W. P. Auld
William Patrick Auld (27 May 1840 – 2 September 1912), usually known by his initials or as "Patrick", was an Adelaide, South Australian vigneron and wine merchant born in Stalybridge (near Manchester, England), the son of Patrick Auld (1811 – 21 January 1886) and Eliza Auld (née McKinnell, 1806 – 8 July 1873).
He took part in John McDouall Stuart's sixth expedition (Dec 1861 – Dec 1862) which successfully crossed Australia from south to north. He was also a member of B. T. Finniss's 1864 expedition to select a capital for the Northern Territory – during this expedition an incident occurred which resulted in his being tried for murder of an Aborigine.
For many years he managed his father's famous vineyard "Auldana" and was recognised as an accomplished vigneron and wine judge.
Father founds "Auldana"
Patrick and Eliza Auld, with son William Patrick and daughters Agnes and Georgiana, arrived in South Australia on 6 April 1842 on the Fortitude. The father set up as a wine and spirit merchant in the Old Exchange Buildings in Hindley Street and shortly after purchased two lots of land, each of 230 acres at £1 per acre, in Magill which he named "Auldana". In 1847 or 1849 the father sold the Hindley Street business to Messrs. Disher and Milne and the family returned to England, enrolling the son at an institution named "King's College", perhaps King's College School.
The father returned to Adelaide alone in 1852, building a residence on one block of "Auldana" and between 1846 and 1856 developed the other as a vineyard which in February 1862 he floated the South Auldana Vineyard Association with a capital of £12,500. Directors of the Association were Abraham Scott, George Tinline (banker and uncle of Sir George Murray), John Hodgkiss, Patrick Auld and William Wadham. In 1863 they sent a shipment of wines to the London Exhibition which was favourably received, but the Association went into voluntary liquidation in October 1865. Around this time he set up a wine export business in Gilbert Place. In 1876 he had 104 acres under vines.
Education and employment
In 1853 or 1854, the family returned to South Australia where a young W. P. Auld completed his education at J. L. Young's Adelaide Educational Institution, and secured a cadet position with G. W. Goyder, Surveyor General of South Australia.
Stuart's sixth expedition
In 1861, W. P. Auld he was selected to join the sixth Stuart expedition.
- John McDouall Stuart officially set out on 25 October 1861 from ... the residence of James and Catherine Chambers in North Adelaide. The party physically left Adelaide on 7 November. This was his third, and ultimately successful attempt to cross Australia. On 24 July 1862, they planted the Union Jack on the beach of Van Diemen's Gulf. The Expedition completed the first European crossing of Australia, from Adelaide to Van Diemen Gulf, passing through the Centre of the Continent, and returning along the same route without loss of life.
The Finniss expedition
In 1864 the South Australian government charged B. T. Finniss with finding a suitable site by the Adelaide River for the capital of the Northern Territory. Auld, as surveyor, was one of the party that left Port Adelaide on the "Henry Ellis" on 23 April 1864 for Adam Bay. He was a member of the exploration party led by surgeon Belgrave Ninnis which arrived at Palmerston on HMS Beatrice in April 1865. He explored areas west of the Adelaide River as far as Howard River, King Creek and Port Darwin.
Murders of Aborigines
During the Finniss expedition Auld was accused of murder of an aboriginal man at either Adam Bay, or Chambers Bay, near Escape Cliffs.
(from a letter from Auld to his father)
- The Colonel (Finniss) then gave orders that seven horsemen were to be in readiness to start next morning and try to find the natives' camp, and recover the goods they had stolen from us, and to treat them as felons. I went over to Chambers' Bay with two men, acting aa scouts. Fifty (natives) tried to surround us. I shot at one, and sent one of the men to tell the footmen to come to our assistance. They were showing real fighting. Directly the footmen made their appearance the blacks disappeared like magic into the shrub. We recovered a quantity of the stores and goods. The Doctor, (Dr Walker, Protector of Aborigines) I believe, has brought a charge against me for shooting the black. He sent it to the Governor, but he would not receive it; so I hear be intends sending it to Adelaide. It is only done out of ill-feeling to the Colonel.
In another letter, he wrote
- The natives are not very numerous here, but they are great thieves and very cunning and artful. There have been two shot by our party here; one, I think was justifiable, and the other a cold-blooded murder.
