|This article needs additional citations for verification. (December 2012)|
|Buffalo - Niagara Falls, New York
|Branding||WIVB 4 (general)
News 4 (newscasts)
|Slogan||We're 4 Buffalo (general)
Western New York's News Leader (newscasts)
|Channels||Digital: 39 (UHF)
Virtual: 4 (PSIP)
(Sale to Media General pending)
(WIVB Broadcasting, LLC)
|First air date||May 14, 1948|
|Call letters' meaning||We're IV (4) Buffalo (former analog channel number and current PSIP number)|
|Former callsigns||WBEN-TV (1948–1977)|
|Former channel number(s)||Analog:
4 (VHF, 1948–2009)
|Former affiliations||NBC (1948–1954, secondary from 1949)
ABC (secondary, 1948–1956)
DuMont (secondary, 1948–1955)
|Transmitter power||790 kW|
|Height||417 m|
WIVB-TV, virtual channel 4 (UHF digital channel 39), is a CBS-affiliated television station located in Buffalo, New York, United States. The station is owned by LIN Media, as part of a duopoly with CW affiliate WNLO (channel 23). The two stations share studios on Elmwood Avenue in North Buffalo, and WIVB-TV's transmitter is located in Colden, New York.
- 1 History
- 2 Digital television
- 3 Programming
- 4 Cable disputes
- 5 News operation
- 6 References
- 7 External links
The station first signed on the air on May 14, 1948 as WBEN-TV. It is Buffalo's first television station, and is the fifth-oldest station in New York state. The station was originally owned by the Butler family, along with the Buffalo Evening News and WBEN radio (930 AM and 106.5 FM, now WTSS at 102.5). Its radio sister had been one of CBS Radio's first 16 affiliates when that network premiered in 1928, but by that point had switched networks to NBC Blue. Accordingly, channel 4 originally signed on as an NBC television affiliate. WBEN-TV picked up CBS programming in January 1949, and has remained with that network ever since.
As the only station in Buffalo for its first several years, channel 4 also carried secondary affiliations with ABC and DuMont. It lost NBC when WGR-TV (channel 2, now WGRZ) signed on in