W. J. Lincoln
William Joseph Lincoln (1870–August 1917) was an Australian playwright, theatre manager, film director and screenwriter in the silent era. He produced, directed and/or wrote 23 films between 1911 and 1916.
Film historians Graham Shirley and Brian Adams wrote of him that "it is probably that all his movies "were more like stage tableux than films. However, with the right ingredients at their disposal the best of Lincoln's early productions were well-received".
W. J. Lincoln was born in Melbourne and was bought up in St Kilda. He worked as a playwright and a stage actor in Melbourne, his early plays including The Power of Wealth and The Bush King for the Alfred Dampier Company.
In 1904 and 1905 he managed film tours around Australia and New Zealand for J.C. Williamson Ltd with much success. In 1908 he was manager of the Paradise of Living Pictures movie theatre in St Kilda, Melbourne, Victoria, and had begun to write and direct films for show in the theatre.
Lincoln made his film debut as director and writer with It Is Never Too Late to Mend (1911) for the Tait brothers. They appointed him director of their new company, Amalgamated Pictures, for whom he made six films over the next year.
The Taits withdrew from film production and in 1913 Lincoln become owner of the "Paradise", and then partnered with Godfrey Cass to make films as the Lincoln-Cass Film Company. The company survived for only one year, but in that time it made eight films.
He was originally supposed to write and direct but by this stage his alcoholism had gotten out of control, causing him to be removed as director of Get-Rich-Quick Wallingford (1916).
In October 1915 it was announced that Lincoln "has been in poor health lately, and has had to take things quietly. He is contemplating spending a few weeks at one of the mountain resorts, and while there will looks over, manuscripts of some big film, factories which are under consideration for future production."
Lincoln later formed Lincoln-Barnes Productions in partnership with G.H. Barnes, continuing to make films until 1916. His drinking got worse and he died in Sydney in August 1917. At the time of his death he was working on an adaptation of the stage play The Worst Woman in London called The Worst Woman in Sydney.
An obituary described him as:
One of the stoutest champions of Australian moving picture production. Although his sanguine views of the business as a profitable investment were not shared by all his friends, it was conceded by everyone who kn6w him, that he had the courage of his convictions. In the early years of moving picture development, as a medium for dramatic expression, Mr . Lincoln achieved success as a maker of photodramas. Undaunted by the-fact that studio facilities were confined to improvisations of one sort and another, that practical experience was only to be acquired by spending money and risking failure, he stuck to his work, and secured results that, were the more to be commended in that they were obtained under such' discouraging conditions. That Australia could not keep pace in the' general upward trend in production, was not the fault of Lincoln and others who strove to establish the industry here.
Lincoln married Pearl Ireland in 1896 and they had one child, a daughter Marguerite, born in 1897.
- Moonlite (1910) – based on his play Captain Moonlite
- Captain Midnight, the Bush King (1911) – based on his play
- It Is Never Too Late to Mend (1911) – based on his stage adaptation of novel, writer, director
- The Mystery of a Hansom Cab (1911) – director
- The Luck of Roaring Camp (1911) – writer, director
- Called Back (1911) – writer, director
- The Lost Chord (1911) – director
- The Bells (1911) – based on his stage adaptation of the play, writer, director
- The Double Event (1911) – writer, director
- After Sundown (lost, c. 1911) – director
- Breaking the News (1912) – writer, director
- Rip Van Winkle (1912) – director
- The Sick Stockrider (1913) – director
- Moondyne (1913) – director
- The Remittance Man (1913) – director
- Transported (1913) – director
- The Road to Ruin (1913) – director
- The Crisis (1913) – director
- The Reprieve (1913) – director
- The Wreck (1913) – director
- Within Our Gates (1915) (aka Deeds That Won Gallipoli) – writer
- The Life's Romance of Adam Lindsay Gordon (1916) – writer, producer, director
- Within the Law (1916) – writer
- Get-Rich-Quick Wallingford (1916) – writer
- Nurse Cavell (1916) – director, writer, producer
- La Revanche (1916) – director, writer, producer
- Officer 666 (1916) – writer
Select theatre credits
- One Summer's Eve (1890) – writer
- The Bush King (1893) – writer. Rewritten by Lincoln and Alfred Dampier (as Adam Pierre) in 1900
- An Affair of Honour (1897) – one act play, writer
- The Power of Wealth (1900) – writer
- Little Red Riding Hood (pantomime) (1903) – writer of the book
- "IN THE BARBER'S SHOP.". Prahran Telegraph (Vic.: National Library of Australia). 1 September 1917. p. 6. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Graham Shirley and Brian Adams, Australian Cinema: The First Eighty Years, Currency Press 1989 p 42
- Bateman, p 173
- "Advertising.". Kalgoorlie Miner (WA: National Library of Australia). 23 August 1904. p. 7. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "THE BLANCHE ARRAL SEASON.". The Sydney Morning Herald (National Library of Australia). 5 September 1906. p. 12. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "PARADISE" AT ST. KILDA.". The Argus (Melbourne: National Library of Australia). 4 October 1909. p. 9. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Peter Fogarty, 'The Screening of St Kilda: A History of St Kilda's Cinemas', St Kilda Historical Series Number Two: Cinemas
- "Advertising.". Williamstown Chronicle (Vic.: National Library of Australia). 4 October 1913. p. 6. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- "MUSIC AND DRAMA.". The Mercury (Hobart, Tas.: National Library of Australia). 4 September 1917. p. 7. Retrieved 19 April 2012.
- "THE PICTURE SHOWS.". Winner (Melbourne: National Library of Australia). 20 October 1915. p. 10. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Andrew Pike and Ross Cooper, Australian Film 1900–1977: A Guide to Feature Film Production, Melbourne: Oxford University Press, 1998, 12.
- Bateman p 174
- "PROLIFIC STAGE WRITER.". Winner (Melbourne: National Library of Australia). 29 August 1917. p. 10. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- Bateman p173
- Bateman,p 173
- "THE VICTORIAN ORCHESTRA.". Table Talk (Melbourne: National Library of Australia). 5 December 1890. p. 14. Retrieved 26 October 2014.
- An Affair of Honour at AustLit
- The Power of Wealth at AustLit
- "AMUSEMENTS. CRITERION.—"POWER OF WEALTH.".". The Sydney Morning Herald (National Library of Australia). 20 August 1900. p. 9. Retrieved 8 September 2013.
- "PALACE—"LITTLE RED RIDING HOOD.".". The Referee (Sydney: National Library of Australia). 27 April 1904. p. 10. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
- Bateman, Mary "W. J. Lincoln", Cinema Papers, June–July 1980
- W. J. Lincoln at the Internet Movie Database
- W. J. Lincoln at AustLit (subscription required)
- W. J. Lincoln at Australian Variety Theatre Archive
- W. J. Lincoln at National Film and Sound Archive
- "PICTURE PROFILES IN THE OLDEN DAYS", a 1916 article by W. J. Lincoln on the history of Australian filmmaking
- 1902 article by Lincoln on the arts
- "A Bush Funeral", 1907 article by Lincoln