|- City -|
View of Voronezh
|City Day||Second Sunday of September|
|Administrative status (as of December 2011)|
|Federal subject||Voronezh Oblast|
|Administratively subordinated to||Voronezh Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Voronezh Oblast, Voronezh Urban Okrug|
|Municipal status (as of October 2005)|
|Urban okrug||Voronezh Urban Okrug|
|Administrative center of||Voronezh Urban Okrug|
|Mayor||Gusev Alexander (acting)|
|Representative body||City Duma|
|Area||601 km2 (232 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)||889,680 inhabitants|
|- Rank in 2010||15th|
|Population (January 1, 2014 est.)||1,014,610 inhabitants|
|Density||1,480/km2 (3,800/sq mi)|
|Time zone||MSK (UTC+03:00)|
|Founded||1585 or much earlier|
|Dialing code(s)||+7 473|
|Voronezh on WikiCommons|
Voronezh (Russian: Воронеж; IPA: [vɐˈronʲɪʂ]) is a city and the administrative center of Voronezh Oblast, Russia, Eastern Europe, located on both sides of the Voronezh River, 12 kilometers (7.5 mi) from where it flows into the Don. It is an operating center of the Southeastern Railway which connects European Russia with the Urals and Siberia, as well as the Caucasus and Ukraine. It is also the center of the M4 highway (Moscow–Voronezh–Rostov-on-Don). Its population in 2014 was estimated to be 1,014,610; up from 889,680 recorded in the 2010 Census.
- 1 History
- 2 Administrative and municipal status
- 3 Economy
- 4 Transportation
- 5 Climate
- 6 Education and culture
- 7 Sports
- 8 Religion
- 9 Notable people
- 10 International relations
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Foundation and name
Voronezh originates as a settlement of the Kievan Rus in about the 12th century, first mentioned in the Hypatian Codex (dated 1177). The Voronezh River is likely named for the settlement, then in the Principality of Chernigov. The toponym is usually derived from a Slavic personal name Voroneg, apparently a derivation from voron "raven", 
Voronezh was presumably still in existence when Chernigov was absorbed into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the 15th century; Voronezh itself was not part of the territory of the Grand Duchy, the middle Don basin, including the Voronezh river, during the 15th century formed part of the marches separating the Grand Duchies of Lithuania and Muscovy from the Golden Horde. In the 16th century, the area was gradually conquered by Muscovy from the Nogai Horde (a successor state of the Golden Horde), and the current city of Voronezh was established in 1585 by Feodor I as a fort protecting the Muravsky Trail trade route against the raids of the Nogai and Crimean Tatars.
17th to 20th centuries
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (May 2014)|
In the 17th century, Voronezh gradually evolved into a sizable town. Weronecz is shown on the Worona river in Resania in Joan Blaeu's map of 1645. Peter the Great built a dockyard in Voronezh where the Azov Flotilla was constructed for the Azov campaigns in 1695 and 1696. This fleet, the first ever built in Russia, included the first Russian ship of the line, Goto Predestinatsia. The Orthodox diocese of Voronezh was instituted in 1682 and its first bishop, Mitrofan of Voronezh, was later proclaimed the town's patron saint.
Owing to the Voronezh Admiralty Wharf, for a short time, Voronezh became the largest city of South Russia and the economic center of a large and fertile region. In 1711, it was made the seat of the Azov Governorate, which eventually morphed into the Voronezh Governorate.
In the 19th century, Voronezh was a center of the Central Black Earth Region. Manufacturing industry (mills, tallow-melting, butter-making, soap, leather, and other works) as well as bread, cattle, suet, and the hair trade developed in the town. A railway connected Voronezh with Rostov-on-Don in 1868 and Moscow in 1871.
During World War II, Voronezh was the scene of fierce fighting between Russian and combined Axis troops. The Germans used it as a staging area for their attack on Stalingrad, and made it a key crossing point on the Don River. In June 1941, two BM-13 (Fighting machine #13 Katyusha) artillery installations were built at the Voronezh excavator factory. In July, the construction of Katyushas was rationalized so that their manufacture became easier and the time of volley repetition was shortened from five minutes to fifteen seconds. More than 300 BM-13 units manufactured in Voronezh were used in a counterattack near Moscow in December 1941. In October 22, 1941, the advance of the German troops prompted the establishment of a defense committee in the city. On November 7, 1941, there was a troop parade, devoted to the anniversary of the October Revolution. Only three such parades were organized that year: in Moscow, Kuybyshev, and Voronezh. In late June 1942, the city was attacked by German and Hungarian forces. In response, Soviet forces formed the Voronezh Front. By July 6, the German army occupied the western river-bank suburbs before being subjected to a fierce Soviet counter-attack. The city was completely under Axis control by July 24. This was the opening move of Case Blue.
