Voiceless uvular trill

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Voiceless uvular trill
ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A
Encoding
X-SAMPA R\_0

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless uvular trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill, which means it is produced by directing air over the articulator so that it vibrates.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Baïnounk Gubëeher Some speakers[1] [example needed] Word-final allophone of /r/.[1]
Dutch Belgian[2] door [doːʀ̥] 'through' Allophone of /r/ before voiceless consonants[2] and word-finally[2] for speakers with an uvular /r/. Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
French Belgian[3] triste [t̪ʀ̥is̪t̪œ] 'sad' Allophone of /ʀ/ after voiceless consonants;[3] can be [χ] instead.[4] See French phonology
Spanish Ponce dialect[5] perro [ˈpe̞ʀ̥o̞] 'dog' This and [χ] are the primary realizations of /r/ in this dialect.[5] See Spanish phonology
Upper Saxon Chemnitz dialect[6] Rock [ʀ̥ɔkʰ] 'skirt' In free variation with [ʁ̞], [ʁ], [χ] and [q].[6] Doesn't occur in the coda.[6]

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill[edit]

Voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill
ʀ̝̊
χ͡ʀ̥
IPA number 123 402A 429
Encoding
X-SAMPA R\_0_r

Features[edit]

Features of the voiceless uvular raised non-sonorant trill:

  • Its manner of articulation is trill fricative, which means it's a trill and a non-sibilant fricative pronounced simultaneously.
  • Its place of articulation is uvular, which means it is articulated with the back of the tongue (the dorsum) at the uvula.
  • Its phonation is voiceless, which means it is produced without vibrations of the vocal cords. In some languages the vocal cords are actively separated, so it is always voiceless; in others the cords are lax, so that it may take on the voicing of adjacent sounds.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Uvular
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Belgian[7][8] broot [bʀ̝̊oːt] 'bread' Voiced when following a vowel.[9] Realization of /r/ varies considerably among dialects. See Dutch phonology
Hebrew[10] אוכל [ʔo̞χ͡ʀ̥e̞l] 'food' May be simply a fricative instead.[10] See Modern Hebrew phonology
Limburgish Hamont dialect[11] [jɔːʀ̝̊¹] 'year' Word-final allophone of /ʀ/,[11] can be [χ] instead.[11]
Maastrichtian[12] waor [β̞ɒ̝ːʀ̝̊] 'was' Partially devoiced;[12][13] it's the coda allophone of /ʀ/.[12][13] It may be pre-uvular instead.[12][13]
Weert dialect[13] woor [β̞o̟ə̯ʀ̝̊]
Spanish Madrid[14] junio [ˈχ͡ʀ̥unjo̞] 'June' Corresponds to [x] in standard Spanish. See Spanish phonology
Wolof[15] [example needed] Usually transcribed /x/ or /χ/
Pre-uvular (post-velar)
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Limburgish Maastrichtian[12] waor [β̞ɒ̝ːʀ̝̊˖] 'was' Partially devoiced;[12][13] it's the coda allophone of /ʀ/.[12][13] It may be uvular instead.[12][13]
Weert dialect[13] woor [β̞o̟ə̯ʀ̝̊˖]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Cobbinah (2013), p. 166.
  2. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2005), p. 245.
  3. ^ a b Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67-68 and 70-71.
  4. ^ Demolin (2001), pp. 65, 67, and 71.
  5. ^ a b "ProQuest Document View - The Spanish of Ponce, Puerto Rico: A phonetic, phonological, and intonational analysis". 
  6. ^ a b c Khan & Weise (2013), p. 235.
  7. ^ Tops (2009), pp. 25, 30-32, 63, 80-88, 97-100, 105, 118, 124-127, 134-135, 137-138 and 140-141.
  8. ^ Verhoeven (1994:?), cited in Tops (2009:22 and 83)
  9. ^ Tops (2009), p. 83.
  10. ^ a b Laufer (1999), p. 98.
  11. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 220.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 156.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h Heijmans & Gussenhoven (1998), p. 108.
  14. ^ "Castilian Spanish - Madrid by Klaus Kohler". 
  15. ^ Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996), p. 167.

Bibliography[edit]