Voting age

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A voting age is a minimum age established by law that a person must attain to be eligible to vote in a public election. Typically, the age is set at 18 years; however, ages as low as 16 and as high as 21[citation needed] exist.

Overview[edit]

The vast majority of countries in the world have established a voting age. Most governments consider that those younger than the chosen threshold lack the capacity to decide how to cast a vote. The voting age is often of such importance that it is set by means of a constitutional provision.

In May 2009, Danish Member of Parliament Mogens Jensen presented an initiative to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg to lower the voting age in Europe to 16.[1] There has also been discussion of giving votes to children from birth, initially with the votes being cast by parents, who are presumed to better understand a child's interests (Demeny voting).

When the right to vote was first accorded in democracies the voting age was generally set at 21, or in some cases even older. In the 1970s the voting age was reduced to 18 in many countries. Debate is currently under way in many places on proposals to reduce the voting age below 16.

History[edit]

Before the Second World War almost all countries had voting ages of 21 or higher. Czechoslovakia was early to act, reducing its age to 18 in 1946, and by 1968 a total of 17 states had made the reduction.[2] A large number of countries, particularly in Western Europe, reduced their voting ages to 18 during the 1970s, starting with the United Kingdom with 'The Representation of the People Act' in 1969. The USA (26th Amendment), Canada, Australia, France and others followed soon afterwards. By the end of the 20th century, 18 had become by far the most common age at which citizens acquired the right to vote. However, a few countries maintained voting ages of 20 years or higher.18 year old men could be drafted to war, so people felt they should be able to vote at the age of 18.[3]

Consideration of a reduction to 18 continued into the late 20th and early 21st century in those countries that had not already made the change. Reductions were seen in India, Switzerland, Austria and Morocco during this time. Since 2007, there has been debate in Japan,[4] and a dispute is continuing in the Maldives.[5]

Further reductions[edit]

Protest in favour of lowering the voting age by members of NYRA Berkeley, California, 2004.

Around the year 2000 a number of countries began to consider whether the voting age ought to be reduced further, with arguments most often being made in favour of a reduction to 16, as teens of that age and younger are as affected by the laws as 18-year-olds[citation needed]. The earliest moves came during the 1990s, when the voting age for municipal elections in some States of Germany was lowered to 16. Lower Saxony was the first state to make such a reduction, in 1995, and four other states later copied the move.[6]

In the 2000s (decade) there were a number of legislative proposals for reductions in the voting age to 16 in various U.S. states, including California, Florida and Alaska,[7] but ultimately none were successful. A national reduction was proposed in 2005 in Canada[8] and a state reduction in New South Wales, Australia,[9] but these proposals were not adopted.

Austria[edit]

In 2007 Austria became the first member of the European Union to adopt a voting age of 16 for most purposes.[10] The voting age had been reduced in Austria from 19 to 18 at all levels in 1992. At that time a voting age of 16 was proposed by the Green Party, but was not adopted.[11]

The voting age for municipal elections in some states was lowered to 16 in the early 2000s (decade).[6] Three states had made the reduction by 2003 (Burgenland, Carinthia and Styria),[6] and in May 2003 Vienna became the fourth.[12] Salzburg followed suit,[13][14] and so by the start of 2005 the total had reached at least five states out of nine.[15] As a consequence of state law, reduction of the municipal voting age in the states of Burgenland, Salzburg and Vienna resulted in the reduction of the regional voting age in those states as well.[14]

After the 2006 election, the winning SPÖ-ÖVP coalition announced on 12 January 2007 that one of its policies would be the reduction of the voting age to 16 for elections in all states and at all levels in Austria.[16] The policy was set in motion by a Government announcement on 14 March,[17] and a bill proposing an amendment to the Constitution was presented to the legislature on 2 May.[18][19] On 5 June the National Council approved the proposal following a recommendation to do so from its Constitution Committee.[10][11][20] During the passage of the bill through the chamber relatively little opposition was raised to the reduction, with four out of five parties explicitly supporting it; indeed, there was some dispute over which party had been the first to suggest the idea. Greater controversy surrounded the other provisions of the bill concerning the Briefwahl, or postal vote, and the extension of the legislative period for the National Council from four to five years.[11] A further uncontroversial inclusion was a reduction in the candidacy age from 19 to 18. The Federal Council approved the Bill on 21 June, with no party voting against it.[21] The voting age was reduced when the Bill's provisions came into force on 1 July 2007.[22] Austria thus became the first member of the European Union, and the first of the developed world democracies, to adopt a voting age of 16 for all purposes.[10]

Brazil[edit]

Brazil lowered its minimum voting age from 18 to 16 with its 1988 constitution. The presidential election of 1989 was the first one with the new minimum voting age.

