Voseo

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Not to be confused with vosotros, the second person plural familiar form for Spanish conjugations.

Voseo (Spanish pronunciation: [boˈse.o]) is the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun, including its conjugational verb forms in many dialects of Spanish. In dialects that have it, it is used either instead of , or alongside it. Use of "tú" is known as "tuteo".

Vos is used extensively as the primary form of the second person singular in Rioplatense Spanish (Argentina, Uruguay, eastern Bolivia) and Paraguayan Spanish.

The Central American Spanish (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, southern parts of Chiapas in Mexico) also exhibits an extensive use of vos, though in Northern Central America the media use more frequently. In Nicaragua and Costa Rica, is never used.[citation needed]

Vos had not been traditionally used in formal writing except in Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay. This gradually changed in Central America, where even the most prestigious media networks and press began to use the pronoun vos, reflecting the informal address in Spanish as opposed to the formal address of usted. Nowadays it is very common to see billboards and other advertising media using voseo. In the dialect of Argentina, Paraguay and Uruguay (known as Rioplatense Spanish), vos is also the standard form for use in television media.

Vos is present in other countries as a regionalism, for instance in the Maracucho Spanish of Zulia State, Venezuela (see Venezuelan Spanish), in the Azuero peninsula of Panama, in various departments in Colombia, and in parts of Ecuador (Sierra down to Esmeraldas). In Peru, voseo is present in some Andean regions and Cajamarca, but the younger generations have ceased to use it. It is also present in Ladino (spoken by Sephardic Jews throughout Israel, Turkey, the Balkans, Morocco, Latin America and the United States), where it replaces usted. In the United States, Salvadoran Americans are by far the largest Voseo speakers followed by other Central Americans, Hondurans, Nicaraguans, and Costa Ricans.[citation needed]

Voseo can also be found in the context of using verb conjugation for vos with as the subject pronoun (verbal voseo),[1] as in the case of Chilean Spanish, where this form coexists with the ordinary form of voseo.

History[edit]

Originally a second-person plural, Vos came to be used as a more polite second-person singular pronoun to be used among one's familiar friends. The following extract from a late 18th-century textbook is illustrative of usage at the time:

We seldom make use in Spanish of the second Person Singular or Plural, but when through a great familiarity among friends, or speaking to God, or a wife and husband to themselves, or a father and mother to their children, or to servants.

Examples.

O Dios, sois vos mi Padre verdadéro, O God, thou art my true Father; Tu eres un buen amígo, Thou art a good friend.
—Raymundo del Pueyo, A New Spanish Grammar, or the Elements of the Spanish Language[2]

The standard formal way to address a person one was not on familiar terms with was to address such a person as vuestra merced ("your grace" originally abbreviated as v.m.) in the singular and vuestras mercedes in the plural. Because of the literal meaning of these forms, they were accompanied by a third-person verb form. Other formal forms of address included vuestra excelencia ("your excellence" abbreviated as ussencia) and vuestra señoria ("your lordship/ladyship" abbreviated as ussia). Today, both vos and are considered to be informal pronouns, with vos being somewhat synonymous with in regions where both are used. This was the situation when Castilian was brought to the Río de la Plata area (around Buenos Aires and Montevideo) and to Chile.

In time, vos lost currency in Spain but survived in Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia (east), Uruguay, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and many other countries and regions in Latin America, while Vuestra merced evolved into usted (vuestra merced > usarced > usted; in fact, "usted" is still abbreviated as either Vd or Ud). Note that the term vosotros is a combined form of vos otros (meaning literally "ye/you others"), while the term nosotros comes from nos otros ("we/us others"); otros was added to avoid confusion.[citation needed]

In the first half of the 19th century Chile the use of vos was equally strong in Chile as in Argentina.[3] The current limitation of the use of vos in Chile is attributed to a campaign to eradicate it by the Chilean education system.[3] The campaign was initiated by Andrés Bello who considered the use of vos a manifestation of lack of education.[3]

Usage[edit]

Vos as a replacement for other forms of [edit]

The voseo pronoun is commonly used in Central America's Nicaragua. The signage reads: Nicaragua communicates with you, with vos replacing contigo, the reflexive form of the pronoun.

The independent disjunctive pronoun ti is also replaced by vos. That is, vos is both nominative and the form to use after prepositions. Therefore para ti "for you" becomes para vos, etc.

The preposition-pronoun compound contigo "with you" becomes con vos.
The direct and indirect object form te remains the same, unlike in the case of vosotros, where it becomes os.

