Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant
|Voiceless alveolo-palatal sibilant|
The voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some oral languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ⟨ɕ⟩ ("c" with the curl also found in its voiced counterpart ⟨ʑ⟩).
Features of the voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative:
- Its manner of articulation is sibilant fricative, which means it is generally produced by channeling air flow along a groove in the back of the tongue up to the place of articulation, at which point it is focused against the sharp edge of the nearly clenched teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
- Its place of articulation is alveolo-palatal. This means that:
- Its place of articulation is postalveolar, meaning that the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth in the area behind the alveolar ridge (the gum line).
- Its tongue shape is laminal, meaning that it is the tongue blade that contacts the roof of the mouth.
- It is heavily palatalized, meaning that the middle of the tongue is bowed and raised towards the hard palate.
- Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
- It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
- It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
- The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.
|Catalan||Eastern and Majorcan||caixa||[ˈkaɕə]||'box'||See Catalan phonology|
|Chuvash||çиçĕм||[ˈɕiɕ̬əm]||'lightning'||Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/.|
|Danish||sjæl||[ɕɛːˀl]||'soul'||See Danish phonology|
|Dutch||Some speakers||sjabloon||[ɕäˈbloːn]||'template'||May be [ʃ] or [sʲ] instead. See Dutch phonology|
|Japanese||塩 shio||[ɕi.o]||'salt'||See Japanese phonology|
|Korean||시 si||[ɕi]||'poem'||See Korean phonology|
|Mandarin||Standard Mandarin||西安 Xī'ān||[ɕí.án] (help·info)||'Xi'an'||Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/. See Mandarin phonology|
|Norwegian||sjel||[ɕe:l]||'soul'||See Norwegian phonology|
|Pashto||Wazirwola dialect||لښکي||[ˈləɕki]||'little, slight'|
|Polish||śruba||[ˈɕrubä] (help·info)||'screw'||Contrasts with /ʂ/ and /s/. See Polish phonology|
|Portuguese||Brazilian||mexendo||[me̞ˈɕẽ̞du]||'stirring', 'disturbing'||Allophonic variation of /ʃ/. Contrasts with other sibilants only in onset. Argued both to be laminal [ʃ], and generally produced "in the middle of the hard palate", same of fellow alveolo-palatal [l̠ʲ] and [n̠ʲ], and further palatalized than Italian post-alveolars. Found in coda mainly before fricative, coronal and palatalized consonants in Brazil. See Portuguese phonology|
|Many Brazilian dialects||estatísticas||[i̥ɕtɐˈtɕiɕtɕikɐs]||'statistics'|
|Romanian||Transylvanian dialects||ce||[ɕɛ]||'what'||Realized as [tʃ] in standard Romanian. See Romanian phonology|
|Russian||счастьe||[ˈɕːæsʲtʲjə] (help·info)||'happiness'||The letter щ is pronounced this way. Contrasts with /ʂ/, /s/, and /sʲ/. See Russian phonology|
|Serbo-Croatian||Croatian||miš će||[mîɕ t͡ɕe̞]||'the mouse will'||Allophone of /ʃ/ before /t͡ɕ, d͡ʑ/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology|
|Swedish||Sweden||kjol||[ɕuːl] (help·info)||'skirt'||See Swedish phonology|
|Finland||sjok||[ɕuːk]||'chunk'||Allophone of /ɧ/.|
|Tibetan||Lhasa dialect||བཞི་||[ɕi˨˧]||'four'||Contrasts with /ʂ/.|
- Recasens & Espinosa (2007:145, 167)
- Okada (1991:94)
- Jassem (2003:103)
- seqüências de (sibilante + africada alveopalatal) no português falado em Belo Horizonte Page 18 (Portuguese)
- Análise acústica de sequências de fricativas seguidas de [i produzidas por japoneses aprendizes de português brasileiro] (Portuguese)
- Considerações sobre o status das palato-alveolares em português (Portuguese)
- Dialects of Brazil: the palatalization of the phonemes /t/ and /d/ Page 27 (Portuguese)
- Pará Federal University – The pronunciation of /s/ and its variations across Bragança municipality's Portuguese (Portuguese)
- Rio de Janeiro Federal University – The variation of post-vocallic /S/ in the speech of Petrópolis, Itaperuna and Paraty (Portuguese)
- Pop (1938), p. 29.
- Landau et al. (1999:68)
- Sjoberg (1963:11)
- Jassem, Wiktor (2003), "Polish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (1): 103–107, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001191
- Landau, Ernestina; Lončarić, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo (1999), "Croatian", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7
- Okada, Hideo (1991), "Japanese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 21 (2): 94–97, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X
- Pop, Sever (1938), Micul Atlas Linguistic Român, Muzeul Limbii Române Cluj
- Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007), "An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 143–172, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829
- Sjoberg, Andrée F. (1963), Uzbek Structural Grammar