Voiceless alveolar affricate

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Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate
t͡s
t͜s
IPA number 103 132
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʦ
Unicode (hex) U+02A6
X-SAMPA ts
Kirshenbaum ts
Sound

The voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The sound is transcribed in the International Phonetic Alphabet with t͡s or t͜s (formerly with ʦ). The voiceless alveolar affricate occurs in such languages as German, Cantonese, Russian, Japanese and Mandarin Chinese, among many others. International auxiliary languages, such as Esperanto, Ido and Interlingua also include this sound.

Voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate[edit]

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of passive articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with the tongue at the alveolar ridge just behind the gums.
  • Its place of active articulation is either apical, meaning that the tongue tip contacts the alveolar ridge, or, more often, laminal, meaning that the tongue blade (the part just behind the top) contacts the alveolar ridge, with the tongue tip resting behind the lower front teeth roots.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz хьаца [χaˈtsa] 'hornbeam' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe цэ [t͡sa] 'tooth'
Ainu チュㇰ [t͡suk̚] 'autumn'
Arabic Najdi[1] ك‍يف [t͡saif] 'how' Corresponds to /k/ in other dialects
Albanian cimbidh [t͡simbið] 'tongs'
Asturian Some dialects[2] otso [ot͡so] 'eight' Corresponds to standard /t͡ʃ/
Azerbaijani Some Western dialects çay/چای [t͡sɑj] 'tea' Corresponds to /t͡ʃ/ in other dialects
Berber Kabyle iḥeşşeḇ [iħət͡sːəβ] 'he counts'
Basque hots [ot͡s̺] 'sound' Apical; retracted. Contrasts with voiceless laminal dental
Catalan[3] potser [puˈtt͡se] 'maybe' See Catalan phonology
Cherokee ᏣᎳᎩ tsa-la-gi [t͡salaɡi] 'Cherokee'
Chinese Cantonese zai1 [t͡sɐi˥] 'squeeze' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Cantonese phonology
Esperanto ceceo [t͡seˈt͡seo] 'tsetse fly' See Esperanto phonology
French Quebec petit [pət͡si] 'small' Allophone of /t/ before /i/ and /y/. See Quebec French phonology
Georgian[4] კა [kʼɑt͡si] 'man'
German Standard[5] Zweck [t͡svɛk] 'purpose' May be alveolar fronted instead. See German phonology
Greek κορίτσι korítsi [ko̞ˈɾit͡si] 'girl' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew צבע [ˈt͡se̞vä] 'color' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Japanese なみ tsunami [t͡su͍namʲi] 'tsunami' See Japanese phonology
Kabardian цы [t͡sə] 'hair'
Khowar څیڅیق [t͡sit͡seq] 'children'
Kiowa ch [t͡séː] 'short'
Marathi [t͡səv] 'taste' See Marathi phonology; depending on the word, the letter च may also be pronounced as /tʃə/
Maltese zokk [t͡sokː] '(tree) trunk'
Nez Perce cíickan [ˈt͡siːt͡skan] 'blanket'
Pashto څه [t͡sə] 'what'
Portuguese European[6] parte sem vida [ˈpaɾt͡sẽj ˈviðə] 'lifeless part' Allophone of /t/ before /i, ĩ/ (like [ ~ ], including when [i, ĩ, j] is not actually produced), or as a result of vowel elision leading to sandhi, generally in the context of unstressed /e ~ ɨ ~ i/ (e.g. epenthesis, vowel reduction), even past the development of the [tʃ ~ tɕ] allophony. Use in Brazil is in current expansion.[7]
Brazilian[6][7] participação [pɐχt͡sipɐˈsɜ̃w] 'participation'
Most speakers[8] shiatsu [ɕiˈat͡su] 'shiatsu' Marginal sound. Many Brazilians might break the affricate with epenthetic [i], often subsequently palatalizing /t/, specially in pre-tonic contexts (e.g. tsunami [tɕisuˈnɜ̃mʲi]).[9] See Portuguese phonology
Sardinian Campidanese petza [ˈpɛt͡sa] 'meat'
Spanish Madrid[10] ancha [ˈänʲt͡sʲä] 'wide (sg. fem.)' Palatalized;[10] apical. It corresponds to [t͡ʃ] in standard Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Tanacross dzeen [t͡seːn] 'day'
West Frisian tsiis [t͡siːs] 'cheese'
Central Alaskan Yup'ik[11] cetaman [t͡səˈtaman] 'four' Allophone of /t͡ʃ/ before schwa
Yi zy [t͡sɪ˧] 'to plant' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms

Voiceless alveolar fronted sibilant affricate[edit]

Voiceless alveolar fronted sibilant affricate
t̪͡s̪
t͡s̪
t̟͡s̟
t͡s̟
Sound

The voiceless alveolar fronted sibilant affricate (commonly called the voiceless dental sibilant affricate) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are t̪͡s̪ and t͡s̪, combinations of the letter for the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate and a diacritic (or two) indicating dental articulation. However, teeth actively participate in the articulation only in case of the stop component, which is laminal denti-alveolar. The fricative component, the features of which are used to describe the affricate is laminal alveolar fronted (post-dental). Therefore, a notation t̟͡s̟ and t͡s̟ (combinations of the letter for the voiceless alveolar sibilant affricate and a diacritic (or two) indicating fronted articulation) would be more appropriate. This article uses t̪͡s̪ for simplicity.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless alveolar fronted sibilant affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar fronted (post-dental), which means it's articulated with the tongue blade against the alveolar ridge, but more front than usual: just behind the upper teeth.
  • Its place of active articulation is laminal, meaning that the tongue blade (the part just behind the top) contacts the alveolar ridge, with the tongue tip resting behind the lower front teeth.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Eastern[12] ցանց About this sound [t̪͡s̪ʰan̪t̪͡s̪ʰ]  'net' Contrasts aspirated and unaspirated forms
Basque[citation needed] hotz [o̞t̪͡s̪] 'cold' Contrasts with retracted apical alveolar
Belarusian[13] цеканне [ˈt̪͡s̪ekän̪ʲe] 'tsekanye' Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian цена [t̪͡s̪ɛˈn̪a] 'price'
Chinese Mandarin[14][15] 早餐 zǎocān [t̪͡s̪ɑʊ˨˩ t̪͡s̪ʰan˥] 'breakfast' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Czech[16] co [t̪͡s̪o̝] 'what' See Czech phonology
German Austrian Zweck [t̪͡s̪vɛk] 'purpose' Some speakers may deaffricate it to []
Standard[5] May be alveolar non-fronted instead. See German phonology
Hungarian[17] cica [ˈt̪͡s̪it̪͡s̪ɒ] 'kitten' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[18][19] grazia [ˈɡrät̪͡s̪jä] 'grace' The letter z may also represent /d͡z/. See Italian phonology
Kashubian[20] [example needed]
Kazakh[21] [example needed] Only in loanwords from Russian[22]
Kyrgyz[23] [example needed] Only in loanwords from Russian[23]
Latvian[24] cena [ˈt̪͡s̪en̪ä] 'price' See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[25] цвет [t̪͡s̪ve̞t̪] 'flower' See Macedonian phonology
Polish[26] co About this sound [t̪͡s̪ɔ]  'what' See Polish phonology
Romanian[27] preţ [pre̞t̪͡s̪] 'price' See Romanian phonology
Russian[28] царь [t̪͡s̪ärʲ] 'Tsar' See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[29][30] циљ / cilj [t̪͡s̪íːʎ] 'target' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak cudzí [ˈt̪͡s̪ud̪͡z̪iː] 'foreign'
Slovene[31] cvet [t̪͡s̪ʋéːt̪] 'bloom'
Spanish Mexican exterior [e̞t̪͡s̪t̪e̞ˈɾjo̞r] 'exterior'
Ukrainian[32] цей [t̪͡s̪ɛj] 'this one' See Ukrainian phonology
Upper Sorbian[33] cybla [ˈt̪͡s̪ɨblä] 'onion'
Uzbek[34] [example needed]