Nominative Oblique Reflexive
subject direct object indirect object prepositional object fused with con direct/indirect object prepositional object fused with con
vos te te vos con vos te vos con vos
usted lo / la le usted con usted se consigo
te te ti contigo te ti contigo
vosotros os os vosotros con vosotros os vosotros con vosotros

The possessive pronouns of vos also coincide with <tu(s), tuyo(s), tuya(s)> rather than with vosotros <vuestro(s), vuestra(s)>.

Conjugation with vos[edit]

All modern voseo declensions derive from Old Spanish second person plural -ades, -edes, -ides, and -odes (as in sodes, 'you are').[4] The 14th and 15th centuries saw an evolution of these declensions, with -ades originally giving -áis, -edes giving -és (or -ís),[4][5] -ides giving -ís,[6] and -odes giving -óis.[4] Soon analogous forms -ás and -éis appeared.[4] Hence the variety of forms the contemporary American voseo adopts, some varieties featuring a generalized monophthong (most of them), some a generalized diphthong (e.g. Venezuela), and some combining monophthongs and diphthongs, depending on the declension (e.g. Chile). In the most general, monophthongized, conjugation paradigm, a difference between voseo forms and respective tuteo forms is visible exclusively in the Present Indicative, Imperative and Subjunctive, and, most of the time, in the Preterite.[5] Below is a comparison table of the conjugation of several verbs for and for vos, and next to them the one for vosotros, the informal second person plural currently used only in Spain. The accented forms (vos and vosotros) and the infinitives are stressed on the last syllable; the forms are stressed on the penultimate one. Note the absence of diphthongization in the roots of poder and venir.

Verb
2. Sg.
Vos
General
Tú / Vos
Chile1
Vos
Southeastern Cuba and
Northeastern Colombia1 ,2
Vos
Venezuela3
Panama4
Vosotros
2. Pl.
in Spain
Vos
Ladino
Ustedes
2. Pl.
in America
Meaning
ser eres sos erí(s) / soi soi(s) sois sosh son you are
hablar hablas hablás hablái(s) habláis favlásh hablan you speak
recordar recuerdas recordás recordái(s) recordáis rekordásh recuerdan you remember
comer comes comés comí(s) coméi(s) coméis komésh comen you eat
poder puedes podés podí(s) podéi(s) podéis podésh pueden you can / may
vivir vives vivís viví(s) vivís bivísh viven you live
venir vienes venís vení(s) venís benísh vienen you come
1 Because of the general aspiration of the letter s, it is usually not pronounced, except by highly educated people.
2 In Colombia, the rest of the country that uses vos follows the General Conjugation.
3 In the state of Zulia
4 in Azuero

General conjugation is the one that is most widely accepted and used in various countries such as Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, parts of Bolivia, Ecuador, and Colombia, as well as Central American countries.

Some Uruguayan speakers combine the pronoun with the vos conjugation (for example, tú sabés). Conversely, speakers in some other places where both and vos are used combine vos with the conjugation (for example, vos sabes). This is a frequent occurrence in the Argentine province of Santiago del Estero.

The verb forms employed with vos are also different in Chilean Spanish:
Chileans with voseo delete the final -s from the final diphthong -áis (and -ois): (vos/tú soi/erís; vos/tú estái).
In the case of the ending -ís (such as in comís, podís, vivís, erís, venís), the final -s is not totally dropped. Rather, in most cases, especially before a consonant, an aspiration similar to the h sound in English is still audible.

Both Chilean Spanish and Venezuelan Maracucho Spanish are notable in that they preserve the diphthongized plural verb forms in all tenses, as still used with vosotros in Spain. The same happens in the Azuero peninsula of Panama.

In Ladino, the -áis, -éis, -ís, & -ois endings are pronounced /aʃ/, /eʃ/, /iʃ/, & /oʃ/.

In Chile, it is much more usual to use + vos verb conjugation ( sabís). The use of pronominal vos (vos sabís) is reserved for very informal situations and may even be considered vulgar in some cases.

Present Indicative[edit]

1. General conjugation

The final -r of the infinitive is replaced by -s, and an acute accent is added to the final vowel (i.e. the one preceding the final -s) to keep the stress.

2. Chilean

  • the -ar ending of the infinitive is replaced by -ái
  • both -er and -ir are replaced by -ís, which sounds more like -íh.