It is not recorded whether those responsible were ever apprehended or tried, nor is it clear whether the first related to himself.
At the trial no evidence was brought for the prosecution, rather there was a report that the man shot at (named Dombey or Bombey) was still alive. Auld was acquitted when the two witnesses against him did not take the stand (one, Packard, had accidentally drowned) but he aroused considerable public antipathy by then attempting to claim costs from parliament, a move which was defeated after strenuous opposition from (among others) H.B.T. Strangways, who was contemptuous of Auld's defence that he was following Finniss's orders.
Back in Adelaide
On 1 September Police trooper Potter was sent to Adam Bay 23 September 1866 on the "Ellen Lewis" with warrants for the arrest of Auld's fellow-accused William Dougall and Adam Chandler. Auld (who had returned earlier, perhaps on the "Coorong" on 6 April 1866) had already been charged and was out on bail.
On 15 November 1866 he married Eliza Hartland Strawbridge (1842? – 20 February 1916), eldest daughter of William S. Strawbridge (1843–1911), who replaced Goyder as Surveyor General, and Eliza Stockholm Strawbridge (1818–1897). Eliza wrote poetry in collaboration with her mother, and published a volume of her own in 1913.
- Their daughter, Edith Mary Auld (30 October 1867–25 August 1928) married Edward E. Cleland.
- Elder son William George "George" Auld (3 December 1868 – 24 February 1926) was for some time partner in W. P. Auld and Sons. He was elected auditor for the District of Burnside. and for some years councillor for the East Norwood ward of the Kensington and Norwood council. and was a longtime secretary of the Phylloxera Board and president of the South Australian Winegrowers' Association. As a young man he was a keen rower and lacrosse player and later served in executive positions associated with these sports. He also rode with the Adelaide Hunt Club.
- Younger son Ernest Patrick "Pat" Auld (10 March 1870 – 2 November 1938) was at one time partner in W. P. Auld and Sons, then manager of Tusmore branch of Triton Insurance. He was foundation president of Kensington Cricket Club, secretary of the South Australian branch of the Royal Empire Society and for several years president of the Adelaide Dual Club, whose aims were the appreciation of arts and science.
- A son, born 24 September 1871, lived only a few hours.
- Another daughter, Eliza Adeline (3 September 1872 – 19 December 1872), died of whooping cough.
In 1869 his father Patrick returned to England to advance his wine business, opening the Auldana Vineyard Office at Walbrook House at 37 Walbrook Street, London EC in 1869. In 1870 he handed the business over to Messrs. Leigh and Apps Smith, and the office was moved to Fenchurch Street. In 1871 he formed a partnership Auld, Burton and Co. of Mill Street, behind Hanover Square, to handle his wines. In 1882 Mr. Hally Burton declared himself bankrupt and the trustees sold his share of the business to his assistant Mr. Cocks, who was then stripped of his franchise for unauthorised use of the "Auldana" brand. Around this time the business was renamed Australian Wine Co with an emu for its logo and was in 1885 sold to Aylwin Pownall and as Emu Wine Co. became a major importer of Australian wines to Britain and Canada.
W. P. Auld and Sons Ltd.
In 1888, after his father's death, W. P. Auld sold "Auldana" to its mortgagee Josiah Symon, leaving his home of 43 years. but retained the Gilbert Place business, which in 1910 became W. P. Auld and Sons Ltd. with his sons W. G. "George" Auld and E. P. Auld as executive officers. It is not recorded whether W. P. Auld retained any interest in the company.
George Auld was for many years the company's traveller and E. P. Auld was secretary at least until 1914. In 1923 the company became part of Adelaide Wine and Spirit Co. Ltd. at Hackney Road, Hackney with Walkerville Cooperative Brewing Co. Ltd. the major shareholders, and W. G. Auld as chairman and president. The company was liquidated in 1940. George was for several years president of the Vinegrowers' Association. A third-generation descendant of W. P. Auld, Michael Auld, was manager of Stonyfell Winery's vineyards and cellars around 1950 and a fourth-generation descendant, George Patrick Auld, was in 1977 managing director of Angle Vale Vineyards Pty. Ltd.
