Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar

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Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar
Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temescher Banat
Voivodina sârbească și Banatul timișan
Војводство Србија и Тамишки Банат
Vojvodstvo Srbija i Tamiški Banat
Autonomous Region of Austria

 

1849–1860
Flag Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
Location of Serbia and Temeschwar
Capital Temeschwar
Government Voivodeship
History
 -  Established 18 November 1849
 -  Disestablished 27 December 1860
Today part of  Serbia
 Romania
 Hungary
Map of the Voivodeship

The Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar or Serbian Voivodeship and Banat of Temeschwar was a province (duchy) of the Austrian Empire that existed between 1849 and 1860.

It was a separate crown land named after two former provinces: Serbian Vojvodina and Banat of Temeswar. Its former area is now divided between Serbia, Romania and Hungary. The Voivodeship gave its name to the present Serbian Autonomous Province of Vojvodina.

Names[edit]

In German, the Voivodeship was known as Woiwodschaft Serbien und Temescher Banat or Die serbische Wojwodschaft und das temeser Banat, in Serbian as Војводство Србија и Тамишки Банат / Vojvodstvo Srbija i Tamiški Banat or Српска Војводовина и Тамишки Банат / Srpska Vojvodovina i Tamiški Banat, in Hungarian as Szerb Vajdaság és Temesi Bánság, and in Romanian as Voivodina Sârbeascǎ şi Banatul Timişoarei.

In various sources (both, Serbian and German) there are two somewhat different variants of the name of the voivodeship, one could be translated into English as Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar and another as Serbian Voivodeship and Banat of Temeschwar.

History[edit]

The Voivodeship was formed by a decision of the Austrian emperor in November 1849, after the Revolutions of 1848/1849. It was formed in accordance with privilege given to Serbs by the Habsburg emperor in 1691, recognizing the right of Serbs to territorial autonomy within the Habsburg Monarchy[citation needed].

It consisted of the regions of Banat, Bačka and northern Syrmian municipalities of Ilok and Ruma. An Austrian governor seated in Temeschwar ruled the area, and the title of Voivode belonged to the emperor himself. The full title of the emperor was "Grand Voivod of the Voivodeship of Serbia" (German: Großwoiwode der Woiwodschaft Serbien). Even after the Voivodeship was abolished, the emperor kept this title until the end of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy in 1918.

Old map from 1853

In 1860, the Voivodeship of Serbia and Banat of Temeschwar was abolished and most of its territory (Banat and Bačka) was incorporated into the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary, although direct Hungarian rule began only in 1867, after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise, when Kingdom of Hungary gained autonomy within newly formed Austria-Hungary. Unlike Banat and Bačka, in 1860 Syrmia was incorporated into the Kingdom of Slavonia, another separate Habsburg crown land. Kingdom of Slavonia subsequently joined with the Kingdom of Croatia forming new kingdom named Croatia-Slavonia, which made a pact with the Kingdom of Hungary in 1868, hence becoming self-governed part of the Kingdom of Hungary within Austria-Hungary.

Languages[edit]

The two official languages of the Voivodeship were German and Illyrian (what would become Serbo-Croatian).

Ethnic groups[edit]

The Voivodeship was ethnically very mixed, since the southern parts of Syrmia, Banat and Bačka with compact Serbian settlements were not included in it, while eastern Banat, with a Romanian majority was added to it.

1846[edit]

According to the 1846 census, the territory that in 1849 formed the voivodeship included:[1]

1850/51[edit]

According to the 1850/51 census, ethnic composition of the voivodeship was as follows:[2]

(*) Total number of "Illyrian Slavs" (Serbs, Bunjevci, Šokci, and Croats) was 386,906.

According to another source, in 1850/1851, the population of the voivodeship numbered 1,426,221 inhabitants, including:[3]

1860[edit]

In 1860, population of the voivodeship numbered 1,525,523 inhabitants, including:[4]

Religion[edit]

1851[edit]

In 1851, population of the voivodeship numbered 1,426,221 inhabitants, including:[1]

1857[edit]

In 1857, population of the voivodeship numbered 1,526,105 inhabitants, including:[1]

Administrative divisions[edit]

At first, Voivodeship was divided into two districts:

  1. Batschka-Torontal (Bačka-Torontal)
  2. Temeschwar-Karasch (Timișoara-Caraș)

Later, it was divided into five districts:[5]

  1. Großbetschkerek / Veliki Bečkerek (In 1850, population of the district numbered 388,704 inhabitants, including: 126,730 Germans, 124,111 Serbs, 60,781 Hungarians, 58,292 Romanians, 11,045 Bulgarians, 3,752 Croats, 2,562 Slovaks, 1,421 Jews, etc.)
  2. Lugosch / Lugoj (In 1850, population of the district numbered 229,363 inhabitants, including: 197,363 Romanians, 21,179 Germans, 8,305 Bulgarians, 1,505 Hungarians, 612 Serbs, etc.)
  3. Neusatz / Novi Sad (In 1850, population of the district numbered 236,943 inhabitants, including: 100,382 Serbs, 45,936 Germans, 30,450 Hungarians, 20,683 Slovaks, 13,665 Šokci, 2,098 Jews, etc.)
  4. Temeschwar / Timişoara (In 1850, population of the district numbered 316,565 inhabitants, including: 159,292 Romanians, 101,339 Germans, 34,263 Serbs, 12,412 Hungarians, 3,664 Bulgarians, 2,307 Šokci, 1,650 Slovaks, etc.)
  5. Zombor / Sombor (In 1850, population of the district numbered 376,366 inhabitants, including: 160,016 Hungarians, 103,886 Germans, 53,908 Bunjevci, 40,054 Serbs, 7,830 Jews, etc.)

Rulers[edit]

Titles of the Habsburg emperor in an historical document from 1851: among other titles, emperor Francis Joseph I was also great voivode of the Voivodeship of Serbia (German: Grosswojwod der Wojwodshaft Serbien).

Great Voivodes[edit]

Note: the voivodeship was abolished in 1860, but Francis Joseph kept the title of "Great Voivode" until his death in 1916, and the title was also inherited by the last Emperor of Austria, Charles I.[6]

Governors[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Lazo M. Kostić, Srpska Vojvodina i njene manjine, Novi Sad, 1999.
  2. ^ Sima M. Ćirković, Srbi među evropskim narodima, Beograd, 2004.
  3. ^ Dejan Mikavica, Srpska Vojvodina u Habsburškoj Monarhiji 1690-1920, Novi Sad, 2005.
  4. ^ Milenko Palić, Srbi u Mađarskoj - Ugarskoj do 1918, Novi Sad, 1995, page 285.
  5. ^ Drago Njegovan, Prisajedinjenje Vojvodine Srbiji, Novi Sad, 2004.
  6. ^ thomasgraz.net

References[edit]

  1. Dušan J. Popović, Srbi u Vojvodini, knjiga 3, Novi Sad, 1990.
  2. Sima M. Ćirković, Srbi među evropskim narodima, Beograd, 2004.
  3. Lazo M. Kostić, Srpska Vojvodina i njene manjine, Novi Sad, 1999.
  4. Drago Njegovan, Prisajedinjenje Vojvodine Srbiji, Novi Sad, 2004.
  5. Dejan Mikavica, Srpska Vojvodina u Habsburškoj Monarhiji 1690-1920, Novi Sad, 2005.
  6. Vasilije Krestić, Iz prošlosti Srema, Bačke i Banata, Beograd, 2003.
  7. Milan Tutorov, Banatska rapsodija, Novi Sad, 2001.

External links[edit]