3. Venezuelan (Zulian)

Practically the same ending as modern Spanish vosotros, yet with the final -S being aspirated so that
-áis, -éis, -ís sound like -áih, -éih, -íh (phonetically resembling Chilean).
VOSEO
Infinitive Present Indicative
General Venezuelan1 Chilean
oir oís
venir venís
decir decís
dormir dormís
sentir sentís
escribir escribís
concluir concluís
poder podés podéis podís
querer querés queréis querís
mover movés movéis movís
saber sabés sabéis sabís
pensar pensás pensáis pensái
contar contás contáis contái
jugar jugás jugáis jugái
errar errás erráis errái
ser sos sois soi / erís
ir vas vais vai
haber has   hai
1 in Zulia; identical ending to modern vosotros

Unlike , which has many irregular forms, the only voseo verbs that are conjugated irregularly in the indicative present are ser, ir and haber. However, haber is seldom used in the indicative present, since there's a strong tendency to use preterite instead of present perfect.

Affirmative imperative[edit]

Vos also differs in its affirmative imperative conjugation from both and vosotros. Specifically, the vos imperative is formed by dropping the final -r from the infinitive, but keeping the stress on the last syllable.[4] The only verb that is irregular in this regard is ir; its vos imperative is not used, with andá *(the vos imperative of andar) being generally used instead.

Verb Meaning Vos Vosotros
ser "to be" sed
estar "to be" está / estate está / estate estad
ir "to go" ve id / ite *(andá / andate) id
hablar "to speak" habla hablá hablad
callar "to become silent" calla callá callad
soltar "to release/let go" suelta soltá soltad
comer "to eat" come comé comed
mover "to move" mueve mové moved
venir "to come" ven vení venid
poner "to put" pon poné poned
salir "to leave" sal salí salid
tener "to have" ten tené tened
decir "to say" di decí decid
pedir "to ask/order" pide pedí pedid

Again, the conjugation has far more irregularities, whereas vos has only one irregular verb in the affirmative imperative.

In Chile, the general vos conjugation is not used in the affirmative imperative.

Subjunctive[edit]

Everywhere voseo is used, it is applied in the subjunctive, with the exception of Río de la Plata region, where the -conjugation is more common. For example, in Central America it is no mintás and in Chile is no mintái; however in Río de la Plata it is no mientas, just like in Spain or México. Real Academia Española models its voseo conjugation tables with Río de la Plata usage and therefore omits the subjunctive voseo.[7] In this region, the vos-form in the subjunctive has not completely disappeared. It is still used to show emphasis or emotion.

Central America1
Bolivia
Río de la Plata region Chile Venezuela (Zulia)
Panama (Azuero)
meaning
No quiero que mintás. No quiero que mientas. No quiero que mintái. No quiero que mintáis. I don't want you to lie.
No temás. No temas. No temái No temáis. Do not fear.
Que durmás bien Que duermas bien. Que durmái bien Que durmáis bien. Sleep well.
No te preocupés. No te preocupes. No te preocupís. No te preocupéis. Don't worry.
1including areas in Colombia with voseo, e.g. the Paisa Region.

Verbal voseo and pronominal voseo[edit]

  • Verbal voseo refers to the use of the verb conjugation of vos regardless of which pronoun is used.
Verbal voseo with a pronoun other than vos is widespread in Chile, in which case one would use the pronoun and the verb conjugation of vos at the same time. E.g.: "tú venís", "tú escribís", "tú podís", "tú sabís", "tú vai", "tú estái".
There are cases of a similar sort of verbal voseo in Uruguay where one would say for example "tú podés", "tú sabés", "tú hablás".
  • Pronominal voseo is the use of the pronoun vos regardless of verb conjugation.

Geographical distribution[edit]

Distribution of voseo:
  spoken + written
  primarily spoken
  spoken, alternating with tuteo
  absent

Countries where voseo is predominant[edit]

Voseo used on a billboard in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The sign reads, "Do you want to change? Come to Claro."
Voseo on a Billboard in El Salvador "Order your cold one here!"

