A voting age is a minimum age established by law that a person must attain to be eligible to vote in a public election. Typically, the age is set at 18 years; however, ages as low as 16 and as high as 21 exist.
The vast majority of countries in the world have established a voting age. Most governments consider that those of any age lower than the chosen threshold lack the necessary capacity to independently decide how to cast a vote. The voting age is often of such importance that it is set by means of a constitutional provision.
In May 2009, Danish Member of Parliament Mogens Jensen presented an initiative to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe in Strasbourg to lower the voting age in Europe to 16. There has also been discussion of giving votes to children from birth, initially with the votes being cast by parents, who are presumed to better understand a child's interests (Demeny voting).
When the right to vote was first accorded in democracies the voting age was generally set at 21, or in some cases at an even higher level. In the 1970s widespread reform led to a reduction to 18 in a large number of countries. Debate is currently underway in many places on proposals to reduce the voting age below 18.
Prior to the second World War almost all countries had voting ages of 21 or higher. Czechoslovakia was early to act, reducing its age to 18 in 1946, and by 1968 a total of 17 states had made the reduction. A large number of countries, particularly in Western Europe, reduced their voting ages to 18 during the 1970s, starting with the United Kingdom in 1970 with countries such as the US (26th Amendment), Canada, Australia and France following soon afterwards. By the end of the 20th century, 18 had become by far the most common age at which citizens acquired the right to vote. However, a few countries maintained voting ages of 20 years or higher.
Consideration of a reduction to 18 continued into the late 20th and early 21st century in those countries that had not already made the change. Reductions were seen in India, Switzerland, Austria and Morocco during this time. Since 2007, debate has been taking place in Japan, and a dispute is continuing in the Maldives.
Around the turn of the 20th to 21st century a number of countries began to consider whether the voting age ought to be reduced further, with arguments most often being made in favour of a reduction to 16, as teens of that age and younger are as affected by the laws as 18 year olds. The earliest moves came during the 1990s, when the voting age for municipal elections in some States of Germany was lowered to 16. Lower Saxony was the first state to make such a reduction, in 1995, and four other states later copied the move.
In the 2000s (decade) a number of legislative proposals for reductions of the voting age to 16 were made in various U.S. states, including California, Florida and Alaska, but ultimately none were successful. Proposals were made in 2005 for a national reduction in Canada and a state reduction in New South Wales, Australia, but again there was no success.
In 2007 Austria became the first member of the European Union to adopt a voting age of 16 for most purposes. The voting age had been reduced in Austria from 19 to 18 at all levels in 1992. At that time a voting age of 16 was proposed by the Green Party, but was not adopted.
The voting age for municipal elections in some states was lowered to 16 in the early 2000s (decade). Three states had made the reduction by 2003 (Burgenland, Carinthia and Styria), and in May 2003 Vienna became the fourth. Salzburg followed suit, and so by the start of 2005 the total had reached at least five states out of nine. As a consequence of state law, reduction of the municipal voting age in the states of Burgenland, Salzburg and Vienna resulted in the reduction of the regional voting age in those states as well.
Following the legislative election in 2006, the winning SPÖ-ÖVP coalition announced on 12 January 2007 that one of its policies would be the reduction of the voting age to 16 for elections in all states and at all levels in Austria. The policy was set in motion by a Government announcement on 14 March, and a bill proposing an amendment to the Constitution was presented to the legislature on 2 May. On 5 June the National Council approved the proposal following a recommendation to do so from its Constitution Committee. During the passage of the bill through the chamber relatively little opposition was raised to the reduction, with four out of five parties explicitly supporting it; indeed, there was some dispute over which party had been the first to suggest the idea. Greater controversy surrounded the other provisions of the bill concerning the Briefwahl, or postal vote, and the extension of the legislative period for the National Council from four to five years. A further uncontroversial inclusion was a reduction in the candidacy age from 19 to 18. The Federal Council approved the Bill on 21 June, with no party voting against it. The voting age was reduced when the Bill's provisions came into force on 1 July 2007. Austria thus became the first member of the European Union, and the first of the world's leading democracies, to adopt a voting age of 16 for all purposes.
