|Body and chassis|
|Class||Compact executive car|
|Layout||Front-engine, front-wheel-drive or four-wheel-drive|
The Volvo S60 is a compact executive car produced by the Swedish manufacturer Volvo since 2000. Two generations of the sedan have been produced to date. The first generation had a similar designed estate version, the V70, whereas the V60 is the estate version of the second generation.
- 1 First generation (2000–2009)
- 2 Second generation (2010–present)
- 2.1 Volvo S60 Concept (2008)
- 2.2 Production
- 2.3 2014 model year update
- 2.4 V60 plug-in hybrid
- 2.5 S60L PPHEV
- 2.6 Concepts and special editions
- 2.7 Engines
- 2.8 Sales and marketing
- 2.9 Safety
- 3 British land speed record
- 4 S60 in motorsport
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
First generation (2000–2009)
|Assembly||Ghent, Belgium (Ghent Factory)
|Designer||Geza Loczi (1997)|
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door sedan (S60)
5-door estate (V70)
|Platform||Volvo P2 platform|
|Related||Volvo S80 I
|Wheelbase||2,713 mm (106.8 in) (2001-02)
2,715 mm (106.9 in) (2003-08)
|Length||4,581 mm (180.4 in) (2001-05)
4,602 mm (181.2 in) (2006-08)
4,605 mm (181.3 in) (2003-05, R)
4,638 mm (182.6 in) (2006-08, R)
|Width||1,813 mm (71.4 in) (2001-05)
1,823 mm (71.8 in) (2006-08)
|Height||1,433 mm (56.4 in) (2001-08)
1,397 mm (55.0 in) (2003-05, R)
1,436 mm (56.5 in) (2006-07, R)
|Curb weight||1,462–1,552 kg (3,223–3,422 lb)|
The Volvo S60 was released in 2000 (2001 model year) being the company's new generation sports sedan. The S60 is aimed to mainly compete with the BMW 3-Series (E46) and the Mercedes-Benz C-Class (W203). Unlike its rivals, the Volvo S60 continued production for 9 years with multiple facelifts. The S60 was refreshed in 2005. The exterior was updated with body-colored side moldings and bumpers with chrome linings, as well as new headlamps replacing the original with black housing. The interior received some updates as well, with new seats, trim, and an updated center console. The S60 went through a final facelift in 2008 with full body-colored bumper and door inserts and larger emblem in the front and larger spaced out "V-O-L-V-O" letters in the rear. The interior featured a new pattern upholstery which differs from its original pattern. The S60 came standard with Volvo's own radio unit, the HU-650 and an optional extra HU-850 unit. The HU-850 unit features a 225 or 335-watt power output (depending on optional external amplifier) with 3 presets: 2CH, 3CH and Dolby Digital Pro Logic II Surround Sound. The Four-C chassis from the S60 R became an option on some S60s. The T5 engine was also reengineered from 2.3 to 2.4 litres and received an increase of 10 bhp (7 kW; 10 PS), An extra Turbo in the D5 Model also increased the D5 Bhp from 163 bhp to 183 bhp.
S60 Police specification (UK & EU)
Police specification models came about through Volvo’s extensive work alongside the users of the vehicles and Police Fleet Management departments. As a result the Police specification vehicles have a striking difference from original showroom model. Firstly the suspension was up-rated to deal with the demands of Police work; this included fitting the front suspension of the D5 model variant (as the suspension was designed to deal with the heavier diesel engine). Nivomat self-levelling suspension was also fitted to the rear to ensure correct geometry of the vehicle, regardless of the weight carried. On early models, the clutch was also replaced with the stronger D5 unit.
A larger specification battery and 110A alternator was also fitted to run all the extra equipment, along with a dedicated Police fuse box in the boot. Extra wiring looms are also fitted specially for the Police radios and other equipment, including CCTV cameras. Additional electrical noise suppression has been added so as not to interfere with the sensitive electronics the police use.
