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Vulnerability management is the "cyclical practice of identifying, classifying, remediating, and mitigating vulnerabilities", especially in software and firmware. Vulnerability management is integral to computer security and network security.
A potential way to find vulnerabilities is to employ a vulnerability scanner. This is a computer program that analyzes the software of a computer system in search of previously identified vulnerabilities, such as open ports, insecure software configuration, and susceptibility to malware.
A vulnerability scanner cannot necessarily identify an undocumented vulnerability, such as a zero-day attack. However, penetration tests and fuzz testing with relevant test cases can identify certain kinds of vulnerabilities, such as a buffer overflow exploit. Such analyses can be facilitated by test automation.
Correcting vulnerabilities may variously involve the installation of a patch, a change in network security policy, reconfiguration of software (such as a firewall), or educating users about social engineering.
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