Vyshnevolotsky District

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Vyshnevolotsky District
Вышневолоцкий район (Russian)
Tver-oblast-VyshiVolochek.png
Location of Vyshnevolotsky District in Tver Oblast
Coordinates: 57°35′N 34°34′E / 57.583°N 34.567°E / 57.583; 34.567Coordinates: 57°35′N 34°34′E / 57.583°N 34.567°E / 57.583; 34.567
VVraionGerb.gif
VVraionFlag.jpg
Coat of arms
Flag
Location
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administrative structure (as of 2012)
Administrative center town of Vyshny Volochyok[1]
Administrative divisions:[citation needed]
rural settlement 14
Inhabited localities:[citation needed]
Urban-type settlements 1
Rural localities 345
Municipal structure (as of November 2010)
Municipally incorporated as Vyshnevolotsky Municipal District[2]
Municipal divisions:[3]
Urban settlements 1
Rural settlements 14
Statistics
Area 3,400 km2 (1,300 sq mi)[4]
Population (2010 Census) 25,421 inhabitants[5]
- Urban 19.7%
- Rural 80.3%
Density 7.48 /km2 (19.4 /sq mi)[6]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[7]
Official website
Vyshnevolotsky District on WikiCommons

Vyshnevolotsky District (Russian: Вышневоло́цкий райо́н) is an administrative[1] and municipal[2] district (raion), one of the thirty-six in Tver Oblast, Russia. It is located in the north of the oblast and borders with Udomelsky District in the north, Maksatikhinsky District in the northeast, Spirovsky District in the east, Torzhoksky District in the south, Kuvshinovsky District in the southwest, Firovsky District in the west, and with Bologovsky District in the northwest. The area of the district is 3,400 square kilometers (1,300 sq mi).[4] Its administrative center is the town of Vyshny Volochyok[1] (which is not administratively a part of the district).[8] Population: 25,421 (2010 Census);[5] 28,918 (2002 Census);[9] 34,579 (1989 Census).[10]

Geography[edit]

The district is located in the southern end of the Valdai Hills, on the divide separating the drainage basins of the Baltic and Caspian Seas. The rivers in the northern part of the district drain into the Msta River, a major tributary of Lake Ilmen in the basin of the Neva River and the Baltic. The Msta itself originates in the district and has its source in Lake Mstino. The principal tributaries of the Msta within the district are the Shlina, the Lonnitsa, and the Tsna. The Tsna and the Lonnitsa are technically inflows of the Vyshny Volochyok Reservoir, which has two outlows, one into Lake Mstino and the Msta, and another one into the Tvertsa River. The Tvertsa, a left tributary of the Volga River, is also the biggest river in the central part of the district. Some areas in the southwestern part of the district belong to the drainage basin of the Poved River, a right tributary of the Tvertsa. The rivers in the east of the district drain into the Volchina River, a left tributary of the Mologa, also in the Volga basin.

There are many lakes in the northern part of the district. The largest are Lake Mstino and Lake Pudoro, both located in the basin of the Msta.

History[edit]

The area of the district was populated since prehistoric times, as is witnessed by a large number of archeological sites. It was located on one of the most popular waterways between Baltic and Caspian seas, which followed the Msta, the Tsna, and the Tvertsa. In the medieval time, the area was dependent on the Novgorod Republic. After Novgorod was annexed by Moscow in the 15th century, it was divided between Derevskaya and Bezhetskaya pyatinas of Novgorod lands. In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Ingermanlandia Governorate (since 1710 known as Saint Petersburg Governorate), and in 1727 Novgorod Governorate split off. On April 2, 1772 Vyshnevolotsky Uyezd of Novgorod Governorate was established, with the seat in Vyshny Volochyok. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, and the area was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in 1796 was transformed to Tver Governorate.[11]

On July 12, 1929 the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Vyshnevolotsky District, with the administrative center in Vyshny Volochyok, was established within Tver Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Vyshnevolotsky District was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[12] In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.

During World War II, the district was not occupied by German troops, but it was located close to the front line.