The speedometers in the vehicles are calibrated from the factory and do not require recalibration unless the wheel and overall rolling diameters are changed.
During 2001–2004 the 2.3 litre T5 engine was used and in 2005-2009 the 2.4 litre T5 engine was used. Also beyond common speculation and myths, the engines are not chipped or modified specially for police use: they are complete factory spec but in 'exceptional cases' the speed limiter (215 km/h) may have been removed.
First introduced in 2004, Volvo's S60 R used a Haldex all-wheel-drive system mated to a 300 PS (221 kW; 296 hp) / 400 N·m (300 lbf·ft) inline-5. The 2004–2005 models came with a 6-speed manual transmission, or an available 5-speed automatic which allowed only 258 lb·ft (350 N·m) torque in 1st and 2nd gears. The 2006–2007 models came with a 6-speed manual or 6-speed automatic transmission (which was no longer torque neutered).
Other aspects which set the R apart from standard S60s were the large Brembo front and rear four-piston brakes, 18-inch 5-spoke "Pegasus" wheels (available as an upgrade to the standard 17" wheels of the same design), blue faced "R" gauges, standard HID headlights, as well as the Four-C suspension system.
Four-C (a short name for "Continuously Controlled Chassis Concept") allows the user to select from three modes: Comfort, Sport, and Advanced. "Comfort" attempts to soften the car over bumps, while "Advanced" firms the suspension considerably and gives more aggressive throttle response - a setting Volvo implies is for use on the race track. This is accomplished through a drive by wire throttle, allowing the same pedal travel to result in different performance when the appropriate mode is selected, electronically-controlled shock absorbers that can adjust themselves 500 times a second, and a complex series of sensors throughout the body of the vehicle. Volvo collaborated with high-tech system developer Ohlins Racing AB and shock absorber manufacturer Monroe for the self-adjusting shock absorbers.
The Rs had three interior color options: Nordkap (metallic dark blue), Gobi (light tan metallic) and a R-only leather option; Atacama, available for an additional charge. It was an unpainted, orangey-coloured natural leather with a baseball glove thickness and feel.
The small trunk lid spoiler that was standard on the S60 R created a 20% increased downforce at the rear wheels at high speeds compared to the standard S60s. The S60 Rs have a 0.29 coefficient of drag, compared to the standard S60's 0.28, due to the larger lower front bumper spoiler to support the secondary intercooler.
Another Volvo factory option for only the S60 R was a body kit which included front bumper splitters, side skirts and a rear valance, color matched to the body. The body kit was only available with certain body colors and in certain markets.
The S60 R continued the tradition of "R" cars for Volvo beginning in 1995 with the introduction of the 850 T-5 R.
- 2.4: 103 kW (140 PS; 138 hp), 220 N·m (160 lb·ft), petrol
- 2.4: 125 kW (170 PS; 168 hp), 230 N·m (170 lb·ft), petrol
- 2.0T: 120 kW (163 PS; 161 hp), petrol, turbo
- 2.0T: 132 kW (179 PS; 177 hp), 240 N·m (180 lb·ft), petrol, turbo
- 2.4T: 147 kW (200 PS; 197 hp), 285 N·m (210 lb·ft), petrol, turbo (2001–2003)
- 2.5T: 155 kW (211 PS; 208 hp), 320 N·m (240 lb·ft), petrol, turbo (2004–2009)
- T5 2.3: 184 kW (250 PS; 247 hp), 330 N·m (240 lb·ft), petrol, turbo (2001–2004)