The reduction of the voting age to 16 in the United Kingdom was first given serious consideration on 15 December 1999, when the House of Commons considered in Committee an amendment proposed by Simon Hughes to the Representation of the People Bill. This represented the first occasion that the question of a voting age lower than 18 had ever been put to a vote in the Commons. The Government opposed the amendment, and it was defeated by 434 votes to 36.
The Votes at 16 coalition, a group of political and charitable organisations supporting a reduction of the voting age to 16, was launched on 29 January 2003. At this time a Private Member's Bill was also proposed in the House of Lords by Lord Lucas, and received a Second Reading on 9 January.
In 2004 the Electoral Commission conducted a major consultation on the subject of the voting and candidacy ages, and received a significant response. In its conclusions it recommended that the voting age remain at 18. On 29 November 2005 the House of Commons voted 136-128 (on a free vote) against a Private Member's Bill for a reduction in the voting age to 16 proposed by Liberal Democrat MP Stephen Williams. Parliament chose not to include a provision reducing the voting age in the Electoral Administration Act during its passage in 2006.
On 27 February 2006 the report of the Power Inquiry called for a reduction of the voting age, and of the candidacy age for the House of Commons, to 16. On the same day the then Chancellor of the Exchequer, Gordon Brown, indicated in an article in The Guardian that he favoured a reduction provided it was made concurrently with effective citizenship education.
The Ministry of Justice published on 3 July 2007 a Green Paper entitled The Governance of Britain, in which it proposed the establishment of a "Youth Citizenship Commission". The Commission would, amongst other things, be tasked with examining the case for lowering the voting age. On launching the Paper the Prime Minister, Gordon Brown, said in the House of Commons: "Although the voting age has been 18 since 1969, it is right, as part of that debate, to examine, and hear from young people themselves, whether lowering that age would increase participation."
The Scottish National Party's conference voted unanimously on 27 October 2007 for a policy of reducing the voting age to 16, as well as in favour of a campaign for the necessary power to be devolved to the Scottish Parliament.
During the historic Youth Parliament debates of 30 October 2009 in the House of Commons, Votes at 16 was debated and was voted for overwhelmingly as a campaign priority and since that debate the issue has been raised in Prime Minister's Questions and has also gained the wide spread support of the major political parties.
Moves to lower the voting age to 16 were successful in each of the three British Crown dependencies from 2006 to 2008. The Isle of Man was the first to amend its law, when in July 2006 it reduced the voting age to 16 for its general elections, with the House of Keys approving the move by 19 votes to 4.
Jersey followed suit on 4 July 2007, when it approved in principle a reduction of the voting age to 16. The States of Jersey voted narrowly in favour, by 25 votes to 21, and the legislative amendments were adopted on 26 September. The law was sanctioned by Order in Council on 12 December, and was brought into force on 1 April, in time for the general elections in late 2008.
On 31 October 2007 a proposal for a reduction made by the House Committee of the States of Guernsey, and approved by the States' Policy Committee, was adopted by the assembly by 30 votes to 15. An Order in Council sanctioning the law was made on 12 December, and it was registered at the Court of Guernsey on 19 December. It came into force immediately, and the voting age was accordingly reduced in time for the Guernsey general election, 2008.
In the United States, nineteen states permit 17-year-olds to vote in primary elections and caucuses if they will be 18 by election day. An amendment to the state constitution is being considered in the Illinois legislature that would lower its voting age to 17 for non-federal elections, though states can set their voting age to lower than 18 for federal elections as well. Because it only applies to state elections, 17-year-olds would not be able to vote in primaries and general elections for representatives, senators, and President of the United States even if the amendment passes the legislature and referendum.
To pass, 60 percent of each house of the state legislature would have to approve it, and it would then have to be approved over half of by voters in the November general election. Currently, the Maine Green Independent Party, the state branch of the Green Party of the United States, calls for the lowering of the voting age to 17. Youth suffrage appears to be gaining ground in Massachusetts; three of the four Democratic United States Senate candidates in 2010 supported lowering the voting age.
During the Vietnam War, most of those subjected to the draft were too young to vote or drink in most states, and the image of young people being forced to risk their lives in the military without the privileges of enfranchisement or the ability to drink alcohol legally also successfully pressured legislators to lower the voting age nationally and the drinking age in many states (see also Opposition to the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War#The draft).
