Volkswagen G60 engine

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Volkswagen G60 engine
Volkswagen G40 engine
Overview
Manufacturer Volkswagen Group
Production G60: August 1988–July 1993
G40: August 1986–July 1994
Combustion chamber
Configuration inline-four automobile petrol engine
Displacement G60: 1,781 cc (108.7 cu in)
G40: 1,272 cc (77.6 cu in)
Cylinder bore G60: 81.0 mm (3.189 in)
G40: 75.0 mm (2.953 in)
Piston stroke G60: 86.4 mm (3.402 in)
G40: 72.0 mm (2.835 in)
Cylinder block alloy grey cast iron
Cylinder head alloy cast aluminium alloy
Valvetrain 2 valves per cylinder, hydraulic valve lifters, belt-driven single overhead camshaft (SOHC)
Compression ratio 8.0:1
Combustion
Supercharger G-Lader, with intercooler
Fuel system common rail electronic multi-point fuel injection
Management Bosch Digifant
Fuel type unleaded petrol (gasoline)
Oil system wet sump
Cooling system water-cooled
Output
Power output G60: 118 kW (160 PS; 158 bhp)
G40: 85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp)
Torque output G60: 225 N·m (166 lbf·ft)
G40: 150 N·m (111 lbf·ft)
Chronology
Successor 2005 1.4-litre 'Twincharger'
One of the users of the G60 engine, the Volkswagen Corrado 2-door coupé
A Volkswagen Golf Mk2 Rallye powered by the G60 engine
A rare Volkswagen Golf Mk2 G60 Limited hot hatch - one of only 71 produced

G60 refers to an inline-four cylinder automobile petrol engine, which uses a specific method of forced induction - by way of a specific type of supercharger. The G60 engine was formerly manufactured by the German carmaker Volkswagen Group, and was installed in a limited number and range of 'hot hatch' cars from their Volkswagen Passenger Cars marque from August 1988 to July 1993.[1]

A smaller G40 engine of identical design had earlier been installed in the Mk2 Volkswagen Polo Coupé GT G40 from August 1986 to July 1994.

Design and specifications[edit]

The G60 is a 1.8-litre internal combustion engine, which displaces 1,781 cubic centimetres (108.7 cu in) from a cylinder bore of 81.0 millimetres (3.189 in), and a piston stroke of 86.4 millimetres (3.402 in). Its cylinder block is constructed from grey cast iron, and its cylinder head is cast aluminium alloy, with additional post-production heat treatment. The crankcase contains a forged steel crankshaft which runs in five main bearings, and cast pistons with increased size gudgeon pins. It has two valves per cylinder (eight valves in total), which are operated by a toothed belt-driven forged steel single overhead camshaft (SOHC) via hydraulic valve lifters, with the valves being closed by two concentric valve springs. Charged air is cooled via an intercooler, and the operation and control of the engine is managed by a Bosch Digifant engine control unit, which includes common rail electronic multi-point fuel injection and a knock sensor. It produced a maximum rated motive power output of 118 kilowatts (160 PS; 158 bhp) at 5,800 revolutions per minute (rpm), and could generate a turning force torque of 225 newton metres (166 lbf·ft) at 4,000 rpm.

Although it was based on an existing Volkswagen Group engine from their EA111 series, it underwent so many modifications, it is usually regarded as a separate powerplant from others which the Group produced. It was named after the intricate "G-Lader" magnesium-cased supercharger that it was mated to - this supercharger having a 60 millimetres (2.36 in) diameter inlet, hence the "G60" moniker. It utilised a side-mounted intercooler (SMIC), positioned in front of the left front wheel, to lower the temperature of the compressed charged engine intake air.

The G60 engine was developed from the earlier, smaller version, called the G40 1.3-litre engine. This displaced 1,272 cc (77.6 cu in) from a bore of 75.0 millimetres (2.953 in), and a stroke of 72.0 millimetres (2.835 in). The G40s supercharger had an inlet diameter of 40 mm (1.57 in), hence the "G40" name. This G40 engine produced a maximum power of 85 kilowatts (116 PS; 114 bhp) at 5,500 rpm, and torque of 150 newton metres (111 lbf·ft) at 3,500 rpm.

Applications[edit]

The original "G-Lader" engine, the smaller version of the G60 engine, called the G40, was previously used in the Mk2 Volkswagen Polo Coupé GT G40 supermini. The G40 engine could propel this nervous little car to a top speed of 196 km/h (121.8 mph).

The larger G60 engine debuted in August 1988 in the B3 Volkswagen Passat G60 saloon, and the Mk2 Volkswagen Golf G60 hatchback. In the Golf G60, it was capable of propelling the car from standstill to 100 kilometres per hour (62.1 mph) in 7.8 seconds, reaching a top speed of 216 km/h (134.2 mph).