In South America

  1. Argentina (both pronominal and verbal voseo, the pronoun is virtually unused)
  2. Paraguay (both pronominal and verbal voseo, the pronoun is virtually unused)
  3. Uruguay (both pronoun+verb and pronoun "tú" + verb conjugated in the "vos" form)

In Central America

  1. Costa Rica (the "voseo" is primarily used with friends and family in advertising signage but only in a few parts for spoken usage. "Usted" is the primary form in Alajuela and with strangers. The "tuteo" is seldom used, but when it is used it is commonly considered to be obnoxious and snobbish, despite the fact that is not actually used by the high classes either.)
  2. Nicaragua (both pronominal and verbal voseo, the pronoun is seldom used)

Countries where it is extensive, but not predominant[edit]

In South America

  • Bolivia : in the Lowlands of Eastern Bolivia –with mestizo, Criollo and German descendants majority– (Santa Cruz, Beni, Pando, Tarija and the Lowlands of La Paz) the voseo is used universally; while in the Highlands of Western Bolivia –with indigenous peoples majority– (Highlands of La Paz, Oruro, Potosí, Chuquisaca and Cochabamba) is predominant but there still a strong use of the voseo, specially in verb forms.
  • Chile : verbal voseo is spreading north- and southwards from the center, whereas the pronominal voseo is reserved only for very intimate situations or to offend someone. In addition, voseo in Chile is only used in informal situations; in every other situation, the normal or vos pronouns are used.

In Central America

  • Honduras : a three-tiered system is used, that indicates the degree of respect or trust: usted, , vos. Usted expresses distance and respect; corresponds to an intermediate level, expressing familiarity, but not deep trust; vos remains the pronoun of maximum familiarity and solidarity, and also lack of respect.[8]
  • Guatemala : verbal voseo is widespread in the country. It is commonly used throughout the society.
  • El Salvador : a three-tiered system is used, that indicates the degree of respect or trust: usted, , vos. Usted expresses distance and respect; corresponds to an intermediate level, expressing familiarity, but not deep trust; vos remains the pronoun of maximum familiarity and solidarity, and also lack of respect.[8][9][10]

Countries where 'voseo' occurs in some areas[edit]

In the following countries, voseo is used in certain areas:

Countries where vos is virtually absent from usage[edit]

In the following countries, the use of vos has disappeared completely or survives only very marginally in daily speech or not used at all.

*The use of the pronoun is vanishing and is now only heard of on the Eastern side of the country.

Attitudes[edit]

In some countries, the pronoun vos is used with family and friends (T-form), like in other varieties of Spanish, and contrasts with the respectful usted (V-form) which is used with strangers, elderly and people of higher socioeconomic status; appropriate usage varies by dialect. In Central America, vos can be used among those considered equals, while usted maintains its respectful usage. In Ladino, the pronoun usted is completely absent, so the use of vos with strangers and elders is the standard.

Voseo was long considered a reprehensible practice by prescriptivist grammarians (with the idea that only Castilian Spanish was good Spanish), but it is now regarded simply as a local variant.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Miranda, Stewart (1999). The Spanish Language Today. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 0-415-14258-X. 
  2. ^ Raymundo Del Pueyo A New Spanish Grammar, or the Elements of the Spanish Language (London: F. Wingrave, 1792) 159; The book is online at Google Books at: http://books.google.com/books?id=NekRAAAAIAAJ&printsec=toc&source=gbs_summary_r&cad=0#PPP9,M1
  3. ^ a b c Luizete Guimarães Barros. 1990. Lengua y nación en la Gramática de Bello. Anuario brasileño de estudios hispánicos.
  4. ^ a b c d e (Spanish) Lapesa Melgar, Rafael. 1970. "Las formas verbales de segunda persona y los orígenes del voseo", in: Carlos H. Magis (ed.), Actas del III Congreso de la Asociación Internacional de Hispanistas (México, D.F., 26-31 Aug 1968). México: Colegio de México, 519-531.
  5. ^ a b (Spanish) García de Diego, Vicente. [1951] 1981. Gramática histórica española. (3rd edition; 1st edition 1951, 2nd edition 1961, 3rd edition 1970, 1st reprint 1981.) Madrid: Gredos, 227-229.
  6. ^ -ides did not produce -íes because -iés and íes were already in use as Imperfect forms, cf. García de Diego ([1951] 1981: 228) and Lapesa (1970: 526).
  7. ^ See for example in Real Academia Española Dictionary, mentir or preocupar, where mentís and preocupás are present, but mintás and preocupés are missing.
  8. ^ a b Susana V. Rivera-Mills. Use of Voseo and Latino Identity: An Intergenerational Study of Hondurans and Salvadorans in the Western Region of the U.S.. Oregon State University. 
  9. ^ Martha D. Ortiz. "El voseo en El Salvador". Scholarworks.sjsu.edu. 
  10. ^ John M. Lipski. El español que se habla en El Salvador y su importancia para la dialectología hispanoamericana (in Spanish). The Pennsylvania State University. 