- T5 2.4: 191 kW (260 PS; 256 hp), 350 N·m (260 lb·ft), petrol, turbo (2005–2009)
- R 6-speed man: 224 kW (305 PS; 300 hp), 400 N·m (300 lb·ft), petrol, turbo (2004–2007)
- R 5-speed aut: 224 kW (305 PS; 300 hp), 350 N·m (260 lb·ft), petrol, turbo (2004–2005)
- R 6-speed aut: 224 kW (305 PS; 300 hp), 400 N·m (300 lb·ft), petrol, turbo (2006–2007)
- D (2006–2009): 93 kW (126 PS; 125 hp), 300 N·m (220 lb·ft), diesel, turbo
- 2.4D (2001–2005): 96 kW (131 PS; 129 hp), 280 N·m (210 lb·ft), diesel, turbo
- 2.4D (2006–2009): 120 kW (163 PS; 161 hp), 340 N·m (250 lb·ft), diesel, turbo
- D5 (2001–2005): 120 kW (163 PS; 161 hp), 340 N·m (250 lb·ft), diesel, turbo
- D5 (2006–2009): 136 kW (185 PS; 182 hp), 400 N·m (300 lb·ft), diesel, turbo
- 2.4 Bi-Fuel CNG: 103 kW (140 PS; 138 hp), 192 N·m (142 lb·ft), CNG/petrol
- 2.4 Bi-Fuel LPG: 103 kW (140 PS; 138 hp), 192 N·m (142 lb·ft), LPG/petrol
|Calendar year||United States||Canada||Sweden||Global|
Second generation (2010–present)
Shah Alam, Malaysia (SMA)
Chengdu, Sichuan, China
|Designer||Örjan Sterner (exterior)
Jonathan Disley; Tony Hunter (interior)
|Body and chassis|
|Body style||4-door sedan (S60)
5-door estate (V60)
|Platform||Volvo Y20 platform|
|Related||Volvo S80 II
Volvo V70 III
|Engine||1.6 L I4 turbo (petrol)
2.0 L I4 turbo or Turbo & S/C (petrol)
2.5 L I5 turbo (petrol)
3.0 L I6 turbo (petrol)
1.6 L I4 (Turbo-diesel)
2.0 L I4 (Turbo-diesel)
2.4 L I5 (Turbo-diesel)
|Wheelbase||2,776 mm (109.3 in)|
|Length||4,628 mm (182.2 in) (S60)
4,628 mm (182.2 in) (V60)
|Width||1,865 mm (73.4 in)|
|Height||1,484 mm (58.4 in)|
Volvo S60 Concept (2008)
The Volvo S60 Concept features a four-cylinder 1.6L petrol engine using highly efficient Gasoline Turbocharged Direct Injection (GTDi) developed by Ford (a mechanical clone of the new Ford EcoBoost 1.6L engine). The concept car was exhibited in several automobile shows in 2009.
The second generation S60 began production in Ghent, Belgium on May 17, 2010, with an expected annual production of 90,000 vehicles. Official photos were released in November 2009, and the car was publicly unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2010. It debuted as a 2011 model in North America.
The engine range of the S60 and V60 comprises four petrol engines and three diesels. The engines available are the T3, T4, T5 and T6 petrol engines and D3, D5 and 1.6D DRIVe diesel engines, the latter of which has Stop Start Technology to increase the efficiency of the engine. The 2.4-litre D5 plug-in hybrid version, fitted with a 5-cylinder diesel engine and a 50 kW electric motor, is schedule for sale in Europe by November 2012.
The Volvo S60 and V60 come with Volvo's City Safety system as standard, which is the same system fitted to its sister the XC60. This system stops the car in the event of impending collision in 'City Traffic' below 19 mph (31 km/h). A new safety feature named "Pedestrian Detection", available on both the V60 and S60, detects people in front of the car and automatically applies the brakes if the driver does not react in time.
This new sedan will show off Volvo's completely new design language already seen in the Volvo XC60 concept. It will ride on the same platform as the XC60. This new design is thought to target younger demographics. Even so, Volvo hopes to keep its high-income customer appeal; from the first generation, a Volvo S60 buyer has had a higher household income than a BMW 3 Series customer.