Malta[edit]

20.11.2013 Maltese parliament adopted a proposal to lower its voting age from 18 to 16 for local elections starting from 2015. The proposal gained wide support from both the government and opposition, social scientists and youth organizations.

United Kingdom[edit]

The reduction of the voting age to 16 in the United Kingdom was first given serious consideration on 15 December 1999, when the House of Commons considered in Committee an amendment proposed by Simon Hughes to the Representation of the People Bill.[23] This was the first time the reduction of a voting age below 18 had ever been put to a vote in the Commons.[24] The Government opposed the amendment, and it was defeated by 434 votes to 36.[24]

The Votes at 16 coalition, a group of political and charitable organisations supporting a reduction of the voting age to 16, was launched on 29 January 2003.[25] At this time a Private Member's Bill was also proposed in the House of Lords by Lord Lucas, and received a Second Reading on 9 January.[26]

In 2004 the Electoral Commission conducted a major consultation on the subject of the voting and candidacy ages, and received a significant response. In its conclusions it recommended that the voting age remain at 18.[27] On 29 November 2005 the House of Commons voted 136-128 (on a free vote) against a Private Member's Bill for a reduction in the voting age to 16 proposed by Liberal Democrat MP Stephen Williams. Parliament chose not to include a provision reducing the voting age in the Electoral Administration Act during its passage in 2006.

On 27 February 2006 the report of the Power Inquiry called for a reduction of the voting age, and of the candidacy age for the House of Commons, to 16.[28] On the same day the then Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, indicated in an article in The Guardian that he favoured a reduction provided it was made concurrently with effective citizenship education.[29]

The Ministry of Justice published on 3 July 2007 a Green Paper entitled The Governance of Britain, in which it proposed the establishment of a "Youth Citizenship Commission".[30] The Commission would, amongst other things, be tasked with examining the case for lowering the voting age. On launching the Paper the Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, said in the House of Commons: "Although the voting age has been 18 since 1969, it is right, as part of that debate, to examine, and hear from young people themselves, whether lowering that age would increase participation."[31]

The Scottish National Party's conference voted unanimously on 27 October 2007 for a policy of reducing the voting age to 16, as well as in favour of a campaign for the necessary power to be devolved to the Scottish Parliament.[32]

During the Youth Parliament debates of 30 October 2009 in the House of Commons, Votes at 16 was debated and young people of that age group voted for it overwhelmingly as a campaign priority. Since that debate the issue has been raised in Prime Minister's Questions and has also gained the widespread support of the major political parties.[citation needed]

In September 2011 it was announced that the voting age is likely to be reduced from 18 to 16 for the Scottish independence referendum.[33]

Crown dependencies[edit]

Moves to lower the voting age to 16 were successful in each of the three British Crown dependencies from 2006 to 2008. The Isle of Man was the first to amend its law, when in July 2006 it reduced the voting age to 16 for its general elections, with the House of Keys approving the move by 19 votes to 4.[34]

Jersey followed suit on 4 July 2007, when it approved in principle a reduction of the voting age to 16. The States of Jersey voted narrowly in favour, by 25 votes to 21,[35] and the legislative amendments were adopted on 26 September.[36] The law was sanctioned by Order in Council on 12 December,[37][38] and was brought into force on 1 April, in time for the general elections in late 2008.[39][40]

On 31 October 2007 a proposal[41][42] for a reduction made by the House Committee of the States of Guernsey, and approved by the States' Policy Committee, was adopted by the assembly by 30 votes to 15.[42][43] An Order in Council sanctioning the law was made on 12 December,[37] and it was registered at the Court of Guernsey on 19 December. It came into force immediately, and the voting age was accordingly reduced in time for the Guernsey general election, 2008.[44]

Alderney and Sark, each part of the Bailiwick of Guernsey, have autonomy in deciding the question. Both have yet to favour a reduction to 16.