Iran had been unique in awarding suffrage at 15, but raised the age to 18 in January 2007 despite the opposition of the Government. In May 2007 the Iranian Cabinet proposed a bill to reverse the increase.
The New Zealand Green Party MP Sue Bradford announced on 21 June 2007 that she intended to introduce her Civics Education and Voting Age Bill on the next occasion upon which a place became available for the consideration of Members' Bills. When this happened on 25 July Bradford abandoned the idea, citing an adverse public reaction. The Bill would have sought to reduce the voting age to 16 in New Zealand and make civics education part of the compulsory curriculum in schools.
A request to lower the voting age to 16 was made during the consideration of revisions to the Constitution of Venezuela in 2007. Cilia Flores, president of the National Assembly, announced that the Mixed Committee for Constitutional Reform had found the idea to be acceptable. Following approval in the legislature the amendment formed part of the package of constitutional proposals, and was defeated in the 2007 referendum.
A report suggesting that consideration be given to reducing the voting age to 16 in the Australian Capital Territory in Canberra, Australia was tabled in the territorial legislature on 26 September 2007 and defeated.
Voting ages around the world
18 is the most common voting age, with a small minority of countries differing from this rule. Those with a national minimum age of 17 include East Timor, Indonesia, North Korea, South Sudan and Sudan. The minimum age is 16 in Argentina, Austria, Brazil, Cuba, Ecuador, Nicaragua and the Isle of Man, Jersey and Guernsey (three self-governing British Crown Dependencies). People aged 16–18 can vote in Bosnia, Serbia and Montenegro if employed. The highest minimum voting age is 21 in several nations. Some countries have variable provision for the minimum voting age, whereby a lower age is set for eligibility to vote in state, regional or municipal elections.
Alphabetical list of countries
The following is an alphabetical list of voting ages in the various countries of the world.
- Afghanistan: 18
- Albania: 18
- Algeria: 18
- American Samoa: 18
- Andorra: 18
- Angola: 18
- Anguilla: 18
- Antigua and Barbuda: 18
- Argentina: 16 to 70, 16 to 18 optional.
- Armenia: 18
- Aruba: 18
- Australia: 18 (compulsory for all over 18, can enroll at 17)
- Austria: 16 (Except for European Parliament elections, which are 18)
- Azerbaijan: 18
- Bahamas: 18
- Bahrain: 20 (Bahraini Cabinet in May 2011 endorsed a draft law lowering eligibility to 18 years)
- Bangladesh: 18
- Barbados: 18
- Belarus: 18
- Belgium: 18 (compulsory)
- Belize: 18
- Benin: 18
- Bermuda: 18
- Bhutan: 18
- Bolivia: 18, universal and compulsory
- Bosnia and Herzegovina: 18, 16 if employed
- Botswana: 18
- Brazil: 18 to 70 compulsory, 16 to under 18 AND over 70 optional. Voting is also optional to all illiterate citizens older than 16.
- British Virgin Islands: 18
- Brunei: 18 (village elections only)
- Bulgaria: 18
- Burkina Faso: 18
- Burundi: 18
- Cambodia: 18
- Cameroon: 21
- Canada: 18
- Cape Verde: 18
- Cayman Islands: 18
- Central African Republic: 18
- Chad: 18
- Chile: 18
- China, People's Republic of: 18
- Cocos (Keeling) Islands: 18
- Colombia: 18
- Comoros: 18
- Congo, Democratic Republic of the: 18
- Congo, Republic of the: 18
- Cook Islands: 18
- Costa Rica: 18
- Cote d'Ivoire: 18
- Croatia: 18
- Cuba: 16
- Curaçao: 18
- Cyprus: 18
- Czech Republic: 18
- Denmark: 18
- Djibouti: 18
- Dominica: 18
- Dominican Republic: 18, universal and compulsory; married persons regardless of age (members of the armed forces and national police cannot vote)
- East Timor: 17
- Ecuador: 16; universal, compulsory for literate persons ages 18–65, optional for other eligible voters
- Egypt: 18
- El Salvador: 18
- Equatorial Guinea: 18
- Eritrea: 18
- Estonia: 18; universal for all Estonian citizens
- Ethiopia: 18
- European Union: 18
- Falkland Islands: 18
- Faroe Islands: 18
- Fiji: 21
- Finland: 18
- France: 18
- French Guiana: 18
- French Polynesia: 18
