|- City -|
View of Voronezh
|City Day||Second Sunday of September|
|Administrative status (as of December 2011)|
|Federal subject||Voronezh Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||Voronezh Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Voronezh Oblast, Voronezh Urban Okrug|
|Municipal status (as of October 2005)|
|Urban okrug||Voronezh Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Voronezh Urban Okrug|
|Head||Gennady Chernushkin (acting)|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Population (2010 Census)||889,680 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||15th|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
|Founded||1585 or much earlier|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 473|
Voronezh (Russian: Воронеж; IPA: [vɐˈronʲɪʂ]) is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, located on both sides of the Voronezh River, 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows into the Don. It is an operating center of the Southeastern Railway (connecting European Russia with Ural and Siberia, as well as Caucasus and Ukraine), as well as the center of the Don Highway (Moscow—Rostov-on-Don). Population: 889,680 (2010 Census).
Etymology and origins 
The toponym Voronezh was first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex in 1177, but human settlement on the site is attested since the Stone Age by archeological finds. Recent findings may push the settlement's foundation date as far back as the 4th century CE. The current official version, however, states that the present city was founded in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Russian state from the raids of Crimean and Nogay Tatars. The city is named for the river, itself named for an earlier city destroyed by the Mongol invasion, whose name in turn was borrowed from a place name in the Principality of Chernigov, derived from the Slavic personal name Voroneg.
The comparative analysis of the title "Voronezh" was carried out by the Khovansky Foundation in 2009. The comparative method involves the search for etymological sources not only in Russian, but also in other Indo-European languages: Anatolian, Balto-Slavic, Germanic, Italic, Hellenic, Indo-Iranian, Celtic, Armenian, and others. According to the "nominalistic method" proposed by Max Müller, the origin of the name "Voroneg" and the name of a bird "voron" (raven) should be considered in relation to the Indo-European eponyms: Uranus, Varuna, Phoroneus, Bran the Blessed, and so on. Comparative analysis suggests the origin of the Indo-European toponyms and hydronyms Varanasi, Varna, Verona, Voronezh out of Indo-European root «*var» and connects with this root the origin of names of ancient deities of the water.
17th–20th centuries 
In the 17th century, Voronezh gradually evolved into a sizable town, especially after Tsar Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696. This fleet, the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was later proclaimed the town's patron saint.
Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region. In 1711, it was made the seat of Azov Governorate, which eventually morphed into Voronezh Governorate.
In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Rostov-on-Don in 1868 and Moscow in 1871.
During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, and made a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, on Voronezh excavator factory were built two artillery installation BM-13 (Fight machine #13 Katyusha). In July, the construction of Katyusha was rationalized so that its manufacturing became easier and the time of volley repetition was shorten from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted establishment of the committee of defense in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was parade of troops devoted to anniversary of the October Revolution. Only three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow, Kuybyshev, and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by German and Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the Voronezh Front. By July 6, the German army occupied the western river-bank suburbs before being subjected to a fierce Soviet counter-attack. The city was completely under Axis control by July 24. This was the opening move of Case Blue.
Until January 25, 1943, parts of the Second German Army and the Second Hungarian Army occupied Voronezh. During Operation Little Saturn, the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive, and the Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive the Voronezh Front exacted heavy casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943, Voronezh was liberated after ten days of combat. During the war the city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed.
|Note: 1926–1970 are population estimates; 1989 is the Soviet Census; 2002 and 2010 are the Russian Censuses|
By 1950, Voronezh was rebuilt. Most buildings and historical monuments were repaired. In 1950-1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical press, and others.
Between 1991 and 2000, the city, high in unemployment, became a part of the Communist-voting region known as Russia's "Red Belt". Today Voronezh is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the Central Black Earth Region.
Administrative and municipal status 
Voronezh is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Voronezh Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.
City divisions 
The city is served by the Voronezh International Airport, which is located north of the city and is home to Polet Airlines. Voronezh is also home to the Pridacha Airport, a part of a major aircraft manufacturing facility VASO (Voronezhskoye Aktsionernoye Samoletostroitelnoye Obshchestvo, Voronezh aircraft production association) where the Concordski, Tupolev Tu-144, was built and the only operational one is still stored. Voronezh also hosts Voronezh Malshevo air force base in the southwest of the city, which, according to a Natural Resources Defense Council report, houses nuclear bombers.
Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Voronezh and Moscow. Rail services form part of the South Eastern Railway of the Russian Railways. Destinations served direct from Voronezh include Moscow, Kiev, Kursk, Novorossiysk, Sochi, and Tambov.
Public transportation 
Buses and marshrutkas (routed taxis) provide the bulk of local public transport. There are some trolleybuses but the system has been allowed to degrade. The once extensive tramway network was finally abandoned on April 15, 2009.
|Climate data for Voronezh|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−6.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−36.5
|Precipitation mm (inches)||42
|Avg. precipitation days||9||7||7||8||7||9||10||7||8||7||10||11||100|
|Avg. snowy days||21||20||13||3||0.3||0||0||0||0.1||3||11||20||91|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||62.0||87.6||124.0||183.0||266.6||285.0||285.2||254.2||186.0||111.6||45.0||37.2||1,927.4|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net, World Meteorological Organization (UN) |
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)|
Education and culture 
The city has seven theaters, twelve museums, a number of movie theaters, a philharmonic hall, and a circus. It is also a major center of higher education in central Russia. The main educational facilities include:
- Voronezh State University
- Voronezh State Technical University
- Voronezh State University of Architecture and Construction
- Voronezh State Pedagogical University
- Voronezh State Agricultural University
- Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies
- Voronezh State Medical Academy
- Voronezh State Academy of Arts
- Voronezh State Forestry Engineering Academy
- Voronezh State Institute of Physical Training
- Voronezh Institute of Russia's Home Affairs Ministry
- Voronezh Military Aviation Engineering University
and a number of other affiliate and private-funded institutes and universities. There are 2000 schools within the city.