On February 13, 1963 Spirovsky and Firovsky Districts were merged into Vyshnevolotsky District. On January 12, 1965 Spirovsky District, and on April 6, 1972 Firovsky District were re-established.[12]

Another district established on July 12, 1929 was Yesenovichsky District with the administrative center in the selo of Yesenovichi. It was a part of Tver Okrug of Moscow Oblast. In 1935, it was transferred to Kalinin Oblast. On August 22, 1958 Yesenovichsky District was abolished and split between Vyshnevolotsky, Novotorzhsky, Kamensky, and Firovsky Districts.[12]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Vyshnevolotsky District is one of the thirty-six in the oblast.[1] The town of Vyshny Volochyok serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as an okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[8]

As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Vyshnevolotsky Municipal District.[3] Vyshny Volochyok Okrug is incorporated separately from the district as Vyshny Volochyok Urban Okrug.[2]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

There are enterprises of timber, chemical, and glass-making industries in the district.[13] The glass-making factory in Krasnomaysky, founded in 1859, stopped working in 2001 and was restructured in 2002.[14] Another glass-making factory is located in the settlement of Borisovsky and was founded in 1882 by merchant Bolotin.[11]

Agriculture[edit]

The main agricultural specializations of the district are meat and milk production. As of 2012, the disctrict held the third position in Tver Oblast in terms of the number of pigs. Crops, potatoes, and flax were grown.[15]

Transportation[edit]

The railroad connecting Moscow and St. Petersburg crosses the district from the southeast to the northwest. The most significant station in the district is Osechenka.

The M10 highway, which connects Moscow and St. Petersburg, crosses the district from southeast to northwest. In Vyshny Volochyok, a road connecting to Maksatikha, Bezhetsk, and Rybinsk branches out east, and in Krasnomaysky, a road connecting to Firovo branches out west. There are local roads as well, with the bus traffic originating from Vyshny Volochyok.

The Tvertsa and the Msta are connected by the Vyshny Volochyok Waterway, constructed in the 18th century to provide for a waterway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg, in particular, the Neva and the Volga. Currently, there is no passenger navigation.

Culture and recreation[edit]

The district contains thirty cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally fifty-nine objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments are the canals of the Vyshny Volochyok Waterway, the Afimyino Estate in the selo of Afimyino, the Borovno Estate in the selo of Borovno, as well as a number of churches, houses, and archeological sites.[16]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 212», в ред. изменения №234/2013 от 1 января 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 212, as amended by the Amendment #234/2013 of January 1, 2014. ).
  2. ^ a b c Law #4-ZO
  3. ^ a b Law #22-ZO
  4. ^ a b "Район в цифрах" (in Russian). Administration of Vyshnevolotsky District. Retrieved 29 December 2013. 
  5. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ The value of density was calculated automatically by dividing the 2010 Census population by the area specified in the infobox. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox does not necessarily correspond to the area of the entity proper or is reported for the same year as the population.
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ a b Law #34-ZO
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "История Вышневолоцкого района" (in Russian). Administration of Vyshnevolotsky District. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  12. ^ a b c "Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области" (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  13. ^ "Предприятия и организации" (in Russian). Administration of Vyshnevolotsky District. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  14. ^ "История завода "КРАСНЫЙ МАЙ"" (in Russian). Administration of Vyshnevolotsky District. Retrieved 6 January 2014. 
  15. ^ "Паспорт Вышневолоцкого района Тверской области в сфере АПК" (in Russian). ГКУ ТО «Центр развития АПК Тверской области». Retrieved 9 January 2014. 
  16. ^ "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved January 9, 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №111-ЗО от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17 (специальный выпуск), 19 апреля 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #34-ZO of April 17, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast, as amended by the Law #111-ZO of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №22-ЗО от 28 февраля 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Вышневолоцкий район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения», в ред. Закона №89-ЗО от 9 ноября 2010 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований, входящих в состав территории муниципального образования Тверской области "Вышневолоцкий район", и наделении их статусом городского, сельского поселения"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №10, 11–17 марта 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #22-ZO of February 28, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Vyshnevolotsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban and Rural Settlements, as amended by the Law #89-ZO of November 9, 2010 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations Comprised by the Territory of the Municipal Formation of "Vyshnevolotsky District" and on Granting Them the Status of Urban and Rural Settlements". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).