Volkhovsky District

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Volkhovsky District
Волховский район (Russian)
Location of Volkhovsky District (Leningrad Oblast).svg
Location of Volkhovsky District in Leningrad Oblast
Coordinates: 59°55′N 32°21′E / 59.917°N 32.350°E / 59.917; 32.350Coordinates: 59°55′N 32°21′E / 59.917°N 32.350°E / 59.917; 32.350
Coat of Arms of Volkhov rayon (Leningrad oblast).png
Flag of Volkhovsky rayon (Leningrad oblast).svg
Coat of arms
Flag
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Leningrad Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of May 2012)
Administrative center town of Volkhov[1]
Administrative divisions:[1]
settlement municipal formation 12
Inhabited localities:[1]
Cities/towns 3
Rural localities 277
Municipal structure (as of May 2010)
Municipally incorporated as Volkhovsky Municipal District[2]
Municipal divisions:[2]
Urban settlements 3
Rural settlements 12
Statistics
Area (municipal district) 5,124.4 km2 (1,978.5 sq mi)[3]
Population (2010 Census) 48,000 inhabitants[4]
- Urban 47.0%
- Rural 53.0%
Density 9.37/km2 (24.3/sq mi)[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+03:00)[6]
Official website
Volkhovsky District on WikiCommons

Volkhovsky District (Russian: Во́лховский райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[2] district (raion), one of the seventeen in Leningrad Oblast, Russia. It is located in the central eastern part of the oblast and borders with Lodeynopolsky District in the northeast, Tikhvinsky District in the southeast, Kirishsky District in the south, and with Kirovsky District in the west. In the north, it is washed by Lake Ladoga. The area of the district is 5,124.4 square kilometers (1,978.5 sq mi).[3] Its administrative center is the town of Volkhov.[1] Population (excluding the administrative center): 48,000 (2010 Census);[4] 50,799 (2002 Census);[7] 58,939 (1989 Census).[8]

Geography[edit]

Panorama of the village of Storozhno on the shore of Lake Ladoga

The whole area of the district belongs to the drainage basin of Lake Ladoga. The main river in the western part of the district is the Volkhov, and the center of the district belongs to the river basin of the Syas. Both the Volkhov and the Syas are major tributaries of Lake Ladoga. The Volkhov is dammed by the Volkhov Hydroelectric Station, which became the first large-scale hydroelectric plant built in the Soviet Union. The northern part of the district belongs to the basin of the Pasha, a left tributary of the Svir. The lower course of the Svir forms the border between Lodeynopolsky and Volkhovsky District.

History[edit]

The Assumption Cathedral, Staraya Ladoga

Staraya Ladoga, currently a selo located in the district, was mentioned in 862, as one of five original Russian towns (the other being Belozersk, Novgorod, Polotsk, and Rostov). According to the Primary Chronicle, Rurik established his residence in Ladoga before moving to Novgorod, and thus Staraya Ladoga is sometimes considered as the first historical capital of Russia. The Volkhov River served as a part of the trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks.

After the capital was moved to Novgorod, the area remained a part of Novgorod Lands, subsequently of the Novgorod Republic. After the fall of the republic, it was, together will all Novgorod Lands, annexed by the Grand Duchy of Moscow. The area was included into Obozerskaya Pyatina, one of the pyatinas which Novgorod Lands were divided into.

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate) as Ladozhsky Uyezd with the center in Staraya Ladoga. In 1727, separate Novgorod Governorate was split off, the uyezd was transformed into Novoladozhsky Uyezd, and the administrative center was moved to Novaya Ladoga. In 1776, the area was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty, and in 1781, it was moved back into Saint Petersburg Governorate. On December 9, 1922 the administrative center of the uyezd was moved to the selo of Gostinopolye, which was renamed Volkhov and was granted town status. The uyezd was renamed Volkhovsky. In 1924 the changes were rolled back, the administrative center moved to Novaya Ladoga, and Volkhov was demoted to a selo (eventually renamed Gostinopolye). The name of the uyezd remained Volkhovsky.[9] Saint Petersburg Governorate was twice renamed, to Petrograd Governorate and subsequently to Leningrad Governorate.

