Voiceless palatal affricate

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Voiceless palatal affricate
c͡ç
c͜ç
IPA number 107 (138)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) c​͡​ç
Unicode (hex) U+0063 U+0361 U+00E7

The voiceless palatal affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is c͡ç. The voiceless palatal affricate occurs in such languages as Hungarian and Skolt Sami, amongst others. The consonant is quite rare; it is mostly absent from Europe (with the Uralic languages being an exception). It usually occurs with its voiced counterpart, the voiced palatal affricate.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless palatal affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the airflow entirely, then allowing air flow through a constricted channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence. It is not a sibilant.
  • Its place of articulation is palatal, which means it is articulated with the middle or back part of the tongue raised to the hard palate.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Hungarian tyúk [c͡çuːk] 'hen' See Hungarian phonology
Norwegian Western and Central dialects[1] ikkje [ic͡çə] 'not' See Norwegian phonology
Skolt Sami sääˊmǩiõll [sʲaamc͡çiɘl] 'Skolt Sami'
Lushootseed ɬičáʔa [ɬic͡çaʁˀa] 'nets'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Skjekkeland (1997:96–100)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Skjekkeland, Martin (1997), Dei norske dialektane: Tradisjonelle særdrag i jamføring med skriftmåla (in Norwegian), Høyskoleforlaget (Norwegian Academic Press)