Until January 25, 1943, parts of the Second German Army and the Second Hungarian Army occupied Voronezh. During Operation Little Saturn, the Ostrogozhsk–Rossosh Offensive, and the Voronezhsko-Kastornenskoy Offensive, the Voronezh Front exacted heavy casualties on Axis forces. On January 25, 1943, Voronezh was liberated after ten days of combat. During the war the city was almost completely ruined, with 92% of all buildings destroyed.
|Note: 1926–1970 and 2013 are population estimates; 1989 is the Soviet Census; 2002 and 2010 are сensus urban population only; 2013 is total population estimates, including rural population.|
By 1950, Voronezh was rebuilt. Most buildings and historical monuments were repaired. In 1950–1960, new factories were established: a tire factory, a machine-tool factory, a factory of heavy mechanical pressing, and others. In 1968, Serial production of the Tupolev Tu-144 supersonic plane was established at the Voronezh Aviation factory. In October 1977, the first Soviet domestic wide-body plane, Ilyushin Il-86, was built there.
In 1989, TASS published details of an alleged UFO landing in the city's park and purported encounters with extraterrestrial beings reported by a number of children. A Russian scientist that was cited in initial TASS reports later told the Associated Press that he was misquoted, cautioning, "Don't believe all you hear from TASS," and "We never gave them part of what they published", and a TASS correspondent admitted the possibility that some "make-believe" had been added to the TASS story, saying, "I think there is a certain portion of truth, but it is not excluded that there is also fantasizing".
Between 1991 and 2000, the city, suffering from high unemployment rates, became a part of the Communist-voting region known as Russia's "Red Belt".
In 2010, at the seminar "New technologies - the basis of modern communication systems" concern "was presented Constellation system equipment mobile broadband fourth generation« AstraMAX Group and co-production company Runcom Technologies.
From 10 to 17 September 2011, Voronezh celebrated its 425th anniversary. The anniversary of the city was given the status of a federal scale celebration that helped attract large investments from the federal and regional budgets for development.
On December 17, 2012, Voronezh became the fifteenth city in Russia with a population of over one million people.
Today Voronezh is the economic, industrial, cultural, and scientific center of the Central Black Earth Region.
Administrative and municipal status
Voronezh is the administrative center of the oblast. Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is incorporated as Voronezh Urban Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, this administrative unit also has urban okrug status.
On the territory of the city district government Maslovka Voronezh region with the support of the Investment Fund of Russia is implementing a project to create an industrial park" Maslowski "to accommodate more than 100 new businesses, including transformer factory of Siemens. September 7, 2011 in Voronezh opened Global network operation center of Nokia Siemens Networks, which was the fifth in the world and first in Russia.
The city is served by the Voronezh International Airport, which is located north of the city and is home to Polet Airlines. Voronezh is also home to the Pridacha Airport, a part of a major aircraft manufacturing facility VASO (Voronezhskoye Aktsionernoye Samoletostroitelnoye Obshchestvo, Voronezh aircraft production association) where the Tupolev Tu-144 (known in the West as the "Concordski"), was built and the only operational unit is still stored. Voronezh also hosts the Voronezh Malshevo air force base in the southwest of the city, which, according to a Natural Resources Defense Council report, houses nuclear bombers.