- Gabon: 18
- Gambia: 18
- Georgia: 18
- Germany: 18 (16 at state level in Bremen and for municipal elections in the states of Bremen, Lower Saxony (2012, the Greenparty brought a Petition into the Landtag to lower the activ Votingage from 16 Years to 14 Years. However, a Bill, that would take the Age lowering into Affect has not yet been passed by the Landtag), Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, North Rhine-Westphalia, Saxony-Anhalt and Schleswig-Holstein [6/16])
- Ghana: 18
- Gibraltar: 18; universal, plus other British citizens who have been residents six months or more
- Greece: 18
- Greenland: 18
- Grenada: 18
- Guadeloupe: 18
- Guam: 18; universal; US citizens, but do not vote in US presidential elections
- Guatemala: 18; universal (active duty members of the armed forces may not vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day)
- Guernsey: 16
- Guinea: 18
- Guinea-Bissau: 18
- Guyana: 18
- Haiti: 18
- Honduras: 18
- Hong Kong: direct election 18 years of age; universal for permanent residents living in the territory of Hong Kong for the past seven years; indirect election limited to about 220,000 members of functional constituencies and an 1,200-member election committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
- Hungary: 18
- Iceland: 18
- Indonesia: 17; universal and married persons regardless of age. except for the military and police
- Iran: 18 (changed from 15 Years to 18 Years in 2007, but that was changed back in 2009 and change again to 18 in 2011) 
- Iraq: 18
- Ireland: 18
- Isle of Man: 16
- Israel: 18 (17 for municipal elections)
- Italy: 18 (25 for Senate elections)
- Jamaica: 18 years
- Japan: 20 years
- Jersey: 16 years
- Jordan: 18 years
- Kazakhstan: 18
- Kenya: 18
- Kiribati: 18
- Korea, North: 17; members of the military have the right to vote, regardless of age
- Korea, South: 19
- Kosovo: 18
- Kuwait: 21; females and males who are not in the military or police forces; all voters must have been citizens for 20 years; current proposal for reduction to 18
- Kyrgyzstan: 18
- Laos: 18
- Latvia: 18; universal for Latvian citizens
- Lebanon: 21, tried to amend to 18 on 22 February 2010 but failed to pass.
- Lesotho: 18
- Liberia: 18
- Libya: 18
- Liechtenstein: 18
- Lithuania: 18
- Luxembourg: 18
- Macau: direct election 18 years of age, universal for permanent residents living in Macau for the past seven years; indirect election limited to organizations registered as "corporate voters" (973 are currently registered) and a 300-member Election Committee drawn from broad regional groupings, municipal organizations, and central government bodies
- Republic of Macedonia: 18
- Madagascar: 18
- Malawi: 18
- Malaysia: 21
- Maldives: 18
- Mali: 18
- Malta: 18
- Marshall Islands: 18
- Martinique: 18
- Mauritania: 18
- Mauritius: 18
- Mayotte: 18
- Mexico: 18
- Micronesia, Federated States of: 18
- Moldova: 18
- Monaco: 18
- Mongolia: 18
- Montenegro: 18
- Montserrat: 18
- Morocco: 18
- Mozambique: 18
- Myanmar (Burma): 18
- Namibia: 18
- Nauru: 20
- Nepal: 18
- Netherlands: 18
- New Caledonia: 18
- New Zealand: 18
- Nicaragua: 16
- Niger: 18
- Nigeria: 18
- Niue: 18
- Norfolk Island: 18
- Northern Mariana Islands: 18; universal; indigenous inhabitants are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
- Norway: 18; however, persons 17 years of age are permitted to vote in parliamentary elections if they will be 18 years of age in the year the election is held.
- Oman: 21, universal except for members of the military and police.
- Pakistan: 18; universal; joint electorates and reserved parliamentary seats for women and non-Muslims
- Palau: 18
- Panama: 18
- Papua New Guinea: 18
- Paraguay: 18; universal and compulsory until the age of 75
- Peru: 18; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; (members of the military and national police could not vote until a Constitutional Reform in 2005 )
- Philippines: 18
- For youth councils: 15 to 18; previously from 15 to 21. Incumbent are allowed to keep their positions if they surpassed the legal age.
