Voiceless uvular fricative

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Voiceless uvular fricative[edit]

Voiceless uvular fricative
χ
IPA number 142
Encoding
Entity (decimal) χ
Unicode (hex) U+03C7
X-SAMPA X
Kirshenbaum X
Braille ⠨ (braille pattern dots-46) ⠯ (braille pattern dots-12346)
Sound

The voiceless uvular fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is χ, or in broad transcription x although the latter technically represents a velar pronunciation. The sound is represented by (ex with underdot) in Americanist phonetic notation.

Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996) note that "There is, however, a complication in the case of uvular fricatives in that the shape of the vocal tract may be such that the uvula vibrates."[1] See voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill for more information.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless uvular fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz хпа [χpa] 'three' Contrasts with labialized and palatalized forms. See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe пхъэ About this sound [pχa]  'wood'
Archi хол [χol] 'arm'
Afrikaans goed [χut] 'good' Some dialects.
Aleut Atkan dialect hati [hɑtiχ] 'ten'
Arabic Modern Standard[2] خضراء [χadˤraːʔ] 'green (f)' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[2] See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[3] խոտ About this sound [χot]  ‘grass’
Avar орх [orχ] 'to lift' Contrasts with a tense form
Bashkir хат [χɑt] 'letter'
Berber Kabyle axxam [aχχam] 'house'
Chilcotin ? [ʔælaχ] 'I made it'
Dutch Netherlandic Scheveningen About this sound [ˈsχeɪ̯vənɪŋə(n)]  'Scheveningen' Many central and western dialects. Corresponds to /ɣ/ and /x/ in standard Netherlandic Dutch. See Dutch phonology
The Hague standaard [ˈstɑndaːχt] 'standard' Traditional allophone of /ʀ/, occurring after vowels before consonants.
Eyak da. [daːχ] 'and'
French proche [pχɔʃ] 'nearby' Allophone of /ʁ/ before or after voiceless obstruent. See French phonology
German Lower Rhine[4] Wirte [ˈvɪχtə] 'hosts' In free variation with [ɐ] between a vowel and a voiceless coronal consonant.
Standard[5] Dach [daχ] 'roof' Appears only after certain back vowels. See German phonology
Swiss mich [mɪχ] 'me' (acc.) Some speakers, for others it's velar [x]. Swiss German makes no distinction between /x/ and /ç/.
Haida ḵ'aláaan [qʼʌlɑ́χʌn] 'fence'
Hebrew[6] אוכל [ʔo̞χe̞l] 'food' May be a trilled fricative instead.[6] See Modern Hebrew phonology
Kabardian хъарзынэ [χaːrzəna] 'well'
Klallam saʔqʷaʔ [sχaʔqʷaʔ] 'salmon backbone'
Lakota ȟóta [ˈχota] 'gray'
Lezgian хат [χatʰ] 'bead' Contrasts with a labialized form
Limburgish Hamont dialect[7] [jɔːχ¹] 'year' Word-final allophone of /ʀ/,[7] can be [ʀ̝̊] instead.[7]
Ongota [χibiɾi] 'bat'
Oowekyala [tsʼkʼʷχttɬkt͡s] 'the invisible one here with me will be short'
Nez Perce [ˈχəχɑˑt͡s] 'grizzly bear'
Portuguese Fluminense anarquia [ɐ̃nɐ̞χˈki.ɐ] 'anarchy' In free variation with [x], [ʁ ~ ʀ], [ħ] and [h] before voiceless consonants.
General Brazilian[8] marrom [mɐ̞ˈχõː] 'the color brown' Some dialects, corresponds to rhotic consonant /ʁ/. See Portuguese phonology
Saanich wexes [wəχəs] 'small frogs' Contrasts with a labialized form
Scots nicht [nɪχt][citation needed] 'night'
Seri xeecoj [χɛːkox] 'wolf' Contrasts with a labialized form
Spanish European[9][10] ojo [ˈo̞χo̞] 'eye' May be post-velar instead.[9][11][12] It's also an allophone of /x/ before back vowels and [w][13] for speakers with a velar /x/. It corresponds to [x ~ h] in southern Spain and Latin America.[11] See Spanish phonology
Peruvian
Ponce dialect[14] perro [ˈpe̞χo̞] 'dog' This and [ʀ̥] are the primary realizations of /r/ in this dialect.[14] See Spanish phonology
Swedish Southern sjuk [χʉːk] 'sick' Dialectal. See Swedish phonology
Tlingit tlaxh [tɬʰɐχ] 'very' Contrasts with labialized, ejective and labialized ejective form
Ubykh [χɐpɬɨ́] 'pink' One of ten distinct uvular fricative phonemes. See Ubykh phonology
Upper Saxon Chemnitz dialect[15] Rock [χɔkʰ] 'skirt' In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [ʀ̥] and [q].[15] Doesn't occur in the coda.[15]
Uyghur یاخشی yaxshi [jɑχʃi] 'good'
Welsh carchar [ˈkarχar] 'jail' See Welsh phonology
West Frisian berch [bɛrχ] 'mountain' Never occurs in word-initial positions.
Yiddish בוך [bʊχ] 'book' See Yiddish phonology

Voiceless post-velar fricative[edit]

Voiceless post-velar fricative

The voiceless post-velar fricative or voiceless pre-uvular fricative is a fricative consonant occurring in Uzbek.

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless post-velar fricative:

  • Its manner of articulation is fricative, which means it is produced by constricting air flow through a narrow channel at the place of articulation, causing turbulence.
  • Its place of articulation is post-velar, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue raised between the soft palate and the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Some of these consonants may actually be trill fricatives.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Modern Standard[2] خضراء [x̠adˤraːʔ] 'green (f)' May be velar, post-velar or uvular, depending on dialect.[2] See Arabic phonology
Basque Some speakers[16] jan [x̠än] 'to eat' May be velar instead.[16] For other speakers it's [j ~ ʝ ~ ɟ].[17]
Spanish European[11][18][9] ojo [ˈo̞x̠o̞] 'eye' May be uvular instead.[9][10] On the other hand, it's velar[11] or glottal[11] in "much of southern Spain"[11] and Latin America.[11] See Spanish phonology
Northern Moroccan[19] May be velar instead.[19]
Uzbek[20] [example needed] Occurs in environments different than word-initially and pre-consonantally, otherwise it's pre-velar.[20]


See also[edit]

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