Vyatka horse

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Vyatka
Vyatka stallion
Distinguishing features Female height: 140 cm[1]
Female weight: 400 kg[1]
Alternative names Russian: Вятская лошадь
Russian: vyatskaya loshad
Vyatskaya
Viatka
Country of origin Russian Federation
Notes
Conservation status: FAO (2007): endangered[2]
Equus ferus caballus

The Vyatka or Viatka (Russian: Вятская лошадь, vyatskaya loshad) is an endangered breed of horse native to the former Vyatka region, now the Kirov Oblast of the Russian Federation. It is mainly found there and in the Udmurt Republic.[3]

Characteristics[edit]

The average height at the withers of Vyatka mares is 140 centimetres (13.3 hands; 55 inches), and the average weight 400 kilograms (880 lb).[3] The coat color is typically chestnut, bay or roan, or occasionally Black.[1]

History[edit]

Vyatka stallion in 1902

The Vyatka breed was influenced by the climate and terrain of the Kirov, Udmurtia and western Perm regions; Estonian horses and Kleppers brought to northern Russia by Novgorod colonists in the 14th century may have affected its conformation, as may later imports of Estonian horses for mining work in the Ural Mountains.[4][1] The Vyatka horse became known for draft abilities including endurance, speed and frugality. By the middle of the 19th century it was considered the best horse for pulling troikas; some were exported from the Vyatka region, including to Poland.[4]

In 1917 the breed was virtually extinct; some efforts at re-establishment were made after the Russian Revolution.[4] Numbers in the Kirov and Udmurtia were estimated at 2000 in 1980.[1] In 2003 the known population numbered 560.[3] In 2007 the Vyatka horse was on the Endangered List of the FAO.[5]


References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e N.G. Dmitriev, L.K. Ernst (1989). Animal genetic resources of the USSR. FAO animal production and health paper 65. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9251025827. p. 338–39.
  2. ^ Barbara Rischkowsky, D. Pilling (eds.) (2007). List of breeds documented in the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources, annex to The State of the World's Animal Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9789251057629. Accessed October 2014.
  3. ^ a b c Breed data sheet: Vyatskaya/Russian Federation. Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed October 2014.
  4. ^ a b c Hendricks, Bonnie L., Anthony A. Dent (2007) International Encyclopedia of Horse Breeds Revised ed. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press ISBN 978-0-8061-3884-8
  5. ^ "Endangered List 2007" Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed September 2011.