- Pitcairn Islands: 18; universal with three years' residency
- Poland: 18
- Portugal: 18
- Puerto Rico: 18; universal; island residents are US citizens but do not vote in US presidential elections
- Qatar: 18
- Réunion: 18
- Romania: 18
- Russia: 18
- Rwanda: 18
- Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha: 18
- Saint Kitts and Nevis: 18
- Saint Lucia: 18
- Saint Pierre and Miquelon: 18
- Saint Vincent and the Grenadines: 18
- Samoa: 21
- San Marino: 18
- Sao Tome and Principe: 18
- Saudi Arabia: adult male citizens age 21 or older (for partial municipal council elections and women to be allowed by 2015)
- Senegal: 18
- Serbia: 18
- Seychelles: 18
- Sierra Leone: 18
- Singapore: 21
- Sint Maarten: 18
- Slovakia: 18
- Slovenia: 18
- Solomon Islands: 21
- Somalia: 18
- South Africa: 18
- South Sudan: 17
- Spain: 18
- Sri Lanka: 18
- Sudan: 17
- Suriname: 18
- Swaziland: 18
- Sweden: 18
- Switzerland: 18 (16 for cantonal and municipal elections in the canton of Glarus [1/26])
- Syria: 18
- Taiwan (Republic of China): 20 (there is a current proposal to lower it to 18)
- Tajikistan: 18
- Tanzania: 18
- Thailand: 18 (compulsory and only for Thai-Cititzens, how are Thai-Cititzens from Birth on)
- Togo: 18
- Tokelau: 21
- Tonga: 21
- Trinidad and Tobago: 18
- Tunisia: 18 (with some exceptions)
- Turkey: 18
- Turkmenistan: 18
- Turks and Caicos Islands: 18
- Tuvalu: 18
- Uganda: 18
- Ukraine: 18
- United Arab Emirates: none but at least 25 (the minimum age is decided by the ruler of each Emirate and may vary from one Emirate to another)
- United Kingdom: 18; The SNP proposes this to be reduced to 16 for the Scottish independence referendum
- United States: 18; however, in many states, persons 17 years of age are permitted to vote in primary elections if they will be 18 years of age on or before the day of the general election.
- Uruguay: 18
- Uzbekistan: 18
- Vanuatu: 18
- Venezuela: 18
- Vietnam: 18
- Virgin Islands of the United States: 18; universal; island residents are U.S. citizens but do not vote in U.S. presidential elections
- Wallis and Futuna: 18
- Western Sahara: none; (residents of Moroccan-controlled Western Sahara participate in Moroccan elections, Age 18) 
- Yemen: 18
- Zambia: 18
- Zimbabwe: 18
Chronology of lowering the voting age to 18
The following is a chronological list of the dates upon which countries lowered the voting age to 18; unless otherwise indicated, the reduction was from 21. In some cases the age was lowered decrementally, and so the "staging points" are also given. Some information is also included on the relevant legal instruments involved.
- Czechoslovakia: 1946
- South Africa: 1958 (white voters only; Electoral Law Amendment Act, 1958)
- United Kingdom: 1 January 1970 (Representation of the People Act 1969)
- Canada: 26 June 1970 (federal elections, amendment to Canada Elections Act)
- non-federal elections: Quebec in 1963, Manitoba on 10 October 1969, Ontario in 1971, Nova Scotia in 1973 following reduction to 19 in 1970 and British Columbia in 1992 following reduction to 19 in 1952
- Germany: 1970 
- Netherlands: 1971 (previous reduction from 23 to 21 in 1965)
- United States: 1 July 1971, per the Twenty-sixth Amendment. Previously reduced on 1 January 1971 by the Voting Rights Act Amendments 1970, ss. 302, 305 (Prior reductions: Georgia in August 1943, Kentucky in 1955, Guam in 1954 and American Samoa in 1965.)