Sources[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Acevedo-Halvick, Ana. "Cortesía verbal (introducción)" Voces 1 (2006): 21–72.
  • Almasov, Alexey. "'Vos' and 'Vosotros' as Formal Address in Modern Spanish." Hispania: A Journal Devoted to the Teaching of Spanish and Portuguese 57.2 (1974): 304–310.
  • Alvar, Manuel. Manual de Dialectologia Hispanica: El Español de America. Barcelona : Editorial Ariel, 1996.
  • Arrizabalaga, Carlos. "Noticias de la desaparicion del voseo en la costa norte del Peru." Linguistica Española Actual 23.2 (2001): 257–274.
  • Baumel-Schreffler, Sandra. "The Voseo: Second Person Singular Pronouns in Guatemalan Speech." The Language Quarterly 33.1–2 (1995): 33–44.
  • Benavides, Carlos. "La distribucion del voseo en Hispanoamerica." Hispania: A Journal Devoted to the Teaching of Spanish and Portuguese 86.3 (2003): 612–623.
  • Blanco Botta, Ivonne. "El voseo en Cuba: Estudio sociolinguistico de una zona de la isla." Beitrage zur Romanischen Philologie 21.2 (1982): 291–304.
  • Chart, Ira E. "The voseo and tuteo in America." Modern Language Forum 28.(1944): 17–24.
  • Fontanella de Weinberg, Maria Beatriz. "La constitucion del paradigma pronominal de voseo." Thesaurus: Boletin del Instituto Caro y Cuervo 32.(1977): 227–241.
  • King, Jeremy. "Societal Change and Language History in Cervantes' Entremeses: The Status of the Golden Age Vos." Cervantes: Bulletin of the Cervantes Society of America 29.1 (2009): 167–195.
  • Lapesa, Rafael. "Las formas verbales de segunda persona y los origenes del 'voseo'." Actas del Tercer Congreso Internacional de Hispanistas. 519–531. Mexico: El Colegio de Mexico por la Asociacion Internacional de Hispanistas, 1970.
  • Lapesa, Rafael. Historia de la lengua española. Madrid : Gredos, 1981.
  • Leon-Luporsi, Ana Emilia. Dinamica sociolinguistica e historica de 'vos' en el español peninsular. Diss. The University of Texas at Austin, 1994.
  • Lipski, John. Latin American Spanish. New York : Longman, 1994.
  • Ortiz, Martha D. "Voseo" in El Salvador. Diss. San Jose State University, 2000
  • Pierris, Marta de. "El preludio del voseo en el español medieval." Romance Philology 31.(1977): 235–243.
  • Pinkerton, Anne. "Observations on the Tú/Vos Option in Guatemalan Ladino Spanish." Hispania: A Journal Devoted to the Teaching of Spanish and Portuguese 69.3 (1986): 690–698.
  • Primorac, Karen Johnson. "Tu, vos, and vuestra merced: Social and Stylistic Variation in Medieval Spanish." Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 57.11 (1997): 4720–4721.
  • Quilis, Antonio, and Matilde Graell Stanziola. "El voseo en Panama." Revista de Filologia Española 69.1–2 (1989): 173–178.
  • Rey, Alberto. "Social Correlates of the Voseo of Managua, Nicaragua: Workplace, Street, and Party Domains." Hispanic Journal 18.1 (1997): 109–126.
  • Rey, Alberto. "Social Correlates of the Voseo of Managua, Nicaragua: Workplace, Street, and Party Domains." Hispanic Journal 17.1 (1996): 113–127.
  • Rey, Alberto. "Social Correlates of the Voseo of Managua: Family and Neighborhood Domains." Hispanic Journal 16.1 (1995): 39–53.
  • Stevenson, Jeffrey Lee. "The Sociolinguistic Variables of Chilean Voseo." Dissertation Abstracts International, Section A: The Humanities and Social Sciences 68.5 (2007): 1914–1915.
  • Toursinov, Antón. "Stylistic variability of pronoun addresses in modern Spanish of Guatemala." Language and Literature 17(3). Tyumen State University (2002): 68–78
  • Villegas, Francisco. "The Voseo in Costa Rican Spanish." Hispania: A Journal Devoted to the Teaching of Spanish and Portuguese 46.3 (1963): 612–615.
  • Weeks, Patricia C.. El voseo en Chile: Factores historico-morfologicos que explican su aparicion y mantenimiento. Diss. State University of New York at Albany, 2005.