Volcanology of Java

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Seven of the active volcanoes of Java
Mt. Semeru and Mt. Bromo in East Java

Java is almost entirely of volcanic origin, and contains numerous volcanoes, 45 of which are considered active volcanoes. As is the case for many other Indonesian islands, volcanoes have played a vital role in the geological and human history of Java. Indeed, land is created on Java as a result of lava flows, ash deposits, and mud flows (lahars). Volcanoes are a major contributor to the immense fertility of Java, as natural erosion transports volcanic material as alluvium to the island's plains, forming thick layers of fertile sediment. The benefit is not just in the immediate vicinity of the volcano, with fine ash emitted from eruptions being dispersed over wide areas.

Climbing volcanoes (and other mountains) is increasingly popular.

List of volcanoes[edit]

This list is of volcanoes from the west of Java to the east. Local terminology and usage has the word Gunung (mount or mountain) precede the names

West Java[edit]

Central Java[edit]

East Java[edit]

List of active volcanoes[edit]

Name Shape Elevation Last eruption (VEI) Geolocation
m ft
Krakatau caldera 813 2,667 11 Jan 2011 ( ) 6°06′07″S 105°25′23″E / 6.102°S 105.423°E / -6.102; 105.423
Pulosari stratovolcano 1,346 4,416 unknown 6°20′31″S 105°58′30″E / 6.342°S 105.975°E / -6.342; 105.975
Gunung Karang stratovolcano 1,778 5,833 unknown 6°16′12″S 106°02′31″E / 6.27°S 106.042°E / -6.27; 106.042
Kiaraberes-Gagak stratovolcano 1,511 4,957 6 Apr 1939 (1) 6°44′S 106°39′E / 6.73°S 106.65°E / -6.73; 106.65
Perbakti stratovolcano 1,699 5,574 unknown 6°45′S 106°41′E / 6.75°S 106.68°E / -6.75; 106.68
Salak stratovolcano 2,211 7,254 31 Jan 1938 (2) 6°43′S 106°44′E / 6.72°S 106.73°E / -6.72; 106.73
Gede stratovolcano 2,958 9,705 13 Mar 1957 (2) 6°47′S 106°59′E / 6.78°S 106.98°E / -6.78; 106.98
Patuha stratovolcano 2,434 7,986 unknown 7°09′36″S 107°24′00″E / 7.160°S 107.40°E / -7.160; 107.40
Wayang-Windu lava dome 2,182 7,159 unknown 7°12′29″S 107°37′48″E / 7.208°S 107.63°E / -7.208; 107.63
Malabar stratovolcano 2,343 7,687 unknown 7°08′S 107°39′E / 7.13°S 107.65°E / -7.13; 107.65
Tangkuban Perahu stratovolcano 2,084 6,837 14 Sep 1983 (1) 6°46′S 107°36′E / 6.77°S 107.60°E / -6.77; 107.60
Papandayan stratovolcano 2,665 8,743 11 Nov 2002 (2) 7°19′S 107°44′E / 7.32°S 107.73°E / -7.32; 107.73
Kendang stratovolcano 2,608 8,556 unknown 7°14′S 107°43′E / 7.23°S 107.72°E / -7.23; 107.72
Kamojang stratovolcano 1,730 5,680 Pleistocene 7°07′30″S 107°48′00″E / 7.125°S 107.80°E / -7.125; 107.80
Guntur complex volcano 2,249 7,379 16 Oct 1847 (2) 7°08′35″S 107°50′24″E / 7.143°S 107.840°E / -7.143; 107.840
Tampomas stratovolcano 1,684 5,525 unknown 6°46′S 107°57′E / 6.77°S 107.95°E / -6.77; 107.95
Galunggung stratovolcano 2,168 7,113 9 Jan 1984 (1) 7°15′00″S 108°03′29″E / 7.25°S 108.058°E / -7.25; 108.058
Talagabodas stratovolcano 2,201 7,221 unknown 7°12′29″S 108°04′12″E / 7.208°S 108.07°E / -7.208; 108.07
Karaha fumarole 1,155 3,789 unknown 7°07′S 108°05′E / 7.12°S 108.08°E / -7.12; 108.08
Cereme stratovolcano 3,078 10,098 1951 6°53′31″S 108°24′00″E / 6.892°S 108.40°E / -6.892; 108.40
Slamet stratovolcano 3,432 11,260 1 May 1999 (1) 7°14′31″S 109°12′29″E / 7.242°S 109.208°E / -7.242; 109.208
Dieng complex volcano 2,565 8,415 31 Dec 1996 (1) 7°12′S 109°55′E / 7.20°S 109.92°E / -7.20; 109.92
Sundoro stratovolcano 3,136 10,289 29 Oct 1971 (2) 7°18′00″S 109°59′31″E / 7.30°S 109.992°E / -7.30; 109.992
Sumbing stratovolcano 3,371 11,060 1730 (1) 7°23′02″S 110°04′12″E / 7.384°S 110.070°E / -7.384; 110.070
Ungaran stratovolcano 2,050 6,730 unknown 7°11′S 110°20′E / 7.18°S 110.33°E / -7.18; 110.33
Telomoyo stratovolcano 1,894 6,214 unknown 7°22′S 110°24′E / 7.37°S 110.40°E / -7.37; 110.40
Merbabu stratovolcano 3,145 10,318 1797 (2) 7°27′S 110°26′E / 7.45°S 110.43°E / -7.45; 110.43
Merapi stratovolcano 2,968 9,738 26 Oct 2010[1] 7°32′31″S 110°26′31″E / 7.542°S 110.442°E / -7.542; 110.442
Muria stratovolcano 1,625 5,331 160 ± 30 years 6°37′S 110°53′E / 6.62°S 110.88°E / -6.62; 110.88
Lawu stratovolcano 3,265 10,712 28 Nov 1885 (1) 7°37′30″S 111°11′31″E / 7.625°S 111.192°E / -7.625; 111.192
Wilis stratovolcano 2,563 8,409 unknown 7°48′29″S 111°45′29″E / 7.808°S 111.758°E / -7.808; 111.758
Kelud stratovolcano 1,731 5,679 13 Feb 2014 7°55′48″S 112°18′29″E / 7.93°S 112.308°E / -7.93; 112.308
Kawi-Butak stratovolcano 2,651 8,698 unknown 7°55′S 112°27′E / 7.92°S 112.45°E / -7.92; 112.45
Arjuno-Welirang stratovolcano 3,339 10,955 15 Aug 1952 (0) 7°43′30″S 112°34′48″E / 7.725°S 112.58°E / -7.725; 112.58
Penanggungan stratovolcano 1,653 5,423 unknown 7°37′S 112°38′E / 7.62°S 112.63°E / -7.62; 112.63
Malang Plain maar 680 2,230 unknown 8°01′S 112°41′E / 8.02°S 112.68°E / -8.02; 112.68
Semeru stratovolcano 3,676 12,060 1967–2006 continuing (3) 8°06′29″S 112°55′12″E / 8.108°S 112.92°E / -8.108; 112.92
Tengger stratovolcano 2,329 7,641 8 Jun 2004 (2) 7°56′31″S 112°57′00″E / 7.942°S 112.95°E / -7.942; 112.95
Lamongan stratovolcano 1,651 5,417 5 Feb 1898 (2) 7°58′44″S 113°20′31″E / 7.979°S 113.342°E / -7.979; 113.342
Lurus complex volcano 539 1,768 unknown 7°44′S 113°35′E / 7.73°S 113.58°E / -7.73; 113.58
Iyang-Argapura complex volcano 3,088 10,131 unknown 7°58′S 113°34′E / 7.97°S 113.57°E / -7.97; 113.57
Raung stratovolcano 3,332 10,932 2 Jun 2002 (2) 8°07′30″S 114°02′31″E / 8.125°S 114.042°E / -8.125; 114.042
Ijen stratovolcano 2,799 9,183 28 Jun 1999 (1) 8°03′29″S 114°14′31″E / 8.058°S 114.242°E / -8.058; 114.242
Baluran stratovolcano 1,247 4,091 unknown 7°51′S 114°22′E / 7.85°S 114.37°E / -7.85; 114.37

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Mount Merapi Erupts". ANTARA. 26 October 2010. Retrieved 2010-10-27. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Whitten, T, Soaeriaatmadja, R. E., Afiff, S. A., (editors), The Ecology of Java and Bali, Periplus Editions (HK) Ltd. 1996, Harcover, 969 pages, ISBN 962-593-072-8