In 1893 he was elected president of the South Australian Vignerons' Association. For many years he was a member of the Royal Agricultural & Horticultural Society of South Australia and frequently served as a wine judge. He was a keen horseman (he had often ridden with Adam Lindsay Gordon) and a foundation member of the Adelaide Hunt Club. He was a council member of the Adelaide branch of the Royal Geographic Society and at one time president of the Australian Natives' Association. As a younger man he was interested in amateur theatricals, and was, with W. S. Strawbridge and old-school chum W. H. Phillipps, a member of the Clayton Young Mens Society, and again with Phillipps, the Norwood Young Men's Society He served for a time as councillor for the Magill ward in the District of Burnside.
Patrick Auld (1811 – 21 January 1886) married Eliza McKinnell (1806 – 8 July 1873) ca.1835
- Agnes (ca.1837 - 24 June 1886) married James Pollard (ca.1833 – 6 November 1900) on 10 November 1859, lived at Kapunda then Eudunda.
- Georgiana (1838 - ) never married and lived with her father towards the end of his life
- William Patrick Auld (27 May 1840 – 2 September 1912) married Eliza Hartland Strawbridge (ca.1842 – 20 February 1916) on 15 November 1866 (more details above)
- Edith Mary Auld (30 October 1867 – 25 August 1928) married Edward Erskine Cleland (ca.1869 – 1 July 1943) on 12 April 1893
- William George "George" Auld (3 December 1868 – 24 February 1926) married Ellen Howard "Nellie" Clark (30 July 1861 – 4 November 1936) on 12 August 1893. Nellie was a daughter of John Howard Clark.
- Ernest Patrick "Pat" Auld (10 March 1870 – 2 November 1938)
Auld's Lagoon and the district Auld, both in the greater Darwin area are named for him. Fred's Pass, in the Daly Ranges, and Fred's Pass Road (which, extended, became the Stuart Highway) were named by him for his fellow-explorer Fred Litchfield, whose name is also commemorated in the nearby Litchfield shire. The outer Darwin suburb of Fred's Pass is linked to the name of the old road, not the Pass itself.
The Adelaide suburb of Auldana stands on the site of the old vineyard. One street is named Patrick Auld Drive; others are named for grape varieties: Hermitage Road, Traminer Way, Shiraz Place, Verdelho Court.
- Death notices, Eliza Auld, 15 July 1873, SA Register, p. 16
- 'Auld, Patrick (1811 - 1886)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 3, Melbourne University Press, 1969, pp. 60-61.
- Expedition Six, The South Australian Great Northern Exploring Expedition, December 1861 to December 1862, John McDouall Stuart's Companions, John McDouall Stuart Society
- 1842 ~ Patrick Auld, South Australian AULDs, The AULD's and connected families, www.tizzana.com.au
- Death of Mr. Patrick Auld South Australian Register 8 February 1886 p. 5 accessed 20 February 2011
- Bishop, Geoffrey C. The Vineyards of Adelaide Lynton Publications, Adelaide, 1977
- Death of Mr. W. P. Auld The Advertiser 3 September 1912 p. 9 accessed 21 February 2011
- South Australian Wines in England The South Australian Advertiser, 30 July 1886, p. 6, accessed 20 February 2011
- Gilbert Place is between Hindley Street and Currie Street, near King William Street, Adelaide.
- The South Australian Vintage of 1876 The Register 4 July 1876 p. 6 accessed 20 February 2011
- The South Australian Great Northern Exploring Expedition 1861-1862, johnmcdouallstuart.org.au
- The chosen location, Adam Bay at the mouth of the Adelaide River, was later discarded for Port Darwin.
'Finniss, Boyle Travers (1807 - 1893)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 1, Melbourne University Press, 1966, pp. 377-379.
Finniss Expedition members included: Hon. Colonel Boyle Travers Finniss; Frederick Henry Litchfield; W. P. Auld; William McMinn; ...
Ebenezer Ward, M.P. was clerk and accountant to the Finniss Northern Territory Expedition.
- Shipping Intelligence South Australian Register 25 April 1864 p. 2 accessed 26 February 2011
- Northern Territory, Settlement of Australian States and Territories - "in 1864. Colonel Boyle Travers Finniss was responsible for the settlement,"
- The Northern Expedition South Australian Advertiser 17 December 1864 p. 3 accessed 21 February 2011
- South Australian News, Perth Gazette and W.A. Times, 12 October 1866, p. 3, accessed 21 February 2011
Mr. W. P. Auld has been acquitted on the charge of murdering "Dombey", an aboriginal native, at the Northern Territory. The Crown Prosecutor offered no evidence. The late accounts from Escape Cliff state that Bombey, who was supposed to be murdered, is alive.
