Воронежская область (Russian)
|— Oblast —|
|Economic region||Central Black Earth|
|Established||June 13, 1934|
|Government (as of March 2011)|
|- Governor||Alexey Gordeyev|
|- Legislature||Oblast Duma|
|Area (as of the 2002 Census)|
|- Total||52,400 km2 (20,200 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 Census)|
|- Density||44.57 /km2 (115.4 /sq mi)|
|Time zone(s)||MSK (UTC+04:00)|
Voronezh Oblast (Russian: Воро́нежская о́бласть, Voronezhskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). It was established on June 13, 1934. Its administrative center is the city of Voronezh. Its population was 2,335,380 as of the 2010 Census.
The territory of the Voronezh Oblast has been inhabited since the Paleolithic period. There are traces of ancient humans (Kostenko). Voronezh land at that time was a periglacial tundra, inhabited by mammoths, woolly rhinos and wild horses. The initial population of the region, which lived 400 thousand years ago had a negroid appearance (Markina Gora), were by the Cro-Magnons.
Mesolithic and Neolithic periods are weakly represented in archaeological finds and represents a "white spot" of history. In the Bronze Age (2nd millennium BC) to the province settled pastoralist tribes of the Abashevo culture.
In the Iron Age, the region became part of Scythia. Scythians Sarmatians changed. It is assumed that they gave the name of the Don River. The descendants of Sarmatian Alans in the early Middle Ages moved to a sedentary lifestyle and mastered the skills of urban culture (Mayatsky mound), joining the complex symbiosis in nomads (Bulgars, Khazars).
In the 9th century on the territory of the region came under Slavic rule (Romenskaya - Borschevskaya culture). According to some reports, they create an independent state guys on the outskirts of the Khazaria. The raids of nomads (Pechenegs) prevented the occupation of the Voronezh region, so the area was called Wild Field . From the era of the Golden Horde were traces of Mousqes and mausoleums. After the collapse of the Golden Horde in the territory of the Voronezh region laid Nogai Way by which the Nogai Horde khans Prikubansk raided the Russian land. In large raids involving thousands of horsemen, armed with swords and bows and arrows . The main objective of the raids was the capture of prisoners that through Azov sold into slavery in the markets of the Ottoman Empire .  At the same time, the Christian population of the region, assimilated some elements of the culture of the nomads and the gene pool is made up Cossacks ( Don Cossacks, Pristansky.
The overthrow of the Tatar yoke and the formation of a centralized Russian state in the late 15th century led to the revival of Voronezh Territory. Voronezh was officially made part of the Russian state in the 16th century. Small, fortified towns began to spring up on the southern borders of the Russian state in the second half of the 16th century to defend it from Tatar raids. Voronezh was established in 1585 for this purpose.
During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: The first secretary of the Voronezh CPSU Committee (who in reality had the biggest authority), the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power), and the Chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). Since 1991, CPSU lost all the power, and the head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor was appointed/elected alongside elected regional parliament.
The Charter of Voronezh Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Voronezh Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.
Voronezh Oblast has large reserves of chalk. The oblast is an industrial and agricultural region. Excavators, bridge structures, and electronic equipment are produced in regional industry. Agriculture in the Oblast is oriented towards grain growing and livestock breeding. Grain crops, sugar beets, sunflowers, tobacco, hemp, potatoes, and vegetables are grown in the Oblast. Livestock include beef and dairy cattle, pigs, sheep, poultry, horses, and goats. Horticulture and beekeeping are also well developed.
- Births (2012): 25 374 (Birth rate: 10.9)
- Deaths (2012): 36 174 (Death rate: 15.6)
- Total fertility rate:
2009 - 1.37 | 2010 - 1.36 | 2011 - 1.36 | 2012 - 1.45 | 2013 - 1.44(e)
Ethnic composition (2010):
- Russians - 95.5%
- Ukrainians - 1.9%
- Armenians - 0.5%
- Romani people - 0.2%
- Others - 1.9%
- 110,749 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.
According to a 2012 official survey 62% of the population of Voronezh Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, and 3% are unaffiliated generic Christians. In addition, 22% of the population deems itself to be "spiritual but not religious", 6% is atheist, and 7% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.
- Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
- Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
- Official website of Voronezh Oblast. Alexey Vasilyevich Gordeyev, Governor of Voronezh Oblast (Russian)
- Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)". Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved 2011-11-01.
- "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. Retrieved June 29, 2012.
- The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
- Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
- Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
- "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров." [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989) (in Russian). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. Retrieved February 9, 2012.
- Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
- 2012 Survey Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 24-09-2012.