Voiceless retroflex affricate

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Voiceless retroflex affricate
ʈ͡ʂ
t͡ʂ
IPA number 105 (136)
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʈ​͡​ʂ
Unicode (hex) U+0288 U+0361 U+0282
X-SAMPA ts`
Kirshenbaum ts.
Sound

The voiceless retroflex affricate is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʈ͡ʂ, sometimes simplified to ,[1] and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is ts`.

The affricate occurs in a number of languages:

Some scolars transcribe the laminal variant of this sound as /t͡ʃ/, even though it is not palatalized. In such cases the voiceless palato-alveolar affricate is transcribed /t͡ʃʲ/.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless retroflex affricate:

  • Its manner of articulation is sibilant affricate, which means it is produced by first stopping the air flow entirely, then directing it with the tongue to the sharp edge of the teeth, causing high-frequency turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is retroflex, which prototypically means it is articulated subapical (with the tip of the tongue curled up), but more generally, it means that it is postalveolar without being palatalized. That is, besides the prototypical sub-apical articulation, the tongue contact can be apical (pointed) or laminal (flat).
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Asturian Some dialects[2][3] ḷḷobu [ʈ͡ʂoβu] 'wolf' Corresponds to standard /ʎ/.
Belarusian пачатак [paʈ͡ʂatak] 'the beginning' Laminal. See Belarusian phonology
Chinese Mandarin[4] 中文 Zhōngwén [ʈ͡ʂʊŋ˥ u̯ən˧˥] 'Chinese' Contrasts with aspirated form. See Mandarin phonology
Khanty Eastern and southern dialects ҷӓңҷ [ʈ͡ʂaɳʈ͡ʂ] 'knee' Corresponds to a voiceless retroflex fricative /ʂ/ in the northern dialects.
Polish Standard[5][6] czas About this sound [ˈʈ͡ʂäs̪]  'time' Laminal. Transcribed /t͡ʃ/ by most Polish scholars. See Polish phonology
Southeastern Cuyavian dialects[7] cena [ˈʈ͡ʂɛn̪ä] 'price' Some speakers. It's a result of hypercorrecting the more popular merger of /ʈ͡ʂ/ and /t͡s/ into [t͡s].
Suwałki dialect[8]
Northern Qiang zhes [ʈ͡ʂəs] 'day before yesterday' Contrasts with aspirated and voiced form.
Quechua Cajamarca–Cañaris ch'upa [ʈ͡ʂupə] 'tail'
Russian лучше [ˈɫ̪utʈ͡ʂɨ̞] 'better ' Laminal. It's the only word where this sound occurs. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian čokoláda / чоколада [ʈ͡ʂo̞ko̞ˈɫǎ̠ːd̪a̠] 'chocolate' Laminal. It may be palato-alveolar instead, depending on the dialect. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovak[9] čakať [ˈʈ͡ʂakac] 'to wait' Laminal.
Torwali[10] ? [ʈ͡ʂuwu] 'to sew' Contrasts with aspirated form.
Yi zha [ʈ͡ʂa˧] 'a bit' Contrasts with aspirated form.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Unlike the palato-alveolar and alveolar affricates, there is no obsolete ligature.
  2. ^ (Asturian) Normes ortográfiques, Academia de la Llingua Asturiana Page 14
  3. ^ García Arias (2003:34)
  4. ^ Ladefoged & Wu (1984:?)
  5. ^ Jassem (2003:103)
  6. ^ Hamann (2004:65)
  7. ^ "Gwary polskie - Gwara regionu". Gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl. Retrieved 2013-11-13. 
  8. ^ "Gwary polskie - Szadzenie". Gwarypolskie.uw.edu.pl. Retrieved 2013-11-13. 
  9. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  10. ^ Lunsford (2001:16–20)

Bibliography[edit]