United States[edit]

Purple indicates a state that allows 17-year olds who will turn 18 on or before election day to vote in caucuses or primaries.

In the United States, nineteen states permit 17-year-olds to vote in primary elections and caucuses if they will be 18 by election day. States include: Alaska, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Mississippi, Nebraska, Nevada, North Dakota, Ohio, Oregon, Virginia, Vermont, and Washington. In Alaska, Kansas, North Dakota and Washington, 17-year-old Democrats may caucus, but are barred from participating in the Republican caucus. In Minnesota, 17-year-olds may participate in presidential caucuses, but may not vote in primary elections for other offices.[45] The 26th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution prevents states from "denying" suffrage to 18-year-olds, but does not prevent states from establishing a lower voting age.[46] Several states (Georgia, Kentucky) already allowed 18 year olds to vote prior to passage of the 26th amendment. Except for the express limitations provided for in Amendments XIV, XV, XIX and XXVI, voter qualifications for House and Senate elections are largely delegated to the States under Article I, Section 2 and Amendment XVII of the United States Constitution, which respectively state that "The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature." and "The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures." [47] [But see, Oregon v. Mitchell, 400 U.S. 112 (1970)]

Currently, the Maine Green Independent Party, the state branch of the Green Party of the United States, calls for the lowering of the voting age to 17.[48] Youth suffrage appears to be gaining ground in Massachusetts; three of the four Democratic United States Senate candidates in 2010 supported lowering the voting age.[49]

In 2013, the City of Takoma Park, Maryland became the first place in the United States to lower its voting age to 16, for municipal elections and referendums.[50]

During the Vietnam War, most of those subjected to the draft were too young to vote or consume alcoholic beverages in most states, and the image of young people being forced to risk their lives in the military without the privileges of enfranchisement or the ability to consume alcohol legally also successfully pressured legislators to lower the voting age nationally and the drinking age in many states (see also Opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War#The draft).

The debate about lowering voting age from 21 to 18 in the U.S. began during World War II and intensified during the Vietnam War. In the 1970 case Oregon v. Mitchell the Supreme Court ruled that Congress had the right to regulate the minimum age in federal elections; however, not at local and state level. Congress passed the 26th Amendment in March 1971. It was promptly ratified by the states and President Richard M. Nixon signed it into law in July 1971.[51]

Other countries[edit]

Iran had been unique in awarding suffrage at 15, but raised the age to 18 in January 2007 despite the opposition of the Government.[52] In May 2007 the Iranian Cabinet proposed a bill to reverse the increase.[53][54]

On 6 May 2007, the canton of Glarus in Switzerland voted to reduce the voting age from 18 to 16 for cantonal and local elections.[55][56]

The New Zealand Green Party MP Sue Bradford announced on 21 June 2007 that she intended to introduce her Civics Education and Voting Age Bill on the next occasion upon which a place became available for the consideration of Members' Bills.[57] When this happened on 25 July Bradford abandoned the idea, citing an adverse public reaction.[58] The Bill would have sought to reduce the voting age to 16 in New Zealand and make civics education part of the compulsory curriculum in schools.

A request to lower the voting age to 16 was made during the consideration of revisions to the Constitution of Venezuela in 2007. Cilia Flores, president of the National Assembly, announced that the Mixed Committee for Constitutional Reform had found the idea to be acceptable.[59] Following approval in the legislature[60] the amendment formed part of the package of constitutional proposals, and was defeated in the 2007 referendum.

A report suggesting that consideration be given to reducing the voting age to 16 in the Australian Capital Territory in Canberra, Australia was tabled in the territorial legislature on 26 September 2007 and defeated.[61]

Voting ages around the world[edit]

Eighteen is the most common voting age, with a small minority of countries differing from this rule. Those with a national minimum age of 17 include East Timor, Indonesia, North Korea, South Sudan and Sudan. The minimum age is 16 in Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Cuba, Ecuador, Nicaragua and the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey (three self-governing British Crown Dependencies). People aged 16–18 can vote in Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro if employed. The highest minimum voting age is 21 in several nations. Some countries have variable provision for the minimum voting age, whereby a lower age is set for eligibility to vote in state, regional or municipal elections.

