Vyshny Volochyok

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Vyshny Volochyok (English)
Вышний Волочёк (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Town of oblast significance[1]
Вышний Волочёк. Берег озера..jpg
The town as seen from the Vyshny Volochyok Reservoir
Map of Russia - Tver Oblast (2008-03).svg
Location of Tver Oblast in Russia
Vyshny Volochyok is located in Tver Oblast
Vyshny Volochyok
Vyshny Volochyok
Location of Vyshny Volochyok in Tver Oblast
Coordinates: 57°35′N 34°34′E / 57.583°N 34.567°E / 57.583; 34.567Coordinates: 57°35′N 34°34′E / 57.583°N 34.567°E / 57.583; 34.567
Coat of Arms of Vyshny Volochek (Tver oblast).png
Flag of Vyshny Volochyok (Tver oblast).png
Coat of Arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of December 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Tver Oblast[1]
Administratively subordinated to Vyshny Volochyok Okrug[1]
Administrative center of Vyshnevolotsky District,[2] Vyshny Volochyok Okrug[1]
Municipal status (as of September 2006)
Urban okrug Vyshny Volochyok Urban Okrug[3]
Administrative center of Vyshny Volochyok Urban Okrug,[3] Vyshnevolotsky Municipal District[3]
Representative body City Duma[citation needed]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 52,370 inhabitants[4]
Rank in 2010 311th
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[5]
First mention 1471[6]
Town status since 1770[6]
Postal code(s)[7] 171151 - 171168
Dialing code(s) +7 48233[citation needed]
Official website
Vyshny Volochyok on WikiCommons

Vyshny Volochyok or Vyshny Volochok (Russian: Вы́шний Волочёк or Вы́шний Волочо́к) is a town in Tver Oblast, Russia. Population: 52,370 (2010 Census);[4] 56,405 (2002 Census);[8] 64,789 (1989 Census).[9]

Geography and etymology[edit]

The town is located 119 kilometers (74 mi) northwest of Tver, in the Valdai Hills, between the Tvertsa and Tsna Rivers, on the watershed between the basins of the Volga and the Baltic Sea. Hence the town's name is translated from Russian as "Upper Portage".

History[edit]

The portage between the Tsna and the Tvertsa existed from the medieval times as confirmed by archaeological atrifacts found in the area. Vyshny Volochyok as a settlement was mentioned in chronicles in 1471.[6] In 1703-1722, Peter the Great had a canal constructed to link the two rivers (Vyshny Volochyok Waterway). In the 1740, the road connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg was built. These two events gave a start to the fast economic development of Vyshny Volochyok, which later also became a major center of textile manufacture and glass production. In 1772, the first fair was held, and in the first half of the 19th century the road was rebuilt in stone. In 1851, the railroad construction followed.[6]

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Vyshny Volochyok was included into Ingermanlandia Governorate (since 1710 known as Saint Petersburg Governorate), and in 1727 Novgorod Governorate split off. On May 28, 1770 Vyshny Volochyok was granted town rights, and on April 2, 1772 Vyshnevolotsky Uyezd of Novgorod Governorate was established, with the seat in Vyshny Volochyok. In 1775, Tver Viceroyalty was formed from the lands which previously belonged to Moscow and Novgorod Governorates, and Vyshny Volochyok was transferred to Tver Viceroyalty, which in 1796 was transformed into Tver Governorate.[10]

On July 12, 1929 the governorates and uyezds were abolished. Vyshnevolotsky District, with the administrative center in Vyshny Volochyok, was established within Tver Okrug of Moscow Oblast. On July 23, 1930, the okrugs were abolished, and the districts were directly subordinated to the oblast. On January 29, 1935 Kalinin Oblast was established, and Vyshny Volochyok was transferred to Kalinin Oblast.[11] In 1990, Kalinin Oblast was renamed Tver Oblast.

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Vyshny Volochyok serves as the administrative center of Vyshnevolotsky District,[2] even though it is not a part of it.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as Vyshny Volochyok Okrug—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, Vyshny Volochyok Okrug is incorporated as Vyshny Volochyok Urban Okrug.[3]

Economy[edit]

Industry[edit]

The economy of Vyshny Volochyok is based on timber, glassmaking, and textile industries.[6]

Transportation[edit]

The railroad connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg passes through Vyshny Volochyok.

The M10 highway, which connects Moscow and St. Petersburg, passes theough the city as well. A road connecting to Maksatikha, Bezhetsk, and Rybinsk branches out east. There are local roads as well, with the bus traffic originating from Vyshny Volochyok.

The Tvertsa and the Msta are connected by the Vyshny Volochyok Waterway, constructed in the 18th century to provide for a waterway connecting Moscow and Saint Petersburg, in particular, the Neva and the Volga. Currently, there is no passenger navigation.

Culture and recreation[edit]

Vyshny Volochyok contains twenty-four cultural heritage monuments of federal significance and additionally forty-four objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local significance. The federal monuments are the canals, dams, and embankments of the Vyshny Volochyok Waterway, the former Serdykov Estate related to the visits of Peter the Great to Vyshny Volochyok, as well as a number of buildings in the city center, including the trading arcades.[12]

Vyshny Volochyok hosts a local museum which was open in 1932 (formally, it is a division of the Tver State United Museum). There is also a theater.[6]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Law #34-ZO
  2. ^ a b Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 28 212», в ред. изменения №243/2014 от 18 апреля 2014 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division . Code 28 212, as amended by the Amendment #243/2014 of April 18, 2014. ).
  3. ^ a b c d Law #4-ZO
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  5. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  6. ^ a b c d e f Медведев, Сергей Васильевич (2012). "Визитная карточка Вышнего Волочка" (in Russian). Ирида-Прос. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  7. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  8. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  9. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  10. ^ "История Вышневолоцкого района" (in Russian). Administration of Vyshnevolotsky District. Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  11. ^ "Справка об изменениях в административно-территориальном делении Тверской губернии - Калининской области" (in Russian). Архивы России. Retrieved 30 October 2013. 
  12. ^ "Памятники истории и культуры народов Российской Федерации" (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Culture. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 

Sources[edit]

  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №34-ЗО от 17 апреля 2006 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области», в ред. Закона №111-ЗО от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Тверской области "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Тверской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №17 (специальный выпуск), 19 апреля 2006 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #34-ZO of April 17, 2006 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast, as amended by the Law #111-ZO of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Law of Tver Oblast "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Tver Oblast". Effective as of the official publication date.).
  • Законодательное Собрание Тверской области. Закон №4-ЗО от 18 января 2005 г. «Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов», в ред. Закона №65-ЗО от 24 июля 2012 г. «О внесении изменения в статью 2 Закона Тверской области "Об установлении границ муниципальных образований Тверской области и наделении их статусом городских округов, муниципальных районов"». Вступил в силу через десять дней после официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Тверские ведомости", №3, 21–27 января 2005 г. (Legislative Assembly of Tver Oblast. Law #4-ZO of January 18, 2005 On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts, as amended by the Law #65-ZO of July 24, 2012 On Amending Article 2 of the Law of Tver Oblast "On Establishing the Borders of the Municipal Formations of Tver Oblast and on Granting Them the Status of Urban Okrugs, Municipal Districts". Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).