- Finland: 1972 (from 20; previous reductions were 24 to 21 in 1944 and 21 to 20 in 1968/1969)
- Sweden: 1972 (from 20) 
- Ireland: 5 January 1973 (Fourth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland)
- Australia: 1973 (New South Wales was the first state to do so, in 1970)
- France: 5 July 1974 (Act No. 74-631)
- New Zealand: November 1974 (from 20; previous reduction from 21 to 20 in 1969)
- Dominica: 1974
- Italy: 1975 (voting age to elect the Senate remained at 25)
- Trinidad and Tobago: 1976
- Denmark: 19 September 1978 (from 20; 53.8% in referendum; previous reductions were 25 to 23 in 1953, 23 to 21 in 1961 and 21 to 20 in 1971)
- Spain: 29 December 1978 (1978 Constitution)
- Peru: 1979 Constitution
- Belgium: 1981
- India: 28 March 1989 (61st Constitution Amendment Act, 1988 read with Act 21 of 1989)
- Switzerland: 1991 (from 20; referendum held on 3 March)
- Austria: 1992 (from 19; previous reductions were 21 to 20 in 1949 and 20 to 19 in 1970)
- Estonia: 29 July 1992 (from 22, according to the 1938 Constitution; was 18 during the Soviet Occupation since 1940 and 16 for the Congress of Estonia in 1990)
- Hong Kong: 1995 (from 21)
- Liechtenstein: 2000 (from 20; LGBl. 2000 No. 55)
- Jordan: July 2001 (from 19; Provisional Election Law No. 34/2001)
- Turkey: 17 October 2001 (from 20; previous reduction from 21 to 20 in May 1987)
- Pakistan: 21 August 2002 (Legal Framework Order, 2002), was 18 under 1973 Constitution, then increased to 21, then lowered back to 18.
- Morocco: 11 December 2002 (from 20)
- Uzbekistan: July 2012 (from 25)
Chronology of lowering the voting age to 16
This is a further list, similar to the above but of the dates upon which countries lowered the voting age to 16; unless otherwise indicated, the reduction was from 18.
- Nicaragua: November 1984 (from 21)
- Brazil: 5 October 1988 (Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988)
- Estonia: 24 February 1990 (from 22 according to the 1938 Constitution, from 18 during the Soviet occupation); only for the Congress of Estonia, was raised to 18 according to the 1992 Constitution
- Isle of Man: 11 July 2006; legislation brought into force in time for general election held on 23 November 2006
- Austria: 1 July 2007 (BGBl. No. 1/1930, as amended)
- Guernsey: 19 December 2007 (Reform (Guernsey) (Amendment) Law, 2007)
- Jersey: 1 April 2008 (Public Elections (Amendment No. 2) (Jersey) Law 2008)
- Ecuador: 28 September 2008 (New constitution accepted by referendum) for general election on 26 March 2009.
- Argentina: 1 November 2012. Voting for teenagers between 16 and 18 years of age became optional.
Organizations in favour of lowering the voting age
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The following are political parties and other campaigning organisations that have either endorsed a lower voting age or who favour its removal.
Alphabetical list of countries
- Austrian Greens
- Social Democratic Party of Austria
- Liberales Forum
- vote4future.at Austrian National Youth Council
- New Democratic Party of Canada
- Communist Party of Canada
- Rock The Vote
- The Parti Québécois
- Social Democrats
- Socialist People's Party
- The Danish Youth Council — Dansk Ungdoms Fællesråd, Denmark
- K.R.Ä.T.Z.Ä. (demanding abolition of any age-based voting restrictions)
- Foundation for the Rights of Future Generations (abolition)
- Green Party / Comhantas Glas
- Labour Party / Páirtí an Lucht Oibre 
- Sinn Féin
- Fine Gael
- Fianna Fáil
- Socialist Party 
- Izquierda Unida
- Alternativa Nacionalista Canaria
- The Labour Party including the former Prime Minister Gordon Brown
- Green Party of England and Wales
- Liberal Democrats
- Plaid Cymru
- Scottish National Party
- Vote 16
- Democratic Unionist Party
- Ulster Unionist Party
- Social Democratic Labour Party
- Americans for a Society Free from Age Restrictions (supports full elimination of voting age)
- Future Voters of America
- National Youth Rights Association
- Socialist Party USA (to 15)
||Constructs such as ibid., loc. cit. and idem are discouraged by Wikipedia's style guide for footnotes, as they are easily broken. Please improve this article by replacing them with named references (quick guide), or an abbreviated title. (March 2010)|
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