Volcanology of Java

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Seven of the active volcanoes of Java
Mt. Semeru and Mt. Bromo in East Java

Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin, and contains numerous volcanoes, 45 of which are considered active volcanoes. As is the case for many other Indonesian islands, volcanoes have played a vital role in the geological and human history of Java. Indeed, land is created on Java as a result of lava flows, ash deposits, and mud flows (lahars). Volcanoes are a major contributor to the immense fertility of Java, as natural erosion transports volcanic material as alluvium to the island's plains, forming thick layers of fertile sediment. The benefit is not just in the immediate vicinity of the volcano, with fine ash emitted from eruptions being dispersed over wide areas.

Climbing volcanoes (and other mountains) is increasingly popular.

List of volcanoes[edit]

This list is of volcanoes from the west of Java to the east. Local terminology and usage has the word Gunung (mount or mountain) precede the names

West Java[edit]

Central Java[edit]

East Java[edit]

List of active volcanoes[edit]

Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI) Geolocation
m ft
Krakatau caldera 7002813000000000000813 70028130000000000002,667 11 Jan 2011 ( ) 6°06′07″S 105°25′23″E / 6.102°S 105.423°E / -6.102; 105.423
Pulosari stratovolcano 70031346000000000001,346 70031346000000000004,416 unknown 6°20′31″S 105°58′30″E / 6.342°S 105.975°E / -6.342; 105.975
Karang stratovolcano 70031778000000000001,778 70031778000000000005,833 unknown 6°16′12″S 106°02′31″E / 6.27°S 106.042°E / -6.27; 106.042
Kiaraberes-Gagak stratovolcano 70031511000000000001,511 70031511000000000004,957 6 Apr 1939 (1) 6°44′S 106°39′E / 6.73°S 106.65°E / -6.73; 106.65
Perbakti stratovolcano 70031699000000000001,699 70031699000000000005,574 unknown 6°45′S 106°41′E / 6.75°S 106.68°E / -6.75; 106.68
Salak stratovolcano 70032211000000000002,211 70032211000000000007,254 31 Jan 1938 (2) 6°43′S 106°44′E / 6.72°S 106.73°E / -6.72; 106.73
Gede stratovolcano 70032958000000000002,958 70032958000000000009,705 13 Mar 1957 (2) 6°47′S 106°59′E / 6.78°S 106.98°E / -6.78; 106.98
Patuha stratovolcano 70032434000000000002,434 70032434000000000007,986 unknown 7°09′36″S 107°24′00″E / 7.160°S 107.40°E / -7.160; 107.40
Wayang-Windu lava dome 70032182000000000002,182 70032182000000000007,159 unknown 7°12′29″S 107°37′48″E / 7.208°S 107.63°E / -7.208; 107.63
Malabar stratovolcano 70032343000000000002,343 70032343000000000007,687 unknown 7°08′S 107°39′E / 7.13°S 107.65°E / -7.13; 107.65
Tangkuban Perahu stratovolcano 70032084000000000002,084 70032084000000000006,837 14 Sep 1983 (1) 6°46′S 107°36′E / 6.77°S 107.60°E / -6.77; 107.60
Papandayan stratovolcano 70032665000000000002,665 70032665000000000008,743 11 Nov 2002 (2) 7°19′S 107°44′E / 7.32°S 107.73°E / -7.32; 107.73
Kendang stratovolcano 70032608000000000002,608 70032608000000000008,556 unknown 7°14′S 107°43′E / 7.23°S 107.72°E / -7.23; 107.72
Kamojang stratovolcano 70031730000000000001,730 70031730000000000005,680 Pleistocene 7°07′30″S 107°48′00″E / 7.125°S 107.80°E / -7.125; 107.80
Guntur complex volcano 70032249000000000002,249 70032249000000000007,379 16 Oct 1847 (2) 7°08′35″S 107°50′24″E / 7.143°S 107.840°E / -7.143; 107.840
Tampomas stratovolcano 70031684000000000001,684 70031684000000000005,525 unknown 6°46′S 107°57′E / 6.77°S 107.95°E / -6.77; 107.95
Galunggung stratovolcano 70032168000000000002,168 70032168000000000007,113 9 Jan 1984 (1) 7°15′00″S 108°03′29″E / 7.25°S 108.058°E / -7.25; 108.058
Talagabodas stratovolcano 70032201000000000002,201 70032201000000000007,221 unknown 7°12′29″S 108°04′12″E / 7.208°S 108.07°E / -7.208; 108.07
Karaha fumarole 70031155000000000001,155 70031155000000000003,789 unknown 7°07′S 108°05′E / 7.12°S 108.08°E / -7.12; 108.08
