003), p. 67.
  41. ^ Lamb (2003), p. 18.
  42. ^ Kordić (2006), p. 5.
  43. ^ Landau et al. (1999), p. 66.
  44. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  45. ^ a b Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 258.
  46. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 171.
  47. ^ Engstrand (1999), pp. 140-141.
  48. ^ Engstrand (2004), p. 167.
  49. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 157.
  50. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 168.
  51. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999), p. 154.
  52. ^ S. Buk, J. Mačutek, A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  53. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984), pp. 22, 38 and 39.
  54. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 11.
  55. ^ Thompson (1987), pp. 8-9.
  56. ^ Hualde, J. Basque Phonology (1991) Routledge ISBN 0-415-05655-1
  57. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 54.
  58. ^ Torreblanca (1988), p. 347.
  59. ^ a b Thorborg (2003), p. 80.
  60. ^ Annexe 4: Linguistic Variables
  61. ^ a b Kress (1982:23-24) "It's never voiced, as s in sausen, and it's pronounced by pressing the tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge, close to the upper teeth - somewhat below the place of articulation of the German sch. The difference is that German sch is labialized, while Icelandic s is not. It's a pre-alveolar, coronal, voiceless spirant."
  62. ^ a b c d Pétursson (1971:?), cited in Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:145)
  63. ^ a b c d e f g h Adams (1975), p. 286.
  64. ^ a b c Adams (1975), pp. 285-286.
  65. ^ Canepari (1992), pp. 71-72.
  66. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 71.
  67. ^ Adams (1975), p. 285.
  68. ^ a b c d Canepari (1992), p. 73.
  69. ^ (Italian) Accenti romanze: Portogallo e Brasile (portoghese) – The influence of foreign accents on Italian language acquisition
  70. ^ a b Sipma (1913), p. 16.
  71. ^ a b Collins & Mees (2003:199). Authors don't say where exactly it's used.
  72. ^ a b Loakes & McDougall (2007), pp. 1445-1448.
  73. ^ a b Buizza (2010), pp. 16-28.
  74. ^ Hickey (1984), pp. 234–235.
  75. ^ Marotta & Barth (2005), p. 385.
  76. ^ Watson (2007), pp. 352-353.
  77. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), pp. 144-145.

References[edit]