The only known maximum voting age is in the Holy See, where the franchise for electing a new Pope is restricted to Cardinals under the age of 80.

Voting age:
  16
  17
  18
  19
  20
  21

Alphabetical list of countries[edit]

The following is an alphabetical list of voting ages in the various countries of the world.[62]

A[edit]

  • Afghanistan: 18
  • Albania: 18
  • Algeria: 18
  • American Samoa: 18
  • Andorra: 18
  • Angola: 18
  • Anguilla: 18
  • Antigua and Barbuda: 18
  • Argentina: 16, 16 to 18 and 70+ optional.
  • Armenia: 18
  • Aruba:18
  • Australia: 18 (compulsory for all over 18, can enroll at 17)
  • Austria: 16[22]
  • Azerbaijan: 18

B[edit]

  • Bahamas: 18
  • Bahrain: 20 (Bahraini Cabinet in May 2011 endorsed a draft law lowering eligibility to 18 years)[63]
  • Bangladesh: 18
  • Barbados: 18
  • Belarus: 18
  • Belgium: 18 (compulsory)
  • Belize: 18
  • Benin: 18
  • Bermuda: 18
  • Bhutan: 18
  • Bolivia: 18, universal and compulsory
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina: 18, 16 if employed
  • Botswana: 18
  • Brazil: 18 to 70 compulsory, 16 to under 18 AND over 70 optional. Voting is also optional to all illiterate citizens older than 16.
  • British Virgin Islands: 18
  • Brunei: 18 (village elections only)
  • Bulgaria: 18
  • Burkina Faso: 18
  • Burundi: 18

C[edit]

  • Cambodia: 18
  • Cameroon: 21
  • Canada: 18
  • Cape Verde: 18
  • Cayman Islands: 18
  • Central African Republic: 18
  • Chad: 18
  • Chile: 18
  • China, People's Republic of: 18
  • Cocos (Keeling) Islands: 18
  • Colombia: 18
  • Comoros: 18
  • Congo, Democratic Republic of the: 18
  • Congo, Republic of the: 18
  • Cook Islands: 18
  • Costa Rica: 18
  • Côte d'Ivoire: 18
  • Croatia: 18
  • Cuba: 16
  • Curaçao: 18
  • Cyprus: 18
  • Czech Republic: 18

D[edit]

  • Denmark: 18
  • Djibouti: 18
  • Dominica: 18
  • Dominican Republic: 18, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age (members of the armed forces and national police cannot vote)

E[edit]

  • East Timor: 17
  • Ecuador: 16; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18–65, optional for other eligible voters
  • Egypt: 18
  • El Salvador: 18
  • Equatorial Guinea: 18
  • Eritrea: 18
  • Estonia: 18; universal for all Estonian citizens
  • Ethiopia: 17
  • European Union: 18

F[edit]

  • Falkland Islands: 18
  • Faroe Islands: 18
  • Fiji: 18, as of 2013 Constitution (previously 21)
  • Finland: 18
  • France: 18
  • French Guiana: 18
  • French Polynesia: 18

G[edit]

H[edit]

  • Haiti: 18
  • Honduras: 18
  • Hong Kong: direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 220,000 members of functional constituencies and an 1,200-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
  • Hungary: 18

I[edit]

  • Iceland: 18
  • India: 18
  • Indonesia: 17; universal and married persons regardless of age. except for the military and police
  • Iran: 18 (changed from 15 Years to 18 Years in 2007, but that was changed back in 2009 and changed again to 18 in 2011)[52][66][67][68]
  • Iraq: 18
  • Ireland: 18
  • Isle of Man: 16
  • Israel: 18 (17 for municipal elections)
  • Italy: 18 (25 for Senate elections)

J[edit]

  • Jamaica: 18 years
  • Japan: 20 years
  • Jersey: 16 years
  • Jordan: 18 years