New features include the new large Volvo iron symbol, parallel to the grille day running lamps, and larger spaced letters in the brand name on rear. A new safety feature, Pedestrian Detection, will be added to automatically apply brakes if a pedestrian is detected in front of the car and the driver does not react in time.
2014 model year update
Changes include all-new exterior panels from the A-pillars forward including a new hood, front fenders and fascia; a wider grille with a larger Ironmark is flanked by new headlights while a larger, wider lower front intake gains bright accents and horizontally mounted LED daytime running lights; new integrated exhaust pipes at rear, a new Adaptive Digital TFT Display instrument cluster for select models (R-Design versions include unique blue instrument dials), new paddle shifters on T6 AWD and R-Design models (optional on T5), Advanced Quick Shift (AQS) option on all T6 engines and activated when the transmission is set to sport mode or when using paddle shifters, Pedestrian and Cyclist Detection with full auto brake and Cross Traffic Alert became part of the Technology Package, a new radar-based Blind Spot Information System (BLIS) to monitor and alert the driver to rapidly approaching vehicles behind the car while still informing the driver about vehicles in the blind spots on both sides of the car, Cross Traffic Alert with radar sensors at the rear end of the car to alert the driver to crossing traffic from the sides when reversing out of a parking space.
North America models went on sale as 2015 model year vehicles. Early models include S60 T5 (base, Premier, Premier Plus, Platinum), T6 (AWD, Premier Plus, Platinum, R-Design AWD, RD Platinum).
V60 plug-in hybrid
A pre-production version of the Volvo V60 diesel-electric plug-in hybrid was unveiled at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2011. The V60 plug-in is the result of close cooperation between Volvo Cars and Swedish energy supplier Vattenfall. The V60 plug-in has a price of around €50,000 (GB£40,000, US$64,600).
In September 2012, Volvo announced that the first 1,000 units were sold out before the model year 2013 vehicles were delivered to the dealerships. The carmaker ramped up production of the 2014 model year to 5,000 units for 2013. The first 1,000 units of the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid were part of a "Pure Limited" edition with electric silver livery. The diesel-electric car also has aero-designed 17-inch wheels, integrated exhaust tailpipes and a number of bodywork features in glossy black.
The V60 Plug-in Hybrid features a six-speed automatic transmission and the front wheels are driven by a five-cylinder 2.4-litre D5 turbo diesel, which produces 215 hp and maximum torque of 440 Nm. The rear axle features ERAD (Electric Rear Axle Drive) in the form of an electric motor producing 70 hp and maximum torque of 200 Nm, powered from a 12 kWh lithium-ion battery pack. Volvo expects to achieve an all-electric range of up to 50 km (31 mi), and a fuel economy of 124 miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent (1.8 l/100 km), with carbon dioxide emissions averaging 49 g/km. The interaction between diesel and electric power is handled via a control system, and the driver has the option to choose the preferred driving mode via three buttons on the instrument panel: Pure, Hybrid and Power.
- In Pure Mode the car runs only on its electric motor as much as possible. The driving range is up to 50 km (31 mi). Battery range varies with terrain, climate and driving style.
- Hybrid Mode is the default mode whenever the car is started. The diesel engine and electric motor interact to provide the optimal balance between driving pleasure and low environmental impact. Emissions of CO
2 are 49 g/km (EU Combined), corresponding to diesel fuel consumption of 1.8 l/100 km. The car's total range is up to 1,200 kilometres (750 mi).
- In Power Mode the technology is optimised to give the car the best possible performance. The electric motor's lightning-quick torque delivery contributes to the car's 0 to 100 kph acceleration time of 6.1 seconds.
In April 2014 Volvo announced the addition of an R-Design version of its V60 Plug-in Hybrid, which features a number of unique interior and exterior features that create a sporty look.
Markets and sales
Deliveries began in Sweden in late 2012, and in the UK began in June 2013. The car is not expected to be available in the U.S. Almost 8,000 units were sold in 2013. As of March 2014[update], sales are led by the Netherlands with 7,475 units sold, followed by Sweden with 864 units, and France with 293 units.