|Fakel Voronezh||Football||1947||Russian Second Division||3rd||Tsentralnyi Profsoyuz Stadion|
|Energy Voronezh||Football||1989||Women's Premier League||1st||Rudgormash Stadium|
|Buran Voronezh||Ice Hockey||1977||Higher Hockey League||2nd||Yubileyny Sports Palace|
|VC Voronezh||Volleyball||2006||Women's Higher Volleyball League A||2nd||Kristall Sports Complex|
Notable people 
- Nikolay Basov, physicist
- Ivan Bunin, writer
- Pavel Cherenkov, physicist
- Kirill Gerstein, musician
- Alexey Khovansky, editor
- Mikhail Tsvet, botanist
- Konstantin Feoktistov, cosmonaut and engineer
- Poets and writers such as Platonov, Koltsov, Nikitin, Marshak, Peskov, Troepolsky;
- Painters Kramskoi, Ge, Kuprin
- Valerian Albanov, navigator and polar explorer
- Alexander Litvinenko, political dissident
- Grigory Sanakoev, chess player
- Yelena Davydova and Alexander Tkachyov, gymnasts
- Yevgeny Lapinsky, Olympic volleyball player
- Valentina Popova, weightlifter
- Dmitri Sautin, diver
- Volin, anarchist
- Serge Voronoff, surgeon
- Osip Mandelstam, poet
- Vladimir Patkin, Olympic volleyball player
- Andrei Platonov, writer
- Sektor Gaza, punk band
- Mitrofan Pyatnitsky, musician
- Viktoria Komova, Olympic gymnast
International relations 
|1968||Brno, Czech Republic|
|1989||Wesermarsch, Lower Saxony, Germany|
|1991||Charlotte, North Carolina, United States|
|1996||León, Castile and León, Spain|
Further reading 
Charlotte Hobson's book, "Black Earth City", is an account of life in Voronezh at the time of the fall of the Soviet Union based on her experiences after spending a year in Voronezh as a foreign student in 1991–1992.
Nadezhda Mandelstam's Hope Against Hope, the first volume of her memoirs concerning her husband, the poet Osip Mandelstam, provides many details about life in Voronezh in the 1930s under Stalinist rule.
From the mid-19th century is the diary of a British soldier, a sergeant in the Royal Welch Fusiliers, published as "Prisoners of Voronesh (sic)". George Newman was captured in the Crimean War and then marched under a loose guard with a motley crew of POWs, convicts, etc, to Voronezh.
In 1989, Voronezh was the subject of international media attention after the TASS newspaper published a story recounting an alleged UFO landing that occurred in the city's park, and subsequent encounters between citizens and extraterrestrial beings. The account was later reported in America by the St. Louis Post-Dispatch, and received coverage by several other media outlets including the NBC Nightly News and the ABC Evening News. Details of the incident have been featured in several books, most notably UFO Chronicles of the Soviet Union: A Cosmic Samizdat by Jacques Vallée, The UFO Encyclopedia, Volume 1: UFOs in the 1980s by Jerome Clark, and UFOs: The Secret History by Michael Hesemann.
- Law #87-OZ
- Law #66-OZ
- Moe-online.ru. Исполнять обязанности мэра Воронежа будет Геннадий Чернушкин (Russian)
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- "Историческая хроника" (DOC) (in Russian). Муниципальное учреждение культуры Централизованная библиотечная система города Воронежа Центральная городская библиотека имени А. Платонова. 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- "Воронеж может оказаться намного старше" (in Russian). Вести. August 19, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва, 1998. Стр. 104.
- Лазарев А. "Тайна имени Воронежъ". Воронеж, 2009. — 200 с.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Train Station in Voronezh (Russian)
- Buses Worldwide ISSN 0961-2122, issue 161, July 2009
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "World Weather Information Service – Voronezh". United Nations. June 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2011.
- "Climatological Information for Voronez, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- Рациональная маршрутная сеть. "Воронеж: официальный сайт администрации городского округа". Voronezh-city.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "Brno - Partnerská města" (in Czech). © 2006–2009 City of Brno. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Ciudades y pueblos se benefician del hermanamiento con otros territorios". Larazon.es. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Article regarding the Voronezh incident from the UFO Casebook
- Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №87-ОЗ от 27 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №186-ОЗ от 27 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 14 Закона Воронежской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Молодой коммунар", №123, 3 ноября 2006 г. (Voronezh Oblast Duma. Law #87-OZ of October 27, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Voronezh Oblast and on the Procedures of Changing It, as amended by the Law #186-OZ of December 27, 2012 On Amending Article 14 of the Law of Voronezh Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Voronezh Oblast and on the Procedures of Changing It". Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).
- Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №66-ОЗ от 31 октября 2005 г. «О наделении муниципального образования город Воронеж статусом городского округа». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования (18 ноября 2005 г.). Опубликован: "Коммуна", №171, 8 ноября 2005 г. (Voronezh Oblast Duma. Law #66-OZ of October 31, 2005 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the City of Voronezh. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication date (November 18, 2005).).
- Official website of Voronezh (Russian)
- Unofficial website of Voronezh (Russian)
- Voronezh State University
- Panoramic views of Voronezh