K[edit]

  • Kazakhstan: 18
  • Kenya: 18
  • Kiribati: 18
  • Korea, North: 17; members of the military have the right to vote, regardless of age[69]
  • Korea, South: 19
  • Kosovo: 18
  • Kuwait: 21; females and males who are not in the military or police forces; all voters must have been citizens for 20 years; current proposal for reduction to 18[70]
  • Kyrgyzstan: 18

L[edit]

  • Laos: 18
  • Latvia: 18; universal for Latvian citizens
  • Lebanon: 21, tried to amend to 18 on 22 February 2010 but failed to pass.[71]
  • Lesotho: 18
  • Liberia: 18
  • Libya: 18
  • Liechtenstein: 18
  • Lithuania: 18
  • Luxembourg: 18

M[edit]

  • Macau: direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (973 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
  • Republic of Macedonia: 18
  • Madagascar: 18
  • Malawi: 18
  • Malaysia: 21
  • Maldives: 18
  • Mali: 18
  • Malta: 18, however a motion has been passed in parliament to lower the voting age for local council elections (starting from 2015) to 16
  • Marshall Islands: 18
  • Martinique: 18
  • Mauritania: 18
  • Mauritius: 18
  • Mayotte: 18
  • Mexico: 18
  • Micronesia, Federated States of: 18
  • Moldova: 18
  • Monaco: 18
  • Mongolia: 18
  • Montenegro: 18
  • Montserrat: 18
  • Morocco: 18
  • Mozambique: 18
  • Myanmar (Burma): 18

N[edit]

  • Namibia: 18
  • Nauru: 20
  • Nepal: 18
  • Netherlands: 18
  • New Caledonia: 18
  • New Zealand: 18
  • Nicaragua: 16
  • Niger: 18
  • Nigeria: 18
  • Niue: 18
  • Norfolk Island: 18
  • Northern Mariana Islands: 18; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
  • Norway: 18; however, persons 17 years of age are permitted to vote in parliamentary elections if they will be 18 years of age in the year the election is held.

O[edit]

  • Oman: 21, universal except for members of the military and police.

P[edit]

  • Pakistan: 18; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
  • Palau: 18
  • Panama: 18
  • Papua New Guinea: 18
  • Paraguay: 18; universal and compulsory until the age of 75
  • Peru: 18; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; (members of the military and national police could not vote until a Constitutional Reform in 2005 [72])
  • Philippines: 18
    • For youth councils: 15 to 18; previously from 15 to 21. Incumbent are allowed to keep their positions if they surpassed the legal age.
  • Pitcairn Islands: 18; universal with three years' residency
  • Poland: 18
  • Portugal: 18
  • Puerto Rico: 18; universal; island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections

Q[edit]

  • Qatar: 18

R[edit]

  • Réunion: 18
  • Romania: 18
  • Russia: 18
  • Rwanda: 18

S[edit]

  • Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha: 18
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis: 18
  • Saint Lucia: 18
  • Saint Pierre and Miquelon: 18
  • Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: 18
  • Samoa: 21
  • San Marino: 18
  • São Tomé and Príncipe: 18
  • Saudi Arabia: adult male citizens age 21 or older (for partial municipal council elections and women to be allowed by 2015)
  • Senegal: 18
  • Serbia: 18[73]
  • Seychelles: 18[74]
  • Sierra Leone: 18
  • Singapore: 21
  • Sint Maarten: 18
  • Slovakia: 18
  • Slovenia: 18
  • Solomon Islands: 21
  • Somalia: 18
  • South Africa: 18
  • South Sudan: 17
  • Spain: 18
  • Sri Lanka: 18
  • Sudan: 17
  • Suriname: 18
  • Swaziland: 18
  • Sweden: 18
  • Switzerland: 18 (16 for cantonal and municipal elections in the canton of Glarus[55][56] [1/26])
  • Syria: 18

T[edit]