A month later, in September 1988, the Volkswagen Corrado G60 was released. Performance figures for the Corrado G60 indicate that the standard discipline of sprinting from rest to 100 km/h (62.1 mph) took 8.3 seconds, and had a maximum speed of 225 km/h (139.8 mph).

In the United States, the G60 engine was used only in the Corrado, and this was dropped in 1992 in favour of the newer, more powerful VR6 engine.

A limited-production, four-wheel drive Syncro variant of the Golf G60, called the Golf Rallye was also powered by the eight-valve G60, but the engine was reduced to 1,763 cubic centimetres (107.6 cu in) for sports homologation purposes. It included a larger intercooler, which is mounted across the full width of the radiator. Power remained 118 kW (160 PS; 158 bhp).

A 16-valve G60 engine was used in the ultra-rare Golf Limited, of which only 71 were produced by VW Motorsport, all with four-wheel drive[2][3] Power was raised to 154 kW (209 PS; 207 bhp), and the car could now accelerate to 100 km/h (62.1 mph) in 6.4 seconds, reaching a top speed of 247 km/h (153.5 mph), which was Volkswagen's highest-performance production car ever, until the Golf R32 in 2004.[citation needed]

The G60 engine, like any supercharged or turbocharged engine, was sensitive to high air temperatures, so engine performance very much depended on the weather conditions. Some models, like the Corrado, or even some variants of the Golf Rallye, had a bigger, better-placed intercooler, resulting in increased, and more consistent performance compared to the standard placed intercooler.

Although there is no recommendation from Volkswagen, the supercharger compressor should be serviced every 100,000 kilometres (60,000 mi), otherwise an expensive repair could be likely.

VW engine ID codes[edit]

all Volkswagen G-Lader internal combustion engines are inline four-cylinder SOHC designs
operate on the four-stroke cycle with electronic multi-point fuel injection, are water-cooled, and use a G-Lader supercharger
engine
ID code
displacement, valvetrain,
engine management
max. power
@ rpm
max. torque
@ rpm
applications years
installed
petrol engines
G40 PY 1272 cc, 8v single overhead camshaft (SOHC),
Bosch Digifant electronic engine control unit
85 kW (116 PS; 114 bhp)
@ 5,500
150 N·m (111 lbf·ft)
@ 3,500
VW Polo Mk2 GT G40 08/86-07/94
G60 1H 1763 cc, 8v single overhead camshaft (SOHC),
Bosch Digifant electronic engine control unit
118 kW (160 PS; 158 bhp)
@ 5,800
225 N·m (166 lbf·ft)
@ 4,000
VW Golf Mk2 G60 08/88-07/89
G60 PG 1781 cc, 8v single overhead camshaft (SOHC),
Bosch Digifant electronic engine control unit
110 kW (150 PS; 148 bhp) VW Passat (B3) G60 08/88-07/89
G60 PG 1781 cc, 8v single overhead camshaft (SOHC),
Bosch Digifant electronic engine control unit
118 kW (160 PS; 158 bhp)
@ 5,800
225 N·m (166 lbf·ft)
@ 4,000
VW Golf Mk2 G60
VW Passat (B3) G60
VW Corrado G60
08/88-07/91
08/88-07/93
09/88-07/93
G60 3G 1781 cc, 16v Double overhead camshaft (DOHC),
Bosch Digifant electronic engine control unit
154 kW (209 PS; 207 bhp)
@ 6,300
247 N·m (182 lbf·ft)
@ 5,000
VW Golf Mk2 Limited
Syncro 4WD
????

Future use of technology[edit]

Whilst it may seem a long period of time since the last Volkswagen engine with the G-Lader supercharger was installed in a Polo in 1994, Volkswagen Group have been thoroughly utilising the forced induction knowledge learned from these G40 and G60 engines.

Diesel engines[edit]

Volkswagen Group now have a long-established 'knowledge base' from both forms of forced induction. They first utilised this technology with turbochargers in their TurboDiesel 'TD' engines. This then evolved into their highly regarded range of Turbocharged Direct Injection 'TDI' diesel engines, which are now available throughout virtually every car and light commercial vehicle in the Volkswagen Group.

Variants of their TDI engine have recently been used by Audi to great success in long-endurance prototype sports car racing, including the first diesel-powered victory at the 24 Hours of Le Mans in their R10 TDI, at the cars first attempt. SEAT have also tasted success in touring car racing, winning both the Drivers' and Manufacturers' categories of the 2008 and 2009 World Touring Car Championships, with their SEAT León TDI racing hatchback.

Turbochargers on diesel engines are now seen as the norm, from all automotive manufacturers, and it is rare to find an automotive diesel engine without turbocharged forced induction.

Petrol engines[edit]

Turbochargers[edit]

Turbochargers have also been of great benefit to recent petrol engines in the Volkswagen Group. Probably their most famous and widely used engine is their highly popular Audi-developed 1.8-litre 20-valve Turbo inline-four engine. This has been used in many of their mainstream, and high-performance cars; such as the original Audi S3 and Audi TT, the Mk4 VW Golf GTI, the original Škoda Octavia vRS, and the original SEAT León Cupra R. This strong, and highly tuneable engine has won many prestigious awards, and is highly regarded by professional engine tuners and motorsports teams. Furthermore, this same engine is used in a very high state of tune in the one-make Formula Palmer Audi (FPA) open-wheeled racing series.

Volkswagen Groups' current range of Audi-developed Fuel Stratified Injection engines, again award winning, and again winning at Le Mans - continue to champion the turbocharger in petrol engines, and also include cylinder-direct fuel injection, making them not only powerful, but now also very fuel efficient.

Audi-developed straight-fives (including the 232 kW 2.2 Turbo from the Audi RS2 Avant), V6 engines (the B5 Audi RS4 280 kW 2.7 T V6), and even V8 engines (the C5 Audi RS6 331-353 kW 4.2 V8), have successfully used turbos, the latter two V engines as 'biturbo's. Current 'large capacity' Volkswagen Group users of turbos include Audi C6 RS6 5.0 TFSI V10 biturbo engine, and the Bugatti Veyron EB16.4 8.0-litre 736 kW sixteen cylinder 'quad-turbo' engine, which can achieve an astonishing (for a road-legal car) top speed of 406 kilometres per hour (252.3 mph)!

Superchargers[edit]

The supercharger has also seen a recent return in a petrol engine. First announced at the 2005 Frankfurt Motor Show, Volkswagen released the 1.4-litre TSI 'Twincharger' engine - which uses both a turbocharger, and an Eaton fifth-generation Roots-type positive displacement supercharger. Dependent on the state of tune, power output from this relatively diminutive engine ranges from 90 kilowatts (122 PS; 121 bhp), and can rise to 133 kilowatts (181 PS; 178 bhp) - which puts it on a par with a conventionally aspirated 2.3-litre engine. And once again, another Volkswagen Group engine winning a highly prestigious award, this time the "International Engine of the Year".[4]

And for larger displacement engines, the supercharger has been fitted to an all-new aluminium alloy 90° V6 engine,[5] which displaces 2,995 cubic centimetres (182.8 cu in). Now used in all current Audi four-door saloons and five-door Avants (Audi's name for an estate car) - from the Audi S4 upwards, along with the two-door Audi A5 coupé - it uses an all-new Eaton 'Twin Vortices Series' (TVS) Roots-type positive displacement compressor. This new blower features twin four-lobe rotors which are twisted 160-degrees. It is mounted on top of the engine within the 'Vee', pumping air directly into the inlet manifold. This new design of supercharger is said to reduce the noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) of the engine. In 'standard' tune, this engine produces 213 kilowatts (290 PS; 286 bhp) at 4,850-6,500 rpm, and 420 newton metres (310 lbf·ft) at 2,500-4,800 rpm. However, a higher performance variant is fitted to the latest B8 Audi S4,[6] and in this car, produces 245 kilowatts (333 PS; 329 bhp) at 5,500-7,000 rpm, and 440 newton metres (325 lbf·ft) at 2,500-5,000 rpm - which makes this new S4 more potent than its immediate predecessor, with its 4.2-litre V8. This engine is also scheduled to be fitted to a new hybrid version of the Volkswagen Touareg.[7]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  • Sly, James (January–February 1990). "Development of the G-60". VW & Porsche magazine: pg.52/53. 
  1. ^ ETKA[clarification needed]]]
  2. ^ Euro Motorsport Edition: 1990 VW Golf Limited
  3. ^ VW Golf II Limited auf Doppel WOBber (German)
  4. ^ Parks, Jim (2009-07-10). "Eaton Supercharger Boosts VW Green Engine Of The Year". Eaton Corporation. Eaton.com. Retrieved 2009-07-24. "The highly regarded engine was named International Engine of the Year, Best Engine in the 1-litre to 1.4-litre category, and Green Engine of the Year, ahead of state-of-the-art hybrid and twin-turbo diesel competition." 
  5. ^ Parks, Jim (2008-07-17). "Audi Selects Eaton TVS Supercharger To Power Fuel Efficient V6". Eaton Corporation. Eaton.com. Retrieved 2009-07-24. "when paired with direct injection and enhanced transmission ratio, the TVS supercharger helps the engine achieve 290 hp with an average fuel economy of nearly 24 miles per gallon" 
  6. ^ Parks, Jim (2008-11-06). "Eaton TVS Supercharger Featured On 2010 Audi S4/S4 Avant". Eaton Corporation. Eaton.com. Retrieved 2009-07-24. "When combined with direct injection, the TVS surpasses twin turbochargers in packaging, starting performance and responsiveness" 
  7. ^ Parks, Jim (2009-03-04). "First Hybrid Application Of TVS Supercharger To Appear On 2010 Volkswagen Touareg; Fuel Economy Improved 17- 25 Percent". Eaton Corporation. Eaton.com. Retrieved 2009-07-24. 

External links[edit]