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant affricate[edit]

Voiceless alveolar non-sibilant fricative
t͡θ̠
t͡θ͇

Features[edit]

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Italian Sicily[35] straniero [st͡θ̠äˈnjɛɾo] 'foreign' Apical.[35] Regional realization of the sequence /tr/;[35] may be a sequence [tθ̠] or [tð̠] instead.[36] See Italian phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/bitstream/1808/12235/1/Lewis_ku_0099M_12920_DATA_1.pdf
  2. ^ (Asturian) Normes ortográfiques, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Page 14
  3. ^ Recasens & Espinosa (2007:144)
  4. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006:255)
  5. ^ a b Mangold (2005:52)
  6. ^ a b (Portuguese) Palatalization of dental occlusives /t/ and /d/ in the bilingual communities of Taquara and Panambi, RS – Alice Telles de Paula Page 14
  7. ^ a b Seqüências de (oclusiva alveolar + sibilante alveolar) como um padrão inovador no português de Belo Horizonte – Camila Tavares Leite
  8. ^ Adaptações fonológicas na pronúncia de estrangeirismos do Inglês por falantes de Português Brasileiro – Ana Beatriz Gonçalves de Assis
  9. ^ A influência da percepção inferencial na formação de vogal epentética em estrangeirismos – Aline Aver Vanin
  10. ^ a b "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler". 
  11. ^ Jacobson (1995:2)
  12. ^ Kozintseva (1995:6)
  13. ^ Padluzhny (1989:48-49)
  14. ^ Lee & Zee (2003:109-110)
  15. ^ Lin (2001:17-25)
  16. ^ Palková (1994:234-235)
  17. ^ Szende (1999:104)
  18. ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005:132)
  19. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  20. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". 
  21. ^ Kara (2002:10)
  22. ^ Kara (2002:11)
  23. ^ a b Kara (2003:11)
  24. ^ Nau (1998:6)
  25. ^ Lunt (1952:1)
  26. ^ Rocławski (1976:160)
  27. ^ Ovidiu Drăghici. "Limba Română contemporană. Fonetică. Fonologie. Ortografie. Lexicologie". Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  28. ^ Chew (2003:67)
  29. ^ Kordić (2006:5)
  30. ^ Landau et al. (1999:66)
  31. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  32. ^ S. Buk, J. Mačutek, A. Rovenchak (2008). "Some properties of the Ukrainian writing system". Retrieved April 19, 2013. 
  33. ^ Šewc-Schuster (1984:22 and 38))
  34. ^ Sjoberg (1963:12)
  35. ^ a b c Canepari (1992), p. 64.
  36. ^ Canepari (1992), p. 65.

Bibliography[edit]

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  • Canepari, Luciano (1992), Il MªPi – Manuale di pronuncia italiana [Handbook of Italian Pronunciation] (in Italian), Bologna: Zanichelli, ISBN 88-08-24624-8 
  • Chew, Peter A. (2003), A computational phonology of Russian, Universal Publishers 
  • Jacobson, Steven (1995), A Practical Grammar of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik Eskimo Language, Fairbanks: Alaska Native Language Center, ISBN 978-1-55500-050-9 
  • Kara, Dávid Somfai (2002), Kazak, Lincom Europa, ISBN 9783895864704 
  • Kara, Dávid Somfai (2003), Kyrgyz, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3895868434 
  • Kordić, Snježana (2006), Serbo-Croatian, Languages of the World/Materials; 148, Munich & Newcastle: Lincom Europa, ISBN 3-89586-161-8 
  • Kozintseva, Natalia (1995), Modern Eastern Armenian, Lincom Europa, ISBN 3895860352 
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  • Lunt, Horace G. (1952), Grammar of the Macedonian Literary Language, Skopje 
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  • Recasens, Daniel; Espinosa, Aina (2007), "An electropalatographic and acoustic study of affricates and fricatives in two Catalan dialects", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (2): 143–172, doi:10.1017/S0025100306002829 
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