- The Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid was one of the top three finalists for the 2013 World Green Car of the Year.
The Volvo S60L PPHEV (Petrol Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) concept car was unveiled at the 2014 Beijing International Automotive Exhibition. Volvo Cars announced that the S60L PPHEV will be manufactured at the Chengdu plant and is scheduled to be launched in China early 2015.
The S60L PPHEV shares the same electric-drive technology as the Volvo V60 Plug-in Hybrid, but instead of the diesel engine of the V60, the S60L PPHEV has a 2-liter, four-cylinder gasoline turbocharged engine from Volvo Cars’ new Drive-E engine family. The 50 kW (67 hp) electric motor is powered by a 11.2 kWh lithium-ion battery pack that delivers an all-electric range of up to 50 km (31 mi). The petrol-powered engine produces 177 kW (237 hp) and 350 N·m (258 lb-ft) of torque. The driver can select via three buttons among three driving modes: Pure, Hybrid or Power. In the default hybrid mode, the CO
2 emissions are about 50 g/km, corresponding to a fuel consumption of 2.0 L/100 km (140 mpg-imp; 120 mpg-US). By selecting Pure, the car runs in all-electric mode, and the Power mode combines the capabilities of the engine and motor to deliver 225 kW (302 hp), 550 N·m (4046 lb-ft) of torque and 0-100 km/h acceleration in 5.5 seconds.
Concepts and special editions
Volvo S60 Polestar performance concept (2012)
The Volvo S60 Polestar performance concept is a version of Volvo S60 T6 AWD with Volvo T6 inline six (B6304T4) engine rated 508 PS (374 kW; 501 hp)@6500rpm and 575 N·m (424 lb·ft)@ 5500rpm, modified cylinder head and combustion chambers, modified inlet manifold and air intake, special manufactured conrods, Garret 3171 turbocharger, Ferrita 3.5" stainless steel exhaust system, Reinforced M66C (close ratio) manual 6-speed gear box, Haldex E-LSD in rear, Haldex Gen4 XWD, 265/30R19 tires, 9.5x19-inch Polestar Rims, Chassis lowered by 30mm, Öhlins 3-way shock absorbers, reinforced anti-roll bar front and rear, track width increased 20 mm front and 40 mm rear, Polestar-tuned EHPAS steering, stabilising X- members (front and rear), modified control-arms with uniballs front and rear, reinforced bushings in sub-frame and control-arms, modified engine mounts, 380 mm ventilated front brake discs with Polestar-Brembo 6 piston calipers, 302 mm ventilated discs rear brake discs with Polestar-Volvo calipers, brake cooling air intakes from front, lowered front splitter and larger rear spoiler to reduce high speed lift, carbon fiber diffusor, body 20 mm widened front and rear, Polestar designed seats with increased support, Alcantara on all functional areas (steering wheel, gear knob, and seats) to ensure maximum grip, centre console lowered for optimised gear-lever ergonomics.
The vehicle was unveiled in Gothenburg CityArena.
Volvo S60 Polestar (2013-)
The 2013 Volvo S60 Polestar is a limited (100 units) version of Volvo S60 T6 AWD for Australian market, based on the S60 Polestar performance concept. It included new Borg Warner turbo, new intercooler, 2.5" stainless full-flow exhaust system with 3.5" tail pipes, Polestar Öhlins 2-way adjustable shock absorbers, upgraded springs (60N/mm front, 65N/mm rear. (80% stiffer than stock)), upgraded stabilizers front and rear, upgraded rear tie blades, upgraded top mount in front and rear, upgraded toe link arms in rear, strut brace with carbonfiber enforcement, Michelin Pilot Super Sport 235/40R19 tires, 8x19-inch ET51 bespoke Polestar rims, Polestar-tuned AWF21 six-speed automatic gearbox with a launch control system, a Polestar-tuned Haldex 4WD system, modified transmission software for faster shifts and launch control, modified AWD software for more rear torque, front 336x29 mm ventilated discs with Jurid 958 performance brake pad, rear 302x22 mm ventilated discs with HP2000 Brembo performance brake pads, new Polestar front splitter corners, new Polestar rear spoiler, new Polestar diffuser, Polestar door trims, Polestar badge on front grille, Polestar badge on boot, Polestar gear shift knob, Polestar badge on engine, Polestar limited edition plate on door sills and steering wheel, Black outside mirror covers.
