The club draws its history from 1955 when in the city of Poltava was established a football club Kolhospnyk within the republican trade union sports societyKolos. In 1957 the club obtained its professional status and was included in the competitions of the Soviet third division (then "Class B"). However in 1982 the club went into bankruptcy and was dissolved. For a short period of time from 1968–72 Kolos was also carrying names Silbud and Budivelnyk. In 1984 the club was reanimated as Vorskla after the river Vorskla, which flows through Poltava. In 1986 Vorskla entered the Soviet professional ranks of the third division where it participated to the collapse of the Soviet system.
As a Domestic Cup winner Vorskla participated in the annual opening game of the season Ukrainian Super Cup meeting the champions Dynamo Kyiv. After a 0-0 draw at full-time Vorskla lost the cup to Dynamo on penalties.
Its home games the main team plays at Butovsky Memorial Vorskla Stadium which is named after one of the founders of the modern Olympic games and the International Olympic Committee in 1894. Oleksiy Dmytrovych also was a lieutenant-general of the Russian Army and a teacher. He wrote several books on the physical training in various conditions.
The biggest success of Vorskla in the European competitions was their qualification to the 2011-12 UEFA Europa League group phase.
In 2014, the club's president Oleh Babayev was shot dead, while police has opened a criminal cases under Article premeditated murder".