Vostok (rocket family)

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Vostok
Semyorka Rocket R7 by Sergei Korolyov in VDNH Ostankino RAF0540.jpg
Vostok 8K72K rocket on display in Moscow at the All Russia Exhibition Centre
Function Carrier rocket
Manufacturer RKK Energia
Country of origin USSR
Size
Stages 2
Capacity
Payload to
LEO
4,725 kilograms (10,417 lb)
Associated rockets
Family R-7
Comparable Atlas
Titan
Launch history
Status Retired
Launch sites Baikonur: LC-1/5, 31/6
Plesetsk: LC-41/1, 43/3, 43/4
Total launches Vostok-L: 4
Vostok-K: 13
Vostok-2: 45
Vostok-2M: 94
Soyuz/Vostok: 2
Successes Vostok-L: 3
Vostok-K: 11
Vostok-2: 40
Vostok-2M: 92
Soyuz/Vostok: 2
Failures Vostok-L: 1
Vostok-K: 2
Vostok-2: 5
Vostok-2M: 2
First flight 15 May 1960 (Vostok-L)
Last flight 29 August 1991 (Vostok-2M)
Notable payloads Vostok
Zenit
Meteor
Boosters (Vostok-K)
No boosters 4
Engines 1 RD-107-8D74-1959
Thrust 970.86 kN
Total thrust 3,883.4 kN
Burn time 118 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
First Stage (Vostok-K)
Engines 1 RD-108-8D75-1959
Thrust 912 kN
Burn time 301 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX
Second Stage (Vostok-K)
Engines 1 RD-0109
Thrust 54.5 kN
Burn time 365 seconds
Fuel RP-1/LOX

Vostok (Russian Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme. This family of rockets launched the first artificial satellite ("sputnik") and the first manned spacecraft in human history. It was a subset of the R-7 family of rockets.

On March 18, 1980 a Vostok-2M rocket exploded on its launch pad at Plesetsk during a fueling operation, killing 48 people. An investigation into a similar – but avoided – accident revealed that the substitution of lead-based for tin-based solder in hydrogen peroxide filters allowed the breakdown of the H2O2, thus causing the resultant explosion.

Variants[edit]

The major versions of the rocket were:

Vostok 8K72K[edit]

  • Stage Number: 1 - Strap-on Boosters; 4 x Vostok 8K72K-0
    • Gross Mass: 43,300 kg
    • Empty Mass: 3,710 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 4 x 99,000 kgf (971 kN) = 3.88 MN
    • Isp: 313 seconds (3.07 km/s)
    • Burn time: 118 s
    • Isp(sl): 256 seconds (2.51 km/s)
    • Diameter: 2.68 m
    • Span: 8.35 m
    • Length: 19.00 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engines: 1 x RD-107-8D74-1959 per booster = 4
  • Stage Number: 2 - Core stage; 1 x Vostok 8K72K-1
    • Gross Mass: 100,400 kg
    • Empty Mass: 6,800 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 912 kN
    • Isp: 315 seconds (3.09 km/s)
    • Burn time: 301 s
    • Isp(sl): 248 seconds (2.43 km/s)
    • Diameter: 2.99 m
    • Length: 28.00 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engine: 1 x RD-108-8D75-1959
  • Stage Number: 3 - Final stage; 1 x Vostok 8K72K-2
    • Gross Mass: 7,775 kg
    • Empty Mass: 1,440 kg
    • Thrust (vac): 54.5 kN
    • Isp: 326 seconds (3.20 km/s)
    • Burn time: 365 s
    • Diameter: 2.56 m
    • Span: 2.56 m
    • Length: 2.84 m
    • Propellants: Lox/Kerosene
    • Engine: 1 x RD-0109

Gallery[edit]

See also[edit]