  • Taiwan (Republic of China): 20 (there is a current proposal to lower it to 18)[75]
  • Tajikistan: 18
  • Tanzania: 18
  • Thailand: 18 (compulsory only for Thai-Cititzens, who are Thai-Cititzens from Birth on)
  • Togo: 18
  • Tokelau: 21
  • Tonga: 21
  • Trinidad and Tobago: 18
  • Tunisia: 18 (with some exceptions)[76]
  • Turkey: 18
  • Turkmenistan: 18
  • Turks and Caicos Islands: 18
  • Tuvalu: 18

U[edit]

  • Uganda: 18
  • Ukraine: 18
  • United Arab Emirates: none[77] but at least 25 (the minimum age is decided by the ruler of each Emirate and may vary from one Emirate to another)[78]
  • United Kingdom: 18; as a special case the SNP negotiated for this to be reduced to 16 for the Scottish independence referendum[33][79]
  • United States: 18; however, in many states, persons 17 years of age are permitted to vote in primary elections if they will be 18 years of age on or before the day of the general election.
  • Uruguay: 18
  • Uzbekistan: 18[80]

V[edit]

  • Vanuatu: 18
  • Venezuela: 18
  • Vietnam: 18
  • Virgin Islands of the United States: 18; universal; island residents are U.S. citizens but do not vote in U.S. presidential elections

W[edit]

  • Wallis and Futuna: 18
  • Western Sahara: none; (residents of Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara participate in Moroccan elections, Age 18) [77]

Y[edit]

  • Yemen: 18

Z[edit]

  • Zambia: 18
  • Zimbabwe: 18

Chronology of lowering the voting age to 18[edit]

The following is a chronological list of the dates upon which countries lowered the voting age to 18; unless otherwise indicated, the reduction was from 21. In some cases the age was lowered decrementally, and so the "staging points" are also given. Some information is also included on the relevant legal instruments involved.

non-federal elections: Quebec in 1963,[84] Manitoba on 10 October 1969,[85] Ontario in 1971,[84] Nova Scotia in 1973 following reduction to 19 in 1970[86] and British Columbia in 1992 following reduction to 19 in 1952[87]

Chronology of lowering the voting age to 16[edit]

This is a further list, similar to the above but of the dates upon which countries lowered the voting age to 16; unless otherwise indicated, the reduction was from 18.

Organizations in favour of lowering the voting age[edit]

The following are political parties and other campaigning organisations that have either endorsed a lower voting age or who favour its removal.

Alphabetical list of countries[edit]

Argentina[edit]

Australia[edit]

Austria[edit]

Canada[edit]

Denmark[edit]

Estonia[edit]

Germany[edit]

  • K.R.Ä.T.Z.Ä. (demanding abolition of any age-based voting restrictions)[129]
  • Foundation for the Rights of Future Generations (abolition)[130]

Greece[edit]

Ireland[edit]

Netherlands[edit]

New Zealand[edit]

Norway[edit]

Portugal[edit]

