Volhynian Governorate

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Volhynian Governorate
Волынская губерния
Governorate of Russian Empire
Ukrainian People's Republic
COA of Volin gubernia.png
 
Седлецкая губ МВД Бенке.jpg
 
Coat of Arms of Grodno Governorate.png
1797–1925
 
POL województwo wołyńskie II RP COA.svg
 

 

 

Coat of arms of Volyn

Coat of arms

Location of Volyn
Capital Novograd-Volynsky
Zhytomyr (officially since 1804)
History
 -  Transformed into Volhynian Governorate 1797
 -  Peace of Riga
 -  abolished (Okruhas of Ukraine) 1 August 1925
Area
 -  1897 42.000 km2 (16 sq mi)
Population
 -  1897 2,989,482 
Density 71,178.1 /km2  (184,350.5 /sq mi)
Political subdivisions Governorates of Russian Empire

Volhynian Governorate (Russian: Волынская губерния, Ukrainian: Волинська губернія) was an administrative-territorial unit initially of the Russian Empire, created at the end of 1796 after the Third Partition of Poland from the territory of the short-lived Volhynian Vice-royalty and Wołyń Voivodeship.

After the Peace of Riga, part of the governorate became the new Wołyń Voivodeship in the Second Polish Republic,[1] while the other part stayed as a part of the Ukrainian SSR until 1925.

History[edit]

Three partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Volhynian Governorate was created on 12 December 1796 after all three partitions of Poland have occurred and included the rest of the Wolyn Voivodeship and Kowel Voivodeship. Until 1796 the gubernia was administrated as a namestnichestvo (Vice-royalty). Initially centered in Iziaslav it was called the Izyaslav namesnichestvo that was created mostly out of the Kiev Voivodeship and the eastern part of the Wolyn Voivodeship. In 1796 the administration temporarily relocated to Novograd-Volynsky, but because no buildings were found suited for administrative purposes the seat (capital) was moved again to Zhytomyr for a time being. In 1802 the city of Zhytomyr was finally bought out of the properties of Prince (knyaz) Ilyinsky and in 1804 it became officially the seat of the Volyn Governorate. From 1832 to 1915 together with Kiev Governorate and Podolie Governorate was part of the Southwestern Krai General-Governorate, a type of militarized administrative-territorial unit. In 1880s the general-governorate was extended and included also other governorates.

In 1897 the population of the gubernia was 2,989,482 and in 1905 – 3,920,400. Majority of the population of the governorate spoke in old Ukrainian language with slight variety of dialects.

During the Ukrainian–Soviet War Zhytomir served as the provisional capital of Ukraine in 1918.

After the Polish-Soviet war in 1920 and according to the Peace of Riga (1921) most of the territory became part of the Second Polish Republic and transformed into Wołyń Voivodeship with the capital in Łuck (Lutsk). The eastern portion existed to 1925 and later split into three okruhas Shepetivka Okruha, Zhytomyr Okruha, and Korosten Okruha.

Heads of Guberniya[edit]

Revkom
  • 1919 Mikhail Kruchinskiy (concurrently the head of Volyn Cheka)
Volyn Executive Committee

Head of Security Services[edit]

Cheka
  • 1919 Vasyl Viliavko
  • 1919 M.Shuf
  • 1919 Mikhail Kruchinskiy
  • November 1919 – December 1919 Vsevolod Balytsky
  • December 1919 Vasyl Levotsky (acting)
  • – 2 November 1921 Semen Kesselman (Zapadny)
  • January 1922 – 2 June 1922 Janis Biksons
GPU
  • -1923 Pavel Ivonin
  • March 1923 – October 1923 Foma Leoniuk
  • 1 July 1923 – 1 September 1924 Symon Dukelsky
  • 1924 – 1925 Aleksandr Safes (Grozny)

Principal cities[edit]

Russian Census of 1897

  • Zhytomir – 65 895 (Jewish – 30 572, Russian – 16 944, Ukrainian – 9 152)
  • Rovno – 24 573 (Jewish – 13 704, Russian – 4 278, Ukrainian – 4 071)
  • Kremenets – 17 704 (Ukrainian – 8 322, Jewish – 6 476, Russian – 1 863)
  • Kovel – 17 697 (Jewish – 8 502, Russian – 4 828, Ukrainian – 2 093)
  • Novograd-Volynsky – 16 904 (Jewish – 9 363, Russian – 2 939, Ukrainian – 2 662)
  • Starokonstantinov – 16 377 (Jewish – 9 164, Ukrainian – 4 886, Russian – 1 402)
  • Lutsk – 15 804 (Jewish – 9 396, Russian – 2 830, Ukrainian – 1 478)
  • Ostrog – 14 749 (Jewish – 9 185, Ukrainian – 2 446, Russian – 2 199)
  • Dubno – 14 257 (Jewish – 7 096, Russian – 2 962, Ukrainian – 2 474)
  • Zaslavl – 12 611 (Jewish – 5 991, Ukrainian – 3 990, Russian – 1 722)

Administrative division[edit]

No. Counties (Uyezd) Area,
sq.versta
Population
(1897)
No. of volosts Date of
creation
1 Vladimir-Volynsky 5 695,8 198,688 23 1795
2 Dubno 3 483,0 158,734 13  ?
3 Zhytomir 6 740,0 281,387  ? 1804
4 Zaslavl 3 055,0 93 381  ?  ?
5 Kovel 6 728,0 121,326 18 1795
6 Kremenets 3 041,0 196,751 16  ?
7 Lutsk 6 626,0 203,761 16  ?
8 Novograd-Volynsky 6 331,0 273,123 20 1804
9 Ovruch 9 329,0 194,976 16  ?
10 Ostrog 2 694,0 166,882 14 1795
11 Rovno 7 529,0 275,119  ? 1795
12 Starokonstantinov 2 249,8 211,768  ? 1796

Language[edit]

  • By the Imperial census of 1897.[2] In bold are languages spoken by more people than the state language.

Religion[edit]

  • By the Imperial census of 1897.[5] In bold are religions with more members than the Eastern Orthodox.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Eberhardt, Piotr; Jan Owsinski (2003). Ethnic Groups and Population Changes in Twentieth-Century Central-Eastern Europe: History, Data, Analysis. M.E. Sharpe. p. 260. ISBN 0-7656-0665-8. 
  2. ^ Language Statistics of 1897 (Russian)
  3. ^ including Slovakian language
  4. ^ Languages, number of speakers which in all gubernia were less than 1000
  5. ^ Religion Statistics of 1897 (Russian)
  6. ^ Religions, number of believers which in all gubernia were less than 10000