On August 1, 1927, the uyezds were abolished and Volkhovsky District, with the administrative center in the urban-type settlement of Zvanka, was established. The governorates were also abolished, and the district was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Volkhovsky Uyezd. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished as well, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On December 27, 1933 the urban-type settlement of Zvanka was granted town status and renamed Volkhovstroy. On September 19, 1939 Volkhovstroy was made a town of oblast significance, and on April 11, 1940, it was renamed Volkhov. Between October and December 1941, during World War II, parts of the district were occupied by German troops.[10] In 2010, the administrative division of Leningrad Oblast was harmonized with the municipal division, and Volkhov was made the town of district significance.[11]

On March 20, 1946, Novoladozhsky District with the administrative center located in Novaya Ladoga was split off Volkhovsky District. On February 1, 1963 Novoladozhsky District was abolished and merged into Volkhovsky District.[10]

On August 1, 1927, Mginsky District, with the administrative center in the settlement of Mga, was established. It was a part of Leningrad Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Volkhovsky and Leningradsky Uyezds. On September 20, 1930, the administrative center of the district was transferred to the selo of Putilovo, and the district renamed Putilovsky. On September 20, 1931 the district center was moved back to Mga, and the district was renamed back Mginsky. Between September 1941 and January 1944, during World War II, parts of the district were occupied by German troops. On December 9, 1960 Mginsky District was abolished and split between Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts.[12] On April 1, 1977 Kirovsky District, essentially in the limits of former Mginsky District, was established by splitting off Volkhovsky and Tosnensky Districts.[13]

On August 1, 1927, Pashsky District, with the administrative center in the village of Pashsky Perevoz, was established. It was a part of Lodeynoye Pole Okrug of Leningrad Oblast. It included parts of former Volkhovsky and Lodeynopolsky Uyezds. On December 14, 1955 Pashsky District was abolished and merged into Novoladozhsky District.[14]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

Big industrial enterprises in the district include the Volkhov Hydroelectric Station and an aluminum plant in Volkhov, and a pulp-and-paper mill in Syasstroy. There are also enterprises of timber and food industries.[15]

Agriculture[edit]

Agriculture in the district specializes on cattle breeding, with meat and milk production, and on fish farming.[16]

Transportation[edit]

A lock of the Old Ladoga Canal (disused) in the town of Novaya Ladoga.

Volkhov (railway stations Volkhovstroy I and Volkhovstroy II) is an important railway hub. One railway line connects in with Saint Petersburg (Moskovsky Rail Terminal), and Volkhovstroy I is the terminal station of suburban trains from Saint Petersburg. To the east, a railway line continues to Vologda via Tikhvin and Cherepovets. Another railway line passing through Volkhov connects Chudovo in the south and Lodeynoye Pole, Petrozavodsk, and ultimately Murmansk in the north. In Chudovo, it connects to railway between Saint Petersburg and Moscow, so that all traffic between Moscow and Murmansk proceeds via Volkhovstroy.

The M18 highway, connecting Saint Petersburg and Murmansk, crosses the northern part of the district. In Kiselnya, a road branchess off southeast and proceeds via Volkhov, Tikhvin, and Cherepovets to Vologda. Volkhov is also connected by a road with Kirishi. There are also local roads, with bus traffic originating from Volkhov.

The Volkhov River is navigable within the district, however, there is no passenger navigation. In the beginning of the 19th century, a system of canals bypassing Lake Ladoga were built, which at the time were a part of Mariinsky Water System, connecting the Neva River and the Volga River. In particular, the Svir Canal connects the Svir and the Syas, and the Syas Canal connects the Syas and the Volkhov. The New Ladoga Canal connects the Volkhov and the Neva. It replaced the Old Ladoga Canal, built by Peter the Great, which thus became disused and decayed. The four canals collectively are known as the Ladoga Canal.

Culture and recreation[edit]

Church of Saint Dimitry of Thessaloniki, Staraya Ladoga

The district contains 84 cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally 164 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance.[17] The federal monuments include, among others, the Volkhov Hydroelectric station, the complex of the Zelenets Trinity Monastery in the former selo of Zelenets, and the ensemble of Staraya Ladoga.

