R-37M at 2013 MAKS Airshow
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Weight||600 kilograms (1,320 lb)|
|Length||4.20 metres (13 ft 9 in)|
|Diameter||38 centimetres (15 in)|
|Warhead weight||60 kg (135 lb)|
|Wingspan||0.7 m (2 ft 4 in)|
|80–215 nm (150–398 km)|
|Inertial with mid-course update, semi-active and active radar homing|
The Vympel R-37 (NATO reporting name: AA-X-13/AA-13 Arrow) is a Russian air-to-air missile with very long range. The missile and its variants also had the names K-37, izdeliye 610 and R-VD (Raketa-Vysokaya Dalnost, "Very Long Range Missile"), and the NATO codename 'Andi'.
The R-37 was developed from the Vympel R-33. For compatibility with aircraft that did not have the MiG-31's sophisticated radar, the semi-active seeker was replaced with a variant of the Agat 9B-1388 active seeker; mid-body strakes enhance lift and hence range, and folding tail controls allow semi-conformal carriage on planes that are not as big as the MiG-31. According to Defence Today the range depends on the flight profile, from 80 nautical miles (150 km) for a direct shot to 215 nautical miles (398 km) for a cruise glide profile. According to Jane's there are two variants, the R-37 and the R-37M; the latter has a jettisonable rocket booster that increases the range to "300-400km" (160–220 nm).
The R-37M designation has since been used for a modernized variant of the missile, also known as RVV-BD. This will be carried by the modernized MiG-31BM and Su-35S fighters. It is not known if the long range air-to-air missile for the PAK FA, designated the izdeliye 810, is a derivative of the R-37M.
The missile was designed in the early 1980s and first flown in 1989. Testing of the R-37 continued through the 1990s; in 1994 a trial round scored a kill at a range of 162 nautical miles (300 km). However, the programme appears to have been dropped around 1998 on grounds of cost.
The R-37 is now in production to equip upgraded Russian MiG-31BM Foxhound interceptors, and export MiG-31BM aircraft for Syria. Despite the early intent to integrate the weapon on the Flanker, this has yet to be reported.
- Missiles in the Asia Pacific, Defence Today (Amberley, Queensland: Strike Publications), May 2005: p67
- R-37, R-37M (AA-X-13) (Russian Federation), Air-to-air missiles - Beyond visual range ([dead link]), Jane's Air-Launched Weapons (Jane’s Information Group), 2009-01-12
- Russian Air Force Tests New Air-to-Air Missile