Delivery began in June 2013.
In 2014, the S60 Polestar was offered for the Canada, the Netherlands, Japan, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and United States markets. Based on the S60 Polestar Concept car and the Australian S60 Polestar, it includes Polestar Öhlins shock absorber system Polestar 8x20-inch ET53 bespoke rims with 245/35R20 tyres, new twin-scroll Borg Warner turbo, new intercooler, 2.5" stainless full-flow exhaust system with 3.5" tail pipes, AWF21 automatic gearbox with paddle shift system, Polestar transmission calibration for faster gearshifts, launch control and curve-hold functionality; Polestar Haldex calibration for more rear torque dynamic distribution, Polestar calibrated stability control system, front 371x32mm ventilated and floating brake discs with Polestar/Brembo 6 piston brake calipers, rear 302x22 mm ventilated brake disc.
Delivery was set to begin in June 2014 to the local markets.
- 1.6D Drive-E: 85 kW (116 PS; 114 hp), 270 N·m (200 lb·ft), 4-cyl, 1.6 litre, diesel, turbo (2011 - )
- D3: 120 kW (163 PS; 161 hp), 400 N·m (300 lb·ft), 5-cyl, 2.0 litre, diesel, turbo (2010 - )
- D5: 151 kW (205 PS; 202 hp), 420 N·m (310 lb·ft), 5-cyl, 2.4 litre, diesel, turbo (2010 - )
- T3: 110 kW (150 PS; 148 hp), 240 N·m (180 lb·ft), 4-cyl, 1.6 litre, petrol, turbo (2011 - )
- T4: 132 kW (179 PS; 177 hp), 240 N·m (180 lb·ft), 4-cyl, 1.6 litre, petrol, turbo (2011 - )
- 2.0T: 149 kW (203 PS; 200 hp), 300 N·m (220 lb·ft), 4-cyl, 2.0 litre, petrol, turbo (2010 - )
- T5 FWD Drive-E: 180 kW (245 PS; 241 hp), 258 lb·ft (350 N·m), 4-cyl, 2.0 litre, petrol, turbo (2014- )
- T5 (AWD): 186.5 kW (254 PS; 250 hp), 360 N·m (266 lb·ft), 5-cyl, 2.5 litre, petrol, turbo (2011 - )
- T6 FWD Drive-E: 225 kW (306 PS; 302 hp),295 lb·ft (400 N·m), four-cyl, 2.0 litre, petrol, turbocharged and supercharged (2014 - )
- T6 AWD: 224 kW (305 PS; 300 hp), 440 N·m (320 lb·ft), 6-cyl, 3.0 litre, petrol, turbo (2010 - )
- T6 R-Design (US): 242 kW (329 PS; 325 hp), 474 N·m (350 lb·ft), 6-cyl, 3.0 litre, petrol, turbo (2011 - )
- Polestar: 258 kW (351 PS; 346 hp), 500 N·m (370 lb·ft), 6-cyl, 3.0 litre, petrol, turbo (2014 - )
Sales and marketing
|Calendar year||United States S60||Canada S60||Sweden S60||Total global S60||Total global V60|
† Combined total for S60 and V60.
‡ Includes 67 sales of the S60L long-wheelbase version.
