Volkswagen Golf Mk2
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (May 2008)|
|Volkswagen Golf Mk2|
|Production||6.3 million units
TAS, Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina,
New Stanton, Pennsylvania, United States
Puebla, Puebla, Mexico
Uitenhage, South Africa,
Graz, Austria, ( Golf Country only),
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||3-door hatchback,
|Layout||Front engine, front-wheel drive / four-wheel drive|
|Platform||Volkswagen Group A2 platform|
SEAT Toledo Mk1
All markets except North America/Japan:
|Wheelbase||2,470 mm (97.2 in)|
|Length||3,985 mm (156.9 in)−4,035 mm (158.9 in),
North America: 158.0 in (4,013.2 mm) (MY 85-88)
159.6 in (4,053.8 mm) (MY 89-93)
|Width||1,665 mm (65.6 in)−1,700 mm (66.9 in)|
|Height||1,415 mm (55.7 in)|
|Curb weight||910 kg (2,006 lb)−1,245 kg (2,745 lb)
North America: 2,137 lb (969 kg)−2,445 lb (1,109 kg)
|Predecessor||Volkswagen Golf Mk1|
|Successor||Volkswagen Golf Mk3|
- for an overview of the generations, see: Volkswagen Golf
The Volkswagen Golf Mk2 is a compact car, the second generation of the Volkswagen Golf and the successor to the Volkswagen Golf Mk1. It was Volkswagen's volume seller from 1983 and remained in (German) production until late 1992. The Mk2 was larger than the Mk1; its wheelbase grew slightly (+ 75 mm (3.0 in)), as did exterior dimensions (length + 180 mm (7.1 in), width + 55 mm (2.2 in), height + 5 mm (0.2 in)). Weight was up accordingly by about 120 kg (260 lb). Exterior design, developed in-house by VW design director Schäfer, kept the general lines of its Giugiaro-designed predecessor, but was slightly more rounded. All told, about 6.3 million second-generation Golfs were built.
Golf Mark 2
The second-generation Volkswagen Golf (also known as the Typ 19E until the 1991 model year, and Typ 1G thereafter) was launched in Europe at the Frankfurt Motor Show in September 1983, with sales beginning in its homeland and most other left-hand drive markets soon after. It debuted in March 1984 on the British market, and it was introduced as a 1985 model in the US. It featured a larger bodyshell, and a wider range of engine options, including a GTD turbodiesel (in Euro markets, later using the 1.6 "umwelt" (ECO) diesel engine), a DOHC 1781 cc (1.8) 16-valve version of the straight-four GTI (as well as the tried and tested 1781cc (1.8) 8v GTI), the supercharged 8v "G60" with front- and four-wheel drive options, and a racing homologated variant of this, the "Rallye Golf". This model was meant to come to the US as well (badged as "Rallye GTI"), and prototypes were made, but it did not come to be.
The original Golf had been one of the few front-wheel drive hatchbacks on sale when launched in 1974, but within a decade almost all major manufacturers had launched a Golf-like family hatchback. Ford had switched to front-wheel drive hatchback format for its MK3 Escort in 1980, soon after General Motors had adapted that concept for its latest Opel Kadett (Vauxhall Astra in Britain). Austin Rover (formerly British Leyland) did not enter the small family hatchback market until the launch of its Maestro at the beginning of 1983, although it had launched its larger Maxi hatchback as long ago as 1969 and in 1976 had taken the then unusual step of launching a hatchback bodystyle on a luxury car (the Rover SD1). Peugeot would not launch its first Golf-sized hatchback (the 309) until late 1985, but it had taken ownership of Chrysler's European division in 1978, just after the launch of the Chrysler/Simca Horizon hatchback. However, the likes of Fiat, Renault and Volvo had all entered the small family hatchback market by the end of the 1970s. The hatchback bodystyle had also become popular on cars produced outside Europe, particularly on Japanese models.
In 1985, British motoring magazine What Car? awarded the Golf Mk2 1985 "Car of the Year". It sold well in Britain, peaking in 1989 with well over 50,000 sales as the 11th best selling car and most popular foreign car.
However, the Golf was overshadowed in the 1984 European Car of the Year contest, finishing third but being heavily outscored by the victorious Fiat Uno and runner-up Peugeot 205, which were similar in size to Volkswagen's smaller Polo.