Spain[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "edoc11895" (PDF). Retrieved 6 January 2011. 
  2. ^ a b "Lowering the Minimum Voting Age to 18 Years - Pro and Con Arguments", Constitutional Revision Study Documents of the Maryland Constitutional Convention Commission, 1968. Retrieved on 5 February 2007.
  3. ^ Sanders, Mark (2000). Your Right To Vote. United State: Raintree Steck- Vaugh company. 
  4. ^ Nakatahi, Hiroko (18 May 2007). "Panel mulls lowering voting age to 18". The Japan Times. Retrieved 6 July 2007. 
  5. ^ Moosa, A.S.I. (1 April 2007). "The murderous dictator and the 'Bullet-Ballot' propaganda". Dhivehi Observer. Retrieved 6 July 2007. 
  6. ^ a b c How old is old enough? - the minimum age of voting and candidacy in UK elections: consultation paper, July 2003, UK Electoral Commission, para. 3.6.
  7. ^ Worldwide Efforts to Lower the Voting Age, National Youth Rights Association
  8. ^ Parliament of Canada, Bill C-261 (2005); Vote16, Canada
  9. ^ Parliament of New South Wales, Parliamentary Electorates and Elections Amendment (Voting Age) Bill (2005); Hansard, 14 September 2005, p. 17686.
  10. ^ a b c "Austria lowers voting age to 16". EUX.tv — the Europe Channel, the Netherlands. 5 June 2007. Retrieved 6 June 2007. 
  11. ^ a b c Wählen mit 16, Briefwahl, fünfjährige Gesetzgebungsperiode kommen, Republik Österreich Parlament (German). Retrieved on 6 June 2007.
  12. ^ Austria joins the votes at 16 club, Votes at 16. Retrieved on 6 June 2007.
  13. ^ Lowering the Electoral Age, Austrian National Youth Council. Retrieved on 6 June 2007.
  14. ^ a b Elections, Demokratiezentrum Wien. Retrieved on 6 June 2007.
  15. ^ Committee on Rights of Child Considers Second Periodic Report of Austria, UNHCHR, 14 January 2005.
  16. ^ Oleksyn, Veronika (12 January 2007). "Austrians split on voting at age 16 plan". AP/washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2 February 2007. 
  17. ^ "Austria lowers voting age". IOL, South Africa. 14 March 2007. Retrieved 30 March 2007. 
  18. ^ "Austria lowers voting age to 16". News 24, South Africa. 3 May 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2007. 
  19. ^ 94 d.B. (XXIII. GP) Bundesverfassungsgesetz, mit dem das Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz geändert wird, Republik Österreich Parlament (German).
  20. ^ Verfassungsausschuss gibt grünes Licht für Wahlrechtsreform, Republik Österreich Parlament (German). Retrieved on 25 May 2007.
  21. ^ Wahlrechtsreform 2007 passiert den Bundesrat, Republik Österreich Parlament (German). Retrieved on 30 June 2007.
  22. ^ a b c 31/BNR (XXIII. GP) Bundes-Verfassungsgesetz, ss. 1, 5 and 25, Republik Österreich Parlament (German). Retrieved on 1 July 2007.
  23. ^ smells14.htm#91215-14_time0 HC Deb, 15 December 1999, Vol. 341, cc. 305-338. Retrieved on 3 November 2007.
  24. ^ a b Ibid, at c. 336.
  25. ^ "'A real chance to improve British Politics' - Votes at 16 Campaign Launches". Votes at 16. 29 January 2003. Retrieved 3 November 2007. 
  26. ^ The Voting Age (Reduction to 16) Bill (HL).
  27. ^ Age of Electoral Majority, Electoral Commission, 19 April 2004, para. 8.16
  28. ^ "Political system faces 'meltdown'". BBC News. 27 February 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2007. 
  29. ^ "And so does Gordon Brown". Votes at 16. 27 February 2006. Retrieved 3 November 2007. 
  30. ^ The Governance of Britain, UK Ministry of Justice, 3 July 2007, para. 190. Retrieved on 5 July 2007.
  31. ^ HC Deb, 3 July 2007, Vol. 462, c. 819. Retrieved on 5 July 2007.
  32. ^ smells/hi/scotland/7065046.stm "'Vote at 16' move backed by SNP". BBC News. 27 October 2007. Retrieved 3 November 2007. 
  33. ^ a b Macdonnell, Hamish (17 September 2011). "16-year-olds likely to get the vote on Union split". The Times Scotland (London: Times Newspapers Limited). Retrieved 18 September 2011. 
  34. ^ "Teenagers vote in Manx election". BBC News. 13 July 2006. Retrieved 9 May 2007. 
  35. ^ Vote P63/2007, States of Jersey, 4 July 2007. Retrieved on 6 July 2007.
  36. ^ States of Jersey Minutes, 26 September 2007. Retrieved on 24 October 2007.
  37. ^ a b ORDERS APPROVED AT THE PRIVY COUNCIL HELD BY THE QUEEN AT BUCKINGHAM PALACE ON 12 December 2007, Privy Council Office, 20 December 2007. Retrieved on 15 January 2008.
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Further reading[edit]

  • Cowley, Philip and David Denver (2004) 'Votes at 16? The Case Against,' Representation 41(1): 57-62.
  • Folkes, Alex (2004) 'The Case for Votes at 16,' Representation 41(1): 52-6.
  • Hyde, M. (2001) Democracy Education and the Canadian Voting Age. PhD dissertation: University of British Columbia. http://hdl.handle.net/2429/12999

External links[edit]