- Overall =
- Adult occupant = 94%
- Child occupant = 82%
- Pedestrian = 64%
Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS)
|Moderate overlap frontal offset||Good|
|Small overlap frontal offset||Good1|
- 1 vehicle structure rated "Good"
- 2 strength-to-weight ratio: 4.95
|Side Pole Driver:|
British land speed record
On 14 and 15 October 2000, the first generation S60 T5 broke 18 British land speed records (including the highest average speed over a 24 hour period for a Production Car class D (2000-3000cc) at 135.10 mph) at the Millbrook Proving Ground, in Bedfordshire, UK. A joint project by Volvo and Prodrive and covered by Channel 4's Driven and Car magazine.
The car was standard except for safety modifications such as a roll cage, exterior cut out switch, a modified fuel tank and additional head support to allow the drivers (BTCC drivers Anthony Reid, Rickard Rydell, John Cleland and Alain Menu as well as various Car journalists and Channel 4's Mike Brewer) to rest their neck during the 2 hour gaps between pit stops. Each pitstop included a driver change, refuel and tyre changes due to the extreme stresses being placed on the front outside tyre.
The following records were broken:
S60 in motorsport
The S60 has been raced in a range of championships across Europe, North America and Australia.
From 2002 to 2007 there was a S60 one-make racing series as a support series to the Swedish Touring Car Championship known as the S60 Challenge Cup, using 26 factory-modified Volvo S60 cars.
An S60 was used in the 2007 World Touring Car Championship season.
The first generation S60 made its competitive debut in 2006, racing in the Speed World Challenge GT class. The second-generation model was introduced for the 2009 season. In 2010, its programme was expanded to include the SCAA Pro Racing World Challenge, where it won both the drivers' and manufacturers' championships in the GT class. The programme was expanded again in 2011 to include the Pirelli World Challenge.
- Volvo V70, estate car bearing the same design as the first generation
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- Bil Sweden (2014-04-01). "Kraftigt ökade bilregistreringar för tredje månaden i rad" [Strong increase in car registrations for the third consecutive month] (in Swedish). Bil Sweden. Retrieved 2014-04-21. Download file "miljöbilstoppenmars14.xlsx (18 KB)" see table "Nyregistrerade miljöpersonbilar mars 2014" with summary of PEV sales by model for January-March 2014.
- Michaël Torregrossa (2014-01-19). "Hybride rechargeable – Le marché français stagne en 2013" [Rechargeable hybrids - The French market stagnated in 2013] (in French). Association pour l'Avenir du Véhicule Electrique Méditerranéen (AVEM). Retrieved 2014-01-25.
- Jose Pontes (2014-04-09). "France March 2014". EVSales.com. Retrieved 2014-04-27.
- PRNewswire (2013-03-28). "And Now There Is One.... Tesla Model S Declared 2013 World Green Car". International Business Times. Retrieved 2013-03-29.
- Mike Millikin (2014-04-16). "Volvo Cars introducing S60 plug-in hybrid concept at Beijing show; production version in early 2015". Green Car Congress. Retrieved 2014-04-17.
- Polestar Volvo S60 concept stuns with 508 horsepower, six-speed manual and AWD
- Introducing the world-first production version of the Volvo S60 Polestar
- Volvo V60 Polestar is one hot hauler
- "VOLVO S60 SMASHES 18 BRITISH LAND SPEED RECORDS" (Press release). Retrieved 2012-05-25.
- "SCCA Pro Racing World Challenge". World-challenge.com. 2011-02-14. Retrieved 2011-04-02.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Volvo S60.|
- Volvo S60 - Official page
- Volvo S60 Review
- IIHS Safety Test for Volvo S60
- S60R Owner & Enthusiast Site
- Widebody S60R - S60R Build Sponsored By AtSpeed Motorsports
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|Large family car||Amazon/120/130||S60/V70||S60/V60|
|Sports car||P1800||1800S||1800E||1800ES||242 GT||240 Turbo||850 T5/R||S70/V70 T5/R||S60/V70 T5||S60/V70 R|