Voskhod 1

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Voskhod 1
Operator OKB-1
COSPAR ID 1964-065A
SATCAT № 904
Mission duration 1 day, 17 minutes, 3 seconds
Orbits completed 16
Spacecraft properties
Spacecraft Voskhod-3KV No.3
Manufacturer OKB-1
Launch mass 5,320 kilograms (11,730 lb)
Crew
Crew size 3
Members Vladimir Komarov
Konstantin Feoktistov
Boris Yegorov
Callsign Рубин (Rubin - "Ruby")
Start of mission
Launch date 12 October 1964, 07:30:01 (1964-10-12UTC07:30:01Z) UTC
Rocket Voskhod 11A57
Launch site Baikonur 1/5[1]
End of mission
Landing date 13 October 1964, 07:47:04 (1964-10-13UTC07:47:05Z) UTC
Landing site 52°2′N 68°8′E / 52.033°N 68.133°E / 52.033; 68.133
Orbital parameters
Reference system Geocentric
Regime Low Earth
Perigee 178 kilometres (111 mi)
Apogee 336 kilometres (209 mi)
Inclination 64.7 degrees
Period 89.6 minutes

Voskhod-1 mission patch.svg Voskhod-1-Cosmonauts.jpg
Voskhod 1 crew after landing


Voskhod programme
Manned flights
Voskhod 2

Voskhod 1 (Russian: Восход-1, Восход is Russian for Sunrise) was the seventh manned Soviet space flight. It achieved a number of "firsts" in the history of manned spaceflight, being the first space flight to carry more than one crewman into orbit, the first flight without the use of spacesuits, and the first to carry either an engineer or a physician into outer space. It also set a manned spacecraft altitude record of 336 km (209 mi).

The three spacesuits for the Voskhod 1 cosmonauts were omitted; there was neither the room nor the payload capacity for the Voskhod to carry them. The original Voskhod had been designed to carry two cosmonauts, but Soviet politicians pushed the Soviet space program into squeezing three cosmonauts into Voskhod 1. The only other space flight in the short Voskhod program, Voskhod 2, carried two suited cosmonauts — of necessity, because it was the flight on which Alexei Leonov made the world's first walk in space.

As part of its payload Voskhod 1 carried a ribbon off a Communard banner from the Paris Commune of 1871 into orbit.[2]

Cosmonauts[edit]

Position Cosmonaut
Command Pilot Vladimir Komarov
First spaceflight
Engineer Konstantin Feoktistov
First spaceflight
Medical Doctor Boris Yegorov
First spaceflight

Back-up crew[edit]

Position Cosmonaut
Command Pilot Boris Volynov
Engineer Georgi Katys
Medical Doctor Aleksei Sorokin

Reserve Cosmonaut[edit]

Position Cosmonaut
Medical Doctor Vasili Lazarev

Mission parameters[edit]

Background[edit]

Postal stamp commemorating Voskhod 1 mission

The original prime crew of cosmonauts for Voskhod 1, composed of Boris Volynov, Georgi Katys, and Boris Yegorov, was rejected just three days before the scheduled launch date for the space capsule.

Politics played a role in the crew's selection. Various factions each supported their own representatives for the flight. Korolyov wanted his engineers to become cosmonauts, believing that spacecraft designers should fly in their own vehicles. The Soviet Air Force agreed to a crew composed of a military pilot, an engineer or scientist, and a doctor, but advocated for an all-military crew. Konstantin Feoktistov, who had been a design engineer for the Vostok, Voskhod, and Soyuz programs, was selected for this flight, becoming the only Soviet outer space designer to make a spaceflight. Yegorov, a medical doctor, used his political influence to get selected for the crew through his father's Politburo connections. The Soviet space program viewed its crews as passengers more than pilots; the new cosmonauts received only three to four months of training, perhaps the briefest in space history other than that received by the American politicians Jake Garn and Bill Nelson for Space Shuttle flights in the 1980s.[3]:413–414,416

Mission highlights[edit]

Voskhod 1 and 2 space capsules

The Voskhod spacecraft were basically Vostok spacecraft with a backup, solid-fuel retro-rocket added onto the top of the descent module. The ejection seat was removed and three crew couches were added to the interior at a 90-degree angle to that of the Vostok cosmonaut's position. Because of the cramped conditions, the cosmonauts also had to go on a diet to fit in their couches. A solid-fuel braking rocket was also added to the space capsule's parachute lines to provide for a softer landing at touchdown. This was necessary because, unlike the Vostok space capsule, no ejection seats were fitted in the Voskhod; the cosmonauts had to land inside the Voskhod descent module. As there was no launch escape system, the mission could not be aborted until three minutes after liftoff when the payload shroud was jettisoned and so a low-altitude booster accident would have meant the loss of the crew.

Liftoff took place at 7:30 on the morning of 12 October and for the first few minutes of the launch, the blockhouse was extremely tense knowing that the cosmonauts were doomed if any problem with the booster developed. Much of the mission of Voskhod 1 was devoted to biomedical research, and to the study of how a multi-disciplinary team could work together in space. The mission was short, at only slightly over 24 hours. Incidentally, the Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev was removed from power during the spaceflight, and it has been speculated that this led to the mission being cut short.[4] However, the cramped conditions of the Voskhod space capsule has also been suggested as a factor ruling out a longer-duration spaceflight.

During the flight, Khrushchev spoke with the cosmonauts via radio phone from his dacha in the Crimea. Shortly after this conversation, he was summoned back to Moscow where he learned that he was being expelled from office and the Communist Party. When the crew returned to Earth the next day, they were greeted by Leonid Brezhnev and Alexei Kosygin in their first public appearance as leaders of the Soviet Union.

Despite the propaganda boasting around Voskhod 1, it was privately referred to by the leadership of the Soviet space program as "a circus" due to the messy process of crew selection, the cosmonauts needing to diet to fit inside their spacecraft, Khrushchev's expulsion during the flight, and also the extremely dangerous circumstances of it (the crew having neither pressure suits nor any way to escape from a malfunctioning launch vehicle).

Happening as it did before the beginning of the Project Gemini two-man flights, Voskhod 1 had a significant, but temporary, international impact. The NASA Administrator, James E. Webb, called the flight of Voskhod 1 a "significant space accomplishment" adding that it was "a clear indication that the Russians are continuing a large space program for the achievement of national power and prestige."[5]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Baikonur LC1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2009-03-30. 
  2. ^ Horne, Alistair (1965). The Fall of Paris. Macmillan. p. 433. 
  3. ^ Siddiqi, Asif A. Challenge To Apollo: The Soviet Union and the Space Race, 1945-1974. NASA. 
  4. ^ An example appears in the Times obituary of Feoktistov: [1]
  5. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica, Voskhod 1

References[edit]

  • "Voskhod 1". Encyclopedia Astronautica. Retrieved 2008-08-10.