Since 1868, there is a railway connection between Voronezh and Moscow. Rail services form a part of the South Eastern Railway of the Russian Railways. Destinations served direct from Voronezh include Moscow, Kiev, Kursk, Novorossiysk, Sochi, and Tambov.
|Climate data for Voronezh|
|Record high °C (°F)||8.0
|Average high °C (°F)||−3.4
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−6.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−8.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−36.5
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||41
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||19
|Avg. precipitation days||9||7||7||8||7||9||10||7||8||7||10||11||100|
|Avg. snowy days||16||15||9||1||0||0||0||0||0||2||8||14||65|
|Avg. relative humidity (%)||84||82||77||66||61||67||68||67||73||79||85||85||74|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||62.0||87.6||124.0||183.0||266.6||285.0||285.2||254.2||186.0||111.6||45.0||37.2||1,927.4|
|Source #1: Pogoda.ru.net, World Meteorological Organization (UN)|
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory (sun only)|
Education and culture
The city has seven theaters, twelve museums, a number of movie theaters, a philharmonic hall, and a circus. It is also a major center of higher education in central Russia. The main educational facilities include:
- Voronezh State University
- Voronezh State Technical University
- Voronezh State University of Architecture and Construction
- Voronezh State Pedagogical University
- Voronezh State Agricultural University
- Voronezh State University of Engineering Technologies
- Voronezh State Medical Academy
- Voronezh State Academy of Arts
- Voronezh State Forestry Engineering Academy
- Voronezh State Institute of Physical Training
- Voronezh Institute of Russia's Home Affairs Ministry
- Voronezh Military Aviation Engineering University
and a number of other affiliate and private-funded institutes and universities. There are 2000 schools within the city.
|Fakel Voronezh||Football||1947||Russian Second Division||3rd||Tsentralnyi Profsoyuz Stadion|
|Energy Voronezh||Football||1989||Women's Premier League||1st||Rudgormash Stadium|
|Buran Voronezh||Ice Hockey||1977||Higher Hockey League||2nd||Yubileyny Sports Palace|
|VC Voronezh||Volleyball||2006||Women's Higher Volleyball League A||2nd||Kristall Sports Complex|
- Nikolay Basov, physicist
- Ivan Bunin, writer
- Pavel Cherenkov, physicist
- Kirill Gerstein, musician
- Alexey Khovansky, editor
- Mikhail Tsvet, botanist
- Konstantin Feoktistov, cosmonaut and engineer
- Poets and writers such as Platonov, Koltsov, Ivan S. Nikitin, Marshak, Peskov, Troepolsky;
- Painters Kramskoi, Ge, Kuprin
- Valerian Albanov, navigator and polar explorer
- Alexander Litvinenko, political dissident
- Grigory Sanakoev, chess player
- Yelena Davydova and Alexander Tkachyov, gymnasts
- Yevgeny Lapinsky, Olympic volleyball player
- Valentina Popova, weightlifter
- Dmitri Sautin, diver
- Volin, anarchist
- Serge Voronoff, surgeon
- Osip Mandelstam, poet
- Vladimir Patkin, Olympic volleyball player
- Andrei Platonov, writer
- Sektor Gaza, punk band
- Mitrofan Pyatnitsky, musician
- Viktoria Komova, Olympic gymnast
|1968||Brno, Czech Republic|
|1989||Wesermarsch, Lower Saxony, Germany|
|1991||Charlotte, North Carolina, United States|
|1996||León, Castile and León, Spain|
- Law #87-OZ
- Law #66-OZ
- Moe-online.ru.  (Russian)
- База данных показателей муниципальных образований.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- "Voronezh Oblast". Federal Statistical Service.
- The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
- Историческая хроника (DOC) (in Russian). Муниципальное учреждение культуры Централизованная библиотечная система города Воронежа Центральная городская библиотека имени А. Платонова. 2009. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- Воронеж может оказаться намного старше (in Russian). Вести. August 19, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- The existence of the 12th-century settlement is assumed in the historical atlas by Karl Spruner von Merz (1855), Die Völker und Reiche der Slaven zwichen Elbe und Don bis 1125, showing Woronesch on the river Woronesch (high-resolution scan at davidrumsey.com).
- Е. М. Поспелов. "Географические названия мира". Москва, 1998. Стр. 104. A collection of historical alternative suggestions was published with the Khovansky Foundation, Лазарев А. "Тайна имени Воронежъ" ("the mystery of the name Voronezh), 2009. There is a history of literary or popular puns on the name, notably, in his "Voronezh Notebooks" (c. 1937), Osip Mandelstam "etymologized" it as voron "raven" plus nozh "knife". ("Words like Voronezh and zemlya have a cumbersome sonority which Mandelstam exploits to the full. [...] The very name Voronezh, in one four line poem, breaks up into a series of inauspicious puns" Russian Literature Triquarterly, 1975, p. 329. The four-line poem reads: Пусти меня, отдай меня, Воронеж: / Уронишь ты меня иль проворонишь, / Ты выронишь меня или вернешь,— / Воронеж — блажь, Воронеж — ворон, нож. "Let me go, Voronezh, give me up. You'll let me fall (uronish) or slip (provoronish), You'll drop (vyronish) me or return (vernesh) me. Voronezh is a whim (blazh), Voronezh is a raven (voron), a knife (nozh).)
