Vorkuta

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For other uses of "Vorkuta", see Vorkuta (disambiguation).
Vorkuta (English)
Воркута (Russian)
Вӧркута (Komi)
-  Town[1]  -
Vorkuta r.jpg
Typical view of Vorkuta's residential area. Winter 2006/2007.
Map of Russia - Komi Republic (2008-03).svg
Location of the Komi Republic in Russia
Vorkuta is located in Komi Republic
Vorkuta
Vorkuta
Location of Vorkuta in the Komi Republic
Coordinates: 67°30′N 64°02′E / 67.500°N 64.033°E / 67.500; 64.033Coordinates: 67°30′N 64°02′E / 67.500°N 64.033°E / 67.500; 64.033
Coat of Arms of Vorkuta (Komia) (1971).png
Coat of arms
Administrative status (as of October 2011)
Country Russia
Federal subject Komi Republic[1]
Administratively subordinated to town of republic significance of Vorkuta[1]
Administrative center of town of republic significance of Vorkuta[1]
Municipal status (as of October 2011)
Urban okrug Vorkuta Urban Okrug[2]
Administrative center of Vorkuta Urban Okrug[2]
Head[3] Yevgeny Shumeyko[3]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 70,548 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 224th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[5]
Founded January 4, 1936[6]
Town status since November 26, 1943[6]
Postal code(s)[7] 169900
Dialing code(s) +7 82151[citation needed]
Official website
Vorkuta on WikiCommons

Vorkuta (Russian: Воркута́; Komi: Вӧркута, Vörkuta; Nenets for place teems with bears) is a coal-mining town in the Komi Republic, Russia, situated just north of the Arctic Circle in the Pechora coal basin at the Usa River. Population: 70,548 (2010 Census);[4] 84,917 (2002 Census);[8] 115,646 (1989 Census).[9]

History[edit]

Industrial coal fields by Vorkuta River were discovered in 1930 by geologist Georgy Chernov (ru). Georgy was son of another geologist, Alexander Chernov, who promoted the development of the Pechora coal basin, which included Vorkuta fields.[10][11] With this discovery coal mining industry started in Komi ASSR. At the time only southern parts of field were included in Komi ASSR. The northern part, including Vorkuta belonged to Nenets Autonomous Okrug of Arkhangelsk Oblast. In 1931 a geologist settlement was established by the coal field, with most of workers being inmates of Ukhta-Pechora Camp of GULAG (Ухтпечлаг, Ukhpechlag). [10] [12] The origins of the town of Vorkuta are associated in one of the more notorious forced labor camps of the Gulag which was established in 1932, with the start of the mining.

In 1941, Vorkuta and the labor camp system based around it were connected to the rest of the world by a prisoner-built railroad linking Konosha, Kotlas, and the camps of Inta. Town status was granted to Vorkuta on November 26, 1943.[6] It was the largest center of the Gulag camps in European Russia and served as the administrative center for a large number of smaller camps and subcamps, among them Kotlas, Pechora, and Izhma (modern Sosnogorsk). In 1953, the town witnessed a major uprising by the camp inmates.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with eight urban-type settlements (Komsomolsky, Mulda, Oktyabrsky, Promyshlenny, Severny, Vorgashor, Yeletsky, and Zapolyarny) and seven rural localities, incorporated as the town of republic significance of Vorkuta—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the town of republic significance of Vorkuta is incorporated as Vorkuta Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy[edit]

By the early part of the 21st century many of the mines had been closed as problems with high costs of operations have plagued the mine operators. At one time during the late 1980s and 1990s there were labor actions in the area by miners who had not been paid for a year.[13]

Climate[edit]

Mining College in Vorkuta

Vorkuta has a subarctic climate with short, cool summers accompanied by very cold and dry winters. Average February temperature is about −20 °C (−4 °F), and July is about +13 °C (55 °F).