- Mr. W. P. Auld South Australian Advertiser 22 December 1866 p. 2 accesssed 21 February 2011
It is much to be regretted that the friends of the above-named gentleman did not dissuade him from applying to Parliament for reimbursement, or compensation, with reference to his trial for shooting a native at Adam Bay. It was in the highest degree improbable that such an application would be successful ...
Article then goes on to state that the paper questions H.B.T. Strangways statements made under parliamentary privilege.
- House of Assembly South Australian Register 21 December 1866 p. 3 accessed 21 February 2011
- Shipping Intelligence South Australian Register 7 April 1866 p.2 accesssed 26 February 2011
- Poems written by Eliza S. Strawbridge and daughter Eliza Hartland Auld, 1867–1894, 1906, nd
- Poetry written by Mrs Eliza Stockholm Strawbridge and her daughter Eliza Hartland Auld.
- Mrs Strawbridge's poetry includes some printed examples, pasted in a leather-covered volume. The 1867 poem relates to the arrival of the 'Galatea' with the Duke of Edinburgh on a royal tour of the Australian colonies. Poems with dates were written between 1867 and 1893.
- Another notebook has handwritten references to poetry published in the 'Adelaide Miscellany' & 'Observer Miscellany', with the year and issues, with some of her poems, written in another hand, dating from 1868-1875.
- (The end of the volume has a draft of a letter written by her son William Strawbridge relating to the New Church.)
- Also includes typescripts of poems and single pages. Small volumes of Mrs Eliza Auld's 'Lyrical Poems' were given as Christmas gifts to her brother William Strawbridge and his wife, and to her nieces Wynne and Nellie, in 1906.
- Lyrical poems / by Eliza Hartland Auld, 1913, Melbourne : Johnson and Stone's Print Shop
- Births, Maarriages, Deaths South Australian Register – 2 January 1873 supplement p. 8 accessed 21 February 2011
- Obituary, Mrs Edith Mary Cleland, 27 August 1928, The Register, p. 12
- New Supreme Court Judge, Mr. E. E. Cleland, K.C. appointed, 6 March 1926, The Advertiser, p. 22
- District Council Nominationa South Australian Register 18 June 1889 p. 7 accessed 20 February 2011
- Kensington and Norwood The Register 28 November 1904 p. 3 accessed 20 February 2011
- Death of Mr. W. G. Auld The Advertiser 25 February 1926 p. 16 accessed 20 February 2011
- Death of Mr. E. P. Auld The Advertiser 3 November 1938 p. 9 accessed 20 February 2011
- Births Marriages and Deaths South Australian Register 10 October 1871 supplement p. 8 accessed 20 February 2011
- To the Editor South Australian Register 6 February 1869 p. 3 accessed 20 February 2011
- The Anglo-Australian in London Queanbeyan Age 24 March 1870 p. 4 accessed 20 February 2011
- Family Notices South Australian Register 8 February 1886 p. 4 accessed 20 February 2011
- Complimentary social p. 5 South Australian Advertiser 24 May 1888 p.5 accessed 20 February 2011
- W. P. Auld & Sons The Advertiser 1 October 1910 p. 8 accessed 20 February 2011
- Notice to Shareholders The Advertiser 9 April 1914 p. 2 accessed 26 February 2011
- Adelaide Wine and Spirit Company The Advertiser 4 April 1923 p. 13 accessed 26 February 2011
- Sale of Valuable Properties Sydney Morning Herald 23 November 1940 p. 22 accessed 26 February 2011
- Mr W. P. Auld's Death The Barrier Miner 7 September 1912 p. 3 accessed 20 February 2011
- Royal Geographical Society The Advertiser 5 August 1911 p. 16 accessed 20 February 2011
- Topics of the Day South Australian Advertiser Friday 19 February 1864 p.2 accessed 20 February 2011
- Summary for Europe South Australian Advertiser Wednesday 29 March 1871 p. 6 accessed 20 February 2011
- Burnside 3 July South Australian Register 8 July 1876 p. 7 accessed 20 February 2011