- Woroneż (Wronasz) is shown on the Woroneż river in the by Stefan Kuczyński (1936) in a historical map of 15th-century Chernigov, «Ziemie Czernihowsko-Siewierskie pod rządami Litwy».
- Russiæ, vulgo Moscovia, pars australis in Theatrum Orbis Terrarum, sive Atlas Novus in quo Tabulæ et Descriptiones Omnium Regionum, Editæ a Guiljel et Ioanne Blaeu, 1645.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014.
- Dahlberg, John-Thor (October 11, 1989). "Voronzeh Scientist Quoted by TASS Casts Doubt on UFO Landing Story". Associated Press. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- "UFO lands in Russia? Writer now waffles". United Press International. October 10, 1989. Retrieved 21 March 2014.
- Fein, Esther B.; Times, Special To The New York (11 October 1989). "U.F.O. Landing Is Fact, Not Fantasy, the Russians Insist". The New York Times. p. 6.
- Воронеж получил мобильную связь 4G (рус.). Connect.ru. Проверено 8 сентября 2011. Архивировано из первоисточника 24 января 2012.
- Интерактивная карта подготовки к 425-летию основания Воронежа (рус.). Сайт администрации города Воронеж (31.08.11). Проверено 24 января 2011
- В Воронеже родился миллионный житель
- Train Station in Voronezh (Russian)
- "Pogoda.ru.net" (in Russian). Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- "World Weather Information Service – Voronezh". United Nations. June 2011. Retrieved 2014-08-19.
- "Climatological Information for Voronez, Russia". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved December 15, 2012.
- Рациональная маршрутная сеть. "Воронеж: официальный сайт администрации городского округа". Voronezh-city.ru. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
- "City of Brno Foreign Relations - Statutory city of Brno" (in Czech). 2003 City of Brno. Retrieved 6 September 2011.
- "Brno - Partnerská města" (in Czech). © 2006–2009 City of Brno. Retrieved 2009-07-17.
- "Ciudades y pueblos se benefician del hermanamiento con otros territorios". Larazon.es. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №87-ОЗ от 27 октября 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения», в ред. Закона №32-ОЗ от 2 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Воронежской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Воронежской области и порядке его изменения"». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Молодой коммунар", №123, 3 ноября 2006 г. (Voronezh Oblast Duma. Law #87-OZ of October 27, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Voronezh Oblast and on the Procedures of Changing It, as amended by the Law #32-OZ of March 2, 2015 On Amending the Law of Voronezh Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Voronezh Oblast and on the Procedures of Changing It". Effective as of after 10 days from the day of the official publication.).
- Воронежская областная Дума. Закон №66-ОЗ от 31 октября 2005 г. «О наделении муниципального образования город Воронеж статусом городского округа». Вступил в силу по истечении 10 дней со дня официального опубликования (18 ноября 2005 г.). Опубликован: "Коммуна", №171, 8 ноября 2005 г. (Voronezh Oblast Duma. Law #66-OZ of October 31, 2005 On Granting Urban Okrug Status to the Municipal Formation of the City of Voronezh. Effective as of the day which is 10 days after the official publication date (November 18, 2005).).
- Charlotte Hobson's book, Black Earth City, is an account of life in Voronezh at the time of the fall of the Soviet Union based on her experiences after spending a year in Voronezh as a foreign student in 1991–1992.
- Nadezhda Mandelstam's Hope Against Hope, the first volume of her memoirs concerning her husband, the poet Osip Mandelstam, provides many details about life in Voronezh in the 1930s under Stalinist rule.
- Official website of Voronezh
- Official website of Voronezh (Russian)
- Unofficial website of Voronezh (Russian)
- Voronezh State University
- Panoramic views of Voronezh