Climate data for Vorkuta
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 1.1
(34)
1.2
(34.2)
5.3
(41.5)
12.0
(53.6)
26.5
(79.7)
31.0
(87.8)
33.8
(92.8)
30.0
(86)
24.2
(75.6)
15.6
(60.1)
4.8
(40.6)
3.5
(38.3)
33.8
(92.8)
Average high °C (°F) −15.6
(3.9)
−16.1
(3)
−9.6
(14.7)
−5.5
(22.1)
1.7
(35.1)
12.7
(54.9)
18.7
(65.7)
14.2
(57.6)
7.8
(46)
−0.8
(30.6)
−9.5
(14.9)
−13.9
(7)
−1.3
(29.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −19.5
(−3.1)
−20.0
(−4)
−13.9
(7)
−10.0
(14)
−1.9
(28.6)
7.6
(45.7)
13.2
(55.8)
9.7
(49.5)
4.3
(39.7)
−3.4
(25.9)
−13.3
(8.1)
−17.6
(0.3)
−5.4
(22.3)
Average low °C (°F) −23.6
(−10.5)
−23.9
(−11)
−18.1
(−0.6)
−14.4
(6.1)
−5.2
(22.6)
3.3
(37.9)
8.2
(46.8)
5.8
(42.4)
1.3
(34.3)
−6.1
(21)
−16.5
(2.3)
−21.6
(−6.9)
−9.2
(15.4)
Record low °C (°F) −48.0
(−54.4)
−49.4
(−56.9)
−41.0
(−41.8)
−38.5
(−37.3)
−26.3
(−15.3)
−8.4
(16.9)
−1.0
(30.2)
−4.0
(24.8)
−10.5
(13.1)
−29.0
(−20.2)
−45.1
(−49.2)
−52.0
(−61.6)
−52.0
(−61.6)
Precipitation mm (inches) 36
(1.42)
34
(1.34)
33
(1.3)
27
(1.06)
35
(1.38)
52
(2.05)
55
(2.17)
63
(2.48)
57
(2.24)
57
(2.24)
40
(1.57)
42
(1.65)
531
(20.91)
Source: Pogoda.ru.net[14]

Miscellaneous[edit]

The town is served by Vorkuta Airport. During the Cold War, an Arctic Control Group forward staging base for strategic bombers was located at Vorkuta Sovetsky.[15]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Law #16-RZ
  2. ^ a b c Law #11-RZ
  3. ^ a b "Глава городского округа" (in Russian). May 2013. Retrieved May 23, 2013. 
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ a b c "Информационный портал администрации Воркуты - История Воркуты 1930-1945 годы" (in Russian). Retrieved March 14, 2011. 
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ a b "История Воркуты"(retrieved August 3, 2004)
  11. ^ "История Воркуты"(retrieved August 3, 2004)
  12. ^ "Историческая справка. МО ГО "Воркута"" (retrieved August 3, 2004)
  13. ^ "Vorkuta Miners Hold Authorities Prisoners". Russia Today. www.aha.ru. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  14. ^ "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved February 16, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Vorkuta". www.globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 

Sources[edit]

  • Государственный Совет Республики Коми. Закон №13-РЗ от 6 марта 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Республики Коми», в ред. Закона №41-РЗ от 5 мая 2014 г. «Об упразднении населённого пункта Речной, расположенного на территории Троицко-Печорского района Республики Коми, и внесении в связи с этим изменений в некоторые Законы Республики Коми». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Республика", №44, 16 марта 2006 г. (State Council of the Komi Republic. Law #16-RZ of March 6, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Komi Republic, as amended by the Law #41-RZ of May 5, 2014 On Abolishing the Inhabited Locality of Rechnoy Located on the Territory of Troitsko-Pechorsky District of the Komi Republic, and on Accordingly Amending Various Laws of the Komi Republic. Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Государственный Совет Республики Коми. Закон №11-РЗ от 5 марта 2005 г. «О территориальной организации местного самоуправления в Республике Коми», в ред. Закона №41-РЗ от 5 мая 2014 г. «Об упразднении населённого пункта Речной, расположенного на территории Троицко-Печорского района Республики Коми, и внесении в связи с этим изменений в некоторые Законы Республики Коми». Вступил в силу 1 апреля 2005 г.. Опубликован: "Республика", №44–45, 17 марта 2005 г. (State Council of the Komi Republic. Law #11-RZ of March 5, 2005 On the Territorial Organization of the Local Self-Government in the Komi Republic, as amended by the Law #41-RZ of May 5, 2014 On Abolishing the Inhabited Locality of Rechnoy Located on the Territory of Troitsko-Pechorsky District of the Komi Republic, and on Accordingly Amending Various Laws of the Komi Republic. Effective as of April 1, 2005.).
  • Adapted from the article Vorkuta, from Wikinfo, licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.

External links[edit]