Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate

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Voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate
t͡ɕ
t͜ɕ
IPA number 215
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʨ
Unicode (hex) U+02A8
X-SAMPA ts\
Sound

The voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with t͡ɕ (formerly ʨ). The voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate occurs in languages such as Mandarin Chinese and Serbo-Croatian.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal affricate:

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe Abadzekh чъыгы About this sound [t͡ɕəɣə]  'tree'
Bzhedug
Shapsug
Cantonese zyu1 [tɕyː˥] 'pig' Contrasts with aspirated form. Allophone of /t͡s/, usually in front of the front high vowels /iː/, /ɪ/, /yː/. See Cantonese phonology
Catalan[1] All dialects fletxa [ˈfɫet͡ɕə] 'arrow' See Catalan phonology
Valencian xec [ˈt͡ɕek] 'cheque'
Danish tjener [ˈt͡ɕeːnɐ] 'servant' See Danish phonology
Japanese 知人 chijin [t͡ɕid͡ʑĩɴ] 'acquaintance' See Japanese phonology
Korean jip [t͡ɕip̚] 'house' See Korean phonology
Mandarin 北京 Běijīng About this sound [peɪ˨˩ t͡ɕiŋ˥]  'Beijing' Contrasts with aspirated form. Pronounced by some speakers as a palatalized dental. In complementary distribution with the dental [t͡s, t͡sʰ], with the velar [k, kʰ], and the retroflex [ʈ͡ʂ, ʈ͡ʂʰ] series. See Standard Chinese phonology
Norwegian tjern [t͡ɕæɳ] 'pond' See Norwegian phonology
Polish[2] ćma About this sound [t͡ɕmä]  'moth' See Polish phonology
Portuguese[3] Brazilian tcheco [ˈtɕɛku] 'Czech' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced) and other instances of [i] (e.g. epenthesis), marginal sound otherwise. Argued both to be laminal [tʃ],[4] and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate",[3] same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ],[5] and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars.[6] See Portuguese phonology
Mato-grossense cheio [ˈtɕej.jʊ] 'full'
Most Brazilian dialects petit-pois [pɪ̥̆ˈtɕi puˈa] 'green peas'
Carioca T-shirts [tsiˈɕɜxtɕɕ] 'T-shirts'
Some speakers distinto [dʑitɕˈɕĩtu̥] 'distinct'
Russian чуть [t͡ɕʉtʲ] 'narrowly' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian Ловћен / Lovćen [ɫǒ̞ʋt͡ɕe̞n] 'Lovćen' Merges with /t͡ʃ/ in most Croatian and some Bosnian accents. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Swedish Finland kjol [t͡ɕuːl] 'skirt' See Swedish phonology
Thai[7] ฉัน [tɕʰǎn] 'I'
Uzbek[8] [example needed]
Vietnamese cha [t͡ɕa] 'father' See Vietnamese phonology
Yi ji [t͡ɕi˧] 'sour' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191 
  • Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar 
  • Tingsabadh, M.R. Kalaya; Abramson, Arthur S. (1993), "Thai", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (1): 24–26, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004746 
  • Wheeler, Max W. (2005), The Phonology of Catalan, Oxford: Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-925814-7