Cereme stratovolcano 70033078000000000003,078 700330780000000000010,098 1951 6°53′31″S 108°24′00″E / 6.892°S 108.40°E / -6.892; 108.40
Slamet stratovolcano 70033432000000000003,432 700334320000000000011,260 1 May 1999 (1) 7°14′31″S 109°12′29″E / 7.242°S 109.208°E / -7.242; 109.208
Dieng complex volcano 70032565000000000002,565 70032565000000000008,415 31 Dec 1996 (1) 7°12′S 109°55′E / 7.20°S 109.92°E / -7.20; 109.92
Sundoro stratovolcano 70033136000000000003,136 700331360000000000010,289 29 Oct 1971 (2) 7°18′00″S 109°59′31″E / 7.30°S 109.992°E / -7.30; 109.992
Sumbing stratovolcano 70033371000000000003,371 700333710000000000011,060 1730 (1) 7°23′02″S 110°04′12″E / 7.384°S 110.070°E / -7.384; 110.070
Ungaran stratovolcano 70032050000000000002,050 70032050000000000006,730 unknown 7°11′S 110°20′E / 7.18°S 110.33°E / -7.18; 110.33
Telomoyo stratovolcano 70031894000000000001,894 70031894000000000006,214 unknown 7°22′S 110°24′E / 7.37°S 110.40°E / -7.37; 110.40
Merbabu stratovolcano 70033145000000000003,145 700331450000000000010,318 1797 (2) 7°27′S 110°26′E / 7.45°S 110.43°E / -7.45; 110.43
Merapi stratovolcano 70032968000000000002,968 70032968000000000009,738 26 Oct 2010[1] 7°32′31″S 110°26′31″E / 7.542°S 110.442°E / -7.542; 110.442
Muria stratovolcano 70031625000000000001,625 70031625000000000005,331 160 ± 30 years 6°37′S 110°53′E / 6.62°S 110.88°E / -6.62; 110.88
Lawu stratovolcano 70033265000000000003,265 700332650000000000010,712 28 Nov 1885 (1) 7°37′30″S 111°11′31″E / 7.625°S 111.192°E / -7.625; 111.192
Wilis stratovolcano 70032563000000000002,563 70032563000000000008,409 unknown 7°48′29″S 111°45′29″E / 7.808°S 111.758°E / -7.808; 111.758
Kelud stratovolcano 70031731000000000001,731 70031731000000000005,679 13 Feb 2014 7°55′48″S 112°18′29″E / 7.93°S 112.308°E / -7.93; 112.308
Kawi-Butak stratovolcano 70032651000000000002,651 70032651000000000008,698 unknown 7°55′S 112°27′E / 7.92°S 112.45°E / -7.92; 112.45
Arjuno-Welirang stratovolcano 70033339000000000003,339 700333390000000000010,955 15 Aug 1952 (0) 7°43′30″S 112°34′48″E / 7.725°S 112.58°E / -7.725; 112.58
Penanggungan stratovolcano 70031653000000000001,653 70031653000000000005,423 unknown 7°37′S 112°38′E / 7.62°S 112.63°E / -7.62; 112.63
Malang Plain maar 7002680000000000000680 70026800000000000002,230 unknown 8°01′S 112°41′E / 8.02°S 112.68°E / -8.02; 112.68
Semeru stratovolcano 70033676000000000003,676 700336760000000000012,060 1967–2006 continuing (3) 8°06′29″S 112°55′12″E / 8.108°S 112.92°E / -8.108; 112.92
Tengger stratovolcano 70032329000000000002,329 70032329000000000007,641 8 Jun 2004 (2) 7°56′31″S 112°57′00″E / 7.942°S 112.95°E / -7.942; 112.95
Lamongan stratovolcano 70031651000000000001,651 70031651000000000005,417 5 Feb 1898 (2) 7°58′44″S 113°20′31″E / 7.979°S 113.342°E / -7.979; 113.342
Lurus complex volcano 7002539000000000000539 70025390000000000001,768 unknown 7°44′S 113°35′E / 7.73°S 113.58°E / -7.73; 113.58
Iyang-Argapura complex volcano 70033088000000000003,088 700330880000000000010,131 unknown 7°58′S 113°34′E / 7.97°S 113.57°E / -7.97; 113.57
Raung stratovolcano 70033332000000000003,332 700333320000000000010,932 2 Jun 2002 (2) 8°07′30″S 114°02′31″E / 8.125°S 114.042°E / -8.125; 114.042
Ijen stratovolcano 70032799000000000002,799 70032799000000000009,183 28 Jun 1999 (1) 8°03′29″S 114°14′31″E / 8.058°S 114.242°E / -8.058; 114.242
Baluran stratovolcano 70031247000000000001,247 70031247000000000004,091 unknown 7°51′S 114°22′E / 7.85°S 114.37°E / -7.85; 114.37

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mount Merapi Erupts". ANTARA. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-27. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Whitten, T, Soaeriaatmadja, R. E., Afiff, S. A., (editors), The Ecology of Java and Bali, Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. 1996, Harcover, 969 pages, ISBN 962-593-072-8