During the life of the Golf MK2, there were a number of external style revisions. Notable changes to the looks of the Golf MK2 included the removal of quarterlight windows in the front doors, and the introduction of larger grille slats with the August 1987 facelift. The most notable was the introduction of so-called "Big Bumpers", which were introduced in the European market with an August 1989 facelift. They were available in the US from August 1989 as well, as part of the "Wolfsburg Edition" package. They were not standardized until January, 1990.
This Golf was marketed for the first time with that name in the United States and Canada. The Rabbit name used on the Mk1 was meant to give a car a cuddly image, but with the 1980s redesign of the car, Carl Hahn, the former Volkswagen of America president who was now chairman of the whole company, dictated that Volkswagen model names be standardized globally. James Fuller, head of the Volkswagen brand in North America, concurred in using the Golf name to stress the car's Teutonic character. The GTI body kit became available on a non-injection Golf and was sold as the "Driver" trim level in Europe. While the GTI remained a trim level in the Golf lineup in Europe, in some markets, it was (and continues to be) marketed as a separate model line.
Volkswagen also produced their model in Yugoslavia, in a factory at Vogosca near Sarajevo, called Tvornica Automobila Sarajevo - TAS. The MK2 was produced from 1985 with a yearly production of 25,000 units until the outbreak of war in 1992. This model was produced only for the six Yugoslav republics, with a rear badge JX (which stands for less equipment than C and CL), C and CL and TAS badge on the front grille and Sarajevo city logo instead side blinkers. Engines were 1.3 (carburetor), 1.6 petrol and 1.6 diesel.
The Golf Mk2 was available as a 3- and 5-door hatchback. Its sedan sister car (available as a 4- and a 2-door model) was again called Jetta. No cabriolet version was developed from the Mk2; instead, the Mk1-based convertible continued to be produced, with minor changes.
Trim levels included base, C, CL and GL and initially a range-topping Carat model (until 1986), later a GT (in 1987) version was also on offer. In North America, there was only a base model until 1986, in 1987 a GL and GT model, in 1988-1989, there were all three, and in 1990 until the end of its run there was again only a GL. The GTI model existed from 1985–1987, and again from 1990–1992, and the GTI 16v existed from 1987–1992. In Japan the range consisted of catalysed Ci/CLi/GLi models all sharing the same 1.6 or later 1.8 liter fuel-injected I4 engines. In the course of the years, a host of "limited edition" models appeared on various markets, distinguished by cosmetic changes and/or an enriched features list. Generally, these were option packages on top of a base "model" (CL, GL, etc.). Also in some countries it could be found trim level TX (Austria) and JX (Yugoslavia)
New base engine was a 1.05 litre inline four; other engine offerings included 1.3, 1.6 and 1.8 litre petrol fours and 1.6 litre naturally aspirated or turbocharged diesel engines. In North America, all Golf Mk2s had 1.8 liter petrol or 1.6 diesel engines (the GTI, while not a Golf model in North America, also had a 2.0 liter model).
Golf GTI & GTI 16v
The successful Golf GTI (or, in the USA, simply "GTI") was continued with the Mk2 as a sporty 3- or 5-door hatchback. Like late Mk1 GTIs, it featured a fuel-injected 1.8 litre four developing 112 PS (82 kW; 110 hp). In 1986 (1987 for North America) a Golf GTI 16V was introduced; here the 1.8 litre engine put out 139 PS (102 kW; 137 hp) (or 129 PS (95 kW; 127 hp) for the catalyst version) and the model was marked by discreet red and black "16v" badges front and rear. US/Canadian GTIs were later equipped with 2.0 16 valve-engines, available in the Passat and Corrado outside North America. In 1990, like the Golf, the GTI was given a facelift, and the "Big Bumper" became standard on all GTIs. This was maintained through the rest of the Mk2 model era. In 1990 the GTi G60 was also introduced featuring the 8v 1.8 with a G60 supercharger this version is not to be confused with the very rare G60 Limited (see below).
In February 1986, Volkswagen presented the first Golf with four-wheel drive. This Golf Syncro was available with the 1.8 engine only (90 PS (66 kW; 89 hp), later 98 PS (72 kW; 97 hp)). Its 4WD system had been developed in collaboration with Steyr-Daimler-Puch of Austria, and featured a viscous coupling and flexible partition of torque between front and rear axle. Due to its high price (in 1986, a Syncro cost about 30% more than an equivalent front wheel drive model) the model remained rare; from 1986 to 1989, for instance, just 26,000 Syncros were built.
In 1989, the Rallye Golf appeared as a rallye "homologation special". Distinguishable by its box-flared wheel arches (similar to the Audi quattro, BMW E30 M3 and Lancia Delta Integrale) and rectangular projector headlamps, this model featured Syncro four-wheel drive, a cable shifted transmission and a G-supercharger 1763 cc (less than the typical 1.8L 1781 cc to meet the engine displacement rules) version of the injected 8 valve G60 1.8 liter engine.
Five thousand cars were built in Volkswagen's Brussels, Belgium, plant, priced at about DM 50,000 each (or roughly twice as much as a base Golf GTI). The Rallye Golf has 161Bhp (118 kW).
The road going versions of the car were available in only five colours:
Tornado Red LY3D
Blue Pearl LC5Z
Green Pearl LC6V
Graphite Metallic (grey) LB7V
None were officially sold in the USA. Two were sent over officially for testing, with five sent over for evaluation. Volkswagen of America vice-president James Fuller was a supporter of its addition to the U.S./Canadian lineup. But Fuller was killed in December 1988 while flying home from Germany aboard Pan Am Flight 103, when a bomb planted by Libyan terrorists exploded over Lockerbie, Scotland; this had a detrimental effect on the Rallye Golf's chances of importation to North America.
Eventually, Volkswagen of America decided that the Rallye Golf would be too expensive to offer for sale in the United States and Canada, where car buyers thought of Volkswagen as a low-priced brand.
Based on the Rallye Golf, a very limited edition Golf Mk2 variant exists, combining all of the high-line options (Leather interior with heated and height adjustable front seats,4 electric windows,electric mirrors,abs,power steering,sunroof etc..) available at the time. Designed and hand-built by the Volkswagen Motorsport division; only 71 of these "Golf Limited" models where produced. that makes them the most exclusive Volkswagen Golf ever built. The exclusive feature package included a G60 supercharged version of the 16-valve (3-G motorcode!) engine, mated to a sports transmission and Syncro four-wheel drive mechanism, all cars where build in five doors because of the strength of a 5 door chassis (more angles), BBS RM012 wheels in 6.5Jx15", US bumpers, a plain two-headlight grille with a unique blue detail,and a VW Motorsport logo. black VW logo, Hella tinted taillights, motorsport badges and a special numbered plaque. In 1989, these cars cost in the region of DM 68,500 each and were primarily sold to VAG executives and management, although a few are known to exist in Britain as of 2005. These cars produced 210 PS (154 kW; 207 hp) 252 N·m (186 lb·ft) and 0–100 km/h (0-62 mph) in 7.2 seconds, making them the most powerful VW Golf ever produced until VW released the Mk4 R32 in 2001 with 241 PS (177 kW; 238 hp) in 2003.
There was also a version called Golf Country (3,000 cars), designed for light off-road driving. It had more suspension travel, four-wheel drive, bullbars (generally over a single headlight grille), a skid plate for protecting the engine area, and a spare wheel mounted externally on the back.
In Europe, it was offered with the acclaimed 114 bhp (85 kW) 1.8 8v petrol engine. There were also: 160 "Country Allround"; 558 " Country - Chrompaket" with Chrome bullbars and beige leather interior; and 50 "Country GTI" for VW-staff. The Golf Country was particularly popular in Alpine regions in central Europe.
Golf Mk2 citySTROMer
In 1984 Volkswagen, in cooperation with RWE, released the second generation 'Gold citySTROMer, an electric version of the Mk2 Golf. It was the first electric Volkswagen to enter serial production as the Mk1 citySTROMER was only a prototype vehicle. The Mk2 citySTROMer had a range of approximately 31 mi (50 km) and used 16 gel-electrolyte batteries mounted under the cargo area and rear seats. Just 100 Mk2 citySTROMers were produced and sold for 45,000DM (~US$34,000) until production ceased in 1985. The citySTROMer name was continued in later models; the Jetta citySTROMer and the Mk3 Golf citySTROMer.
All engines with (*) were not used in Germany.
|Engine||Displ.||Type and Code||Power||Torque||Years||Comments|
|1.1||1093 cc||I4 8V||GN||33 kW (45 PS) @5500 rpm||70 N·m (52 lb·ft) @3200 rpm||83.08-85.07|
|1.1||1093 cc||I4 8V||HZ||37 kW (50 PS) @5900 rpm||74 N·m (54 lb·ft) @3600 rpm||85.05-91.10|
|1.3||1272 cc||I4 8V||HK||40 kW (55 PS) @5400 rpm||96 N·m (71 lb·ft) @3300 rpm||83.08-85.07|
|1.3||1272 cc||I4 8V||MH||40 kW (55 PS) @5200 rpm||94 N·m (69 lb·ft) @3300 rpm||85.08-88.12|
|1.3||1272 cc||I4 8V||NZ||40 kW (55 PS) @5200 rpm||96 N·m (71 lb·ft) @3400 rpm||87.05-92.07|
|1.3||1272 cc||I4 8V||2G||40 kW (55 PS) @5200 rpm||96 N·m (71 lb·ft) @3400 rpm||89.08-92.07|
|1.6||1595 cc||I4 8V||PN||51 kW (70 PS) @5200 rpm||118 N·m (87 lb·ft) @2700 rpm||85.08-92.07|
|1.6||1595 cc||I4 8V||RF||53 kW (72 PS) @5200 rpm||120 N·m (88 lb·ft) @2700 rpm||86.02-91.10|
|1.6||1595 cc||I4 8V||EZ||55 kW (75 PS) @5000 rpm||125 N·m (92 lb·ft) @2500 rpm||83.08-91.07|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||RH||62 kW (85 PS) @5000 rpm||142 N·m (105 lb·ft) @3000 rpm||86.08-90.07|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||GU||66 kW (90 PS) @5200 rpm||145 N·m (107 lb·ft) @3300 rpm||83.08-91.10|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||GX||66 kW (90 PS) @5250 rpm||137 N·m (101 lb·ft) @3000 rpm||83.08-88.07|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||RP||66 kW (90 PS) @5250 rpm||142 N·m (105 lb·ft) @3000 rpm||86.08-91.10|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||1P||72 kW (98 PS) @5400 rpm||143 N·m (105 lb·ft) @3000 rpm||88.08-91.07|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||HT||77 kW (105 PS) @5500 rpm||150 N·m (110 lb·ft) @3000 rpm||85.01-85.07|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||RV||77 kW (105 PS) @5250 rpm||154 N·m (113 lb·ft) @3250 rpm||87.08-91.07|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||RD||79 kW (107 PS) @5250 rpm||154 N·m (113 lb·ft) @3250 rpm||85.08-87.07|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||PF||79 kW (107 PS) @5400 rpm||157 N·m (116 lb·ft) @3800 rpm||87.01-91.10|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||EV||82 kW (112 PS) @5500 rpm||153 N·m (113 lb·ft) @3500 rpm||84.01-87.07||GTI|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||GZ*||82 kW (112 PS) @5500 rpm||157 N·m (116 lb·ft) @3100 rpm||84.01-87.07|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||PB||82 kW (112 PS) @5400 rpm||159 N·m (117 lb·ft) @4000 rpm||87.01-91.10||GTI|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 16V||PL||95 kW (129 PS) @5800 rpm||168 N·m (124 lb·ft) @4250 rpm||86.02-91.10||GTI 16V|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 16V||KR||102 kW (139 PS) @6300 rpm||168 N·m (124 lb·ft) @4600 rpm||86.02-91.10||GTI 16V|
|1.8||1763 cc||I4 8V||1H||118 kW (160 PS) @5600 rpm||225 N·m (166 lb·ft) @3800 rpm||88.08-89.07||Rallye|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 8V||PG||118 kW (160 PS) @5800 rpm||225 N·m (166 lb·ft) @3800 rpm||88.08-91.07||G60, Edition One, Fire & Ice|
|1.8||1781 cc||I4 16V||3G||154 kW (210 PS) @5800 rpm||247 N·m (182 lb·ft) @5000 rpm||Unknown||Limited Edition|
|2.0||1984 cc||I4 16V||9A*||98 kW (134 PS) @5800 rpm||186 N·m (137 lb·ft) @4400 rpm||Unknown||USA Only|
|Engine||Displ.||Type and Code||Power||Torque||Years||Comments|
|1.6||1588 cc||I4 8V||JP||40 kW (54 PS) @4580 rpm||100 N·m (73 lb·ft) @2300 rpm||83.08-91.10|
|1.6||1588 cc||I4 8V||ME*||40 kW (54 PS)||Unknown||88.05-92.07|
|1.6||1589 cc||I4 8V||1V||44 kW (60 PS) @4500 rpm||110 N·m (81 lb·ft) @2400 rpm||89.08-92.07|
|1.6||1588 cc||I4 8V||JR||51 kW (70 PS) @4500 rpm||133 N·m (98 lb·ft) @2600 rpm||83.08-91.10|
|1.6||1588 cc||I4 8V||MF||51 kW (70 PS) @4500 rpm||133 N·m (98 lb·ft) @2500 rpm||88.05-88.07|
|1.6||1588 cc||I4 8V||RA||59 kW (80 PS) @4500 rpm||155 N·m (114 lb·ft) @2500 rpm||89.04-89.07|
|1.6||1588 cc||I4 8V||SB||59 kW (80 PS) @4500 rpm||155 N·m (114 lb·ft) @2500 rpm||89.08-91.10|
As with the North American Rabbit, the second-generation Golf was produced for North America in Pennsylvania. When sales in North America failed to live up to expectations and with increasing productions costs, the Westmoreland Assembly Plant was closed in July 1988. Subsequent Golfs sold in North America came from the Puebla assembly plant, in Mexico. The Mk2 Golf was discontinued in Europe in 1991, but Mexican-made Mk2 models remained available in North America for another year.
In its first year on sale in North America, 1985, the Golf 2 maintained sealed-beam square headlights, while the GTI bore flush headlights (from the Jetta). All Golfs gained the flush "aerolamps" in 1987 after a design freshening to move it more upscale in the wake of the introduction of the Brazilian-built Fox (Voyage in Brazil) in North America. This is also the reasoning for the model being called "Golf GL", while virtually no equipment changes occurred. The 1985 U.S. models are easy to distinguish from subsequent models due to the absence of a high-mounted brake light; these became required of all cars sold in the U.S. for 1986.
In its first year on sale in the U.S., Golf sales were eight percent below those of the 1984 Rabbit. Sales of the all-new 1985 Jetta, by contrast, skyrocketed compared with the 1984 model. In 1986, the Jetta became VW's bestseller in North America, a position it has held ever since.
As with the Mk1, there was a "warm hatch" version known as the Golf GT. Introduced in 1987, it featured the GTI's exterior styling, namely the red stripe exterior trim, and wheel-arch spoilers but with a standard 1.8 L engine, available in an automatic and with 5 doors (unlike the GTI). It only lasted for a few years, but with the reintroduction of the GTI in 1989 (the GTI 16v was produced continuously from 1987–1992), this model bore the concept. Year by year, the GTI with the 8 valve engine lost its GTI-like features, getting standard Golf brakes in 1990, suspension in 1991, losing the MFA computer, and finally being optional with an automatic, a first in GTI history. All GTI models got the European quad-headlight grille with the upgrade to big bumpers in 1990.
A 2.0 L engine producing 134 hp (100 kW) replaced the 1.8 in 1990 - 1992 North American 16V models. This version included 15" 2pc BBS RM wheels. In the interior, the Recaro seats no longer had vinyl bolsters of earlier GTIs.
The Golf Mk2 was introduced in Mexico in March 1987 to replace the successful Caribe (Golf Mk1). It was available with two variants of the 1.8lt engine: A 72 hp (54 kW), and the 85 hp (previously used in the Caribe GT, the Atlantic GLS and the Corsar). It came in C, CL and GL trims, with a 4 speed manual gearbox for the "small" engine (C and CL), and 5 speed manual and optional 3 speed automatic for the 85 hp (63 kW) version (GL). Tires for the C and CL were 155 SR 13, and P 175/70 R 13 for the GL. In 1988 the Golf received the same modifications as in Europe, but the nameplates (which changed for 1989). In 1989 a GTI version was introduced with a 105 hp (78 kW) "Digifant" fuel injected variant of the 1.8 lt engine without catalytic.
In Japan, all models were available as CLI and GLI, with the GTI edition also available. Sales were bolstered due the Golf's compliance with Japanese Government dimension regulations. In 1982, the Golf was joined by the Polo in Japan which was also in compliance.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (July 2010)|
Sales in the UK were strong; though it never quite made the top 10 for sales in any of the eight years in sale, it came close. In 1990, it was the UK's 12th most popular car with almost 50,000 sales. As of 2012, over 20 years after the Mk2 Golf's demise, it is still a very common sight on British roads and is being recognized by many as a growing classic, quite unlike many other similar-sized cars of its generation, such as the Austin Maestro.
Due to the small size of these cars, availability, and the current relatively low price, the Golf Mk2 is popular with enthusiasts and has its own dedicated UK club, the 'VW Golf MK2 Owners Club'. Modifications such as engine transplants are very common, the most popular being 2.8l or 2.9l VR6 from VW Golf Mk3's, 1.8T's from VW Golf Mk4's, the cheaper options being the 2.0l GTI (both 8v and 16v) from the Volkswagen Golf Mk3.
Mk2 limited edition models
Limited editions and outgoing years:
- 90S 1987
- 10 Million 1988
- Atlanta 1989
- Barcelona 1991
- Berlin Golf
- Bistro 1987
- Black Line - Red Line 1990
- Boston 1989
- Carat 1984
- Catalyst 1991
- Champion 1988
- CityStromer 1984-1985
- Country 1990
- Country Allround 1990
- Country - Chrompaket 1990
- Country GTI 1990
- Cup 1989
- Eclipse (Mexico) 1991
- Edition Blue 1991
- Edition One 1989
- Etienne Aigner 1990
- Fire and Ice 1990
- Flair 1986
- Fun 1986
- Function 1991
- Genesis 1990
- Hit 1986
- Jubileo (Mexico) 1990
- Kassel 1989
- Limited 1989
- Madison 1990
- Manhattan 1988
- Match 1985
- Memphis 1987
- Moda 1990
- NinjaTanuki 1990
- Pasadena 1991
- Pink Floyd
- Plus Ultra 1990
- Quadriga 1990
- Rabbit 1991
- Rallye 1989
- Ryder 1991
- Sky 1987
- Special 1987
- Syncro 1986
- Tour 1988
- Wolfsburg Edition (North America) 1986, 1987, 1989, 1990, 1991
- Wick Blau
- Part of the popularity of the Mk2 in the UK drew from the 1987 commercial "Changes", with Paula Hamilton made up to give her a close resemblance to Diana, Princess of Wales. She is seen leaving her husband, posting her wedding ring back through the letterbox, ditching her mink coat, throwing the house keys at the cat, rejecting the fur coat and pearl necklace - but keeping the car keys. If only everything in life was as reliable as a Volkswagen ran the tagline. The commercial spawned a new era in car advertising. (Armstrong 1998 p15)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to VW Golf II.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to VW Golf GTI.|
- Volkswagen Group A platform
- Volkswagen Golf for an overview of all Golf generations
- list of discontinued Volkswagen Group petrol engines
- list of discontinued Volkswagen Group diesel engines
- Hot hatch
- Rishi Sisodia
- Small family car
- Christian Bangemann u. Beate Jeske (2008). Auto Motor und Sport Heft 18 Seite 24. Stuttgart.
- Kittler, Eberhard (2001). Deutsche Autos seit 1990. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 250. ISBN 3-613-02128-5.
- "Previous winners" (in Spanish). Car of the year. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, vol. 3. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 114. ISBN 3-613-02116-1.
- For example: Golf C 1.8: Sfr 17,650, Golf C 1.8 Syncro: Sfr 22,680 (Switzerland, 1987). Source: Automobil Revue, catalogue edition 1987, p. 119.
- Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, vol. 3. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 86. ISBN 3-613-02116-1.
- Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, vol. 3. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. p. 115. ISBN 3-613-02116-1.
- Clements, Kevin (2006). Thirty Years of the Volkswagen Golf & Rabbit. Hudson, Wisconsin, USA: Inconogrphix. p. 64. ISBN 1-58388-158-1.
- "Elektromobil Volkswagen GOLF II citySTROMer". Retrieved 29 April 2011.(Czech)
- "Elektromobily VOLKSWAGEN". Retrieved 29 April 2011.(Czech)
- "Golf GTI development, pt6". Matey-matey.com. Retrieved 2012-06-24.
- Oswald, Werner (2001). Deutsche Autos 1945-1990, vol. 3. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. pp. 114–137. ISBN 3-613-02116-1.
- Kittler, Eberhard (2001). Deutsche Autos seit 1990. Stuttgart: Motorbuch Verlag. pp. 250–257. ISBN 3-613-02128-5.
- Covello, Mike (2002). Standard Catalog of Imported Cars 1946-2002. Iola: Krause Publications. pp. 829–833. ISBN 0-87341-605-8.
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