Staraya Ladoga is one of the oldest settlements in Russia and contains two of several dozens survived pre-Mongol buildings in Russia. The St. George's Church is located in the Staraya Ladoga fortress, whereas a much bigger Assumption Cathedral is the katholikon of the Assumption Monastery. Both churches were constructed in the 12th century. Another monastery in Staraya Ladoga is the Saint Nicholas Monastery. Many of the old buildings in Staraya Ladoga, including the St. George's Cathedral, the fortress, and the wooden Church of Saint Dimitry, belong to the Staraya Ladoga Museum Reserve.[18]

The Zelenets Trinity Monastery was founded in the 16th century, and most of its buildings form an architectural ensemble of the end of the 17th century.

Two more museums in the district are the Museum of History of the town of Volkhov[19] and the Novaya Ladoga Town Museum.[20]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Oblast Law #32-oz
  2. ^ a b c Law #56-oz
  3. ^ a b Official website of Volkhovsky District. Volkhovsky Municipal Districts in Figures and Facts (Russian)
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  8. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Новоладожский уезд (1917 - фев. 1923 г.), Волховский уезд ( фев. 1923 - авг.1927 г.) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved December 14, 2012. 
  10. ^ a b Волховский район (август 1927 г.) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved December 14, 2012. 
  11. ^ Отчет о работе комитета по взаимодействию с органами местного самоуправления Ленинградской области в 2010 году (in Russian). Комитет по печати и связям с общественностью Ленинградской области. Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  12. ^ Мгинский район (август 1927 - дек.1960) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved December 17, 2012. 
  13. ^ История нашего края (in Russian). Официальный сайт Кировского муниципального района Ленинградской области. Retrieved 3 January 2013. 
  14. ^ Пашский район (авг. 1927 - дек. 1955) (in Russian). Система классификаторов исполнительных органов государственной власти Санкт-Петербурга. Retrieved May 2, 2013. 
  15. ^ Справочник "Волхов" (in Russian). SPR. Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  16. ^ Каталог предприятий (in Russian). ГП ЛО «Леноблконсалт». Retrieved 12 December 2012. 
  17. ^ Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved December 13, 2012. 
  18. ^ Староладожский историко-архитектурный и археологический музей-заповедник (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  19. ^ Музей истории города Волхова (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 
  20. ^ Новоладожский историко-краеведческий музей (in Russian). Российская сеть культурного наследия. Retrieved 26 December 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №32-оз от 15 июня 2010 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Ленинградской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Областного закона №23-оз от 8 мая 2014 г. «Об объединении муниципальных образований "Приморское городское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и "Глебычевское сельское поселение" Выборгского района Ленинградской области и о внесении изменений в отдельные Областные законы». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Вести", №112, 23 июня 2010 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #32-oz of June 15, 2010 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Leningrad Oblast and on the Procedures for Its Change, as amended by the Oblast Law #23-oz of May 8, 2014 On Merging the Municipal Formations of "Primorskoye Urban Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and "Glebychevskoye Rural Settlement" in Vyborgsky District of Leningrad Oblast and on Amending Various Oblast Laws. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Законодательное собрание Ленинградской области. Областной закон №56-оз от 6 сентября 2004 г. «Об установлении границ и наделении соответствующим статусом муниципального образования Волховский муниципальный район и муниципальных образований в его составе», в ред. Областного закона №17-оз от 6 мая 2010 г «О внесении изменений в некоторые областные законы в связи с принятием федерального закона "О внесении изменений в отдельные законодательные акты Российской Федерации в связи с совершенствованием организации местного самоуправления"». Вступил в силу через 10 дней со дня официального опубликования (24  сентября 2004 г.). Опубликован: "Вестник Правительства Ленинградской области", №27, 14 сентября 2004 г. (Legislative Assembly of Leningrad Oblast. Oblast Law #56-oz of September 6, 2004 On Establishing the Borders of and Granting an Appropriate Status to the Municipal Formation of Volkhovsky Municipal District and to the Municipal Formations Comprised By It, as amended by the Oblast Law #17-oz of May 6, 2010 On Amending Various Oblast Laws Due to the Adoption of the Federal Law "On Amending Various Legislative Acts of the Russian Federation Due to the Improvement of the Organization of the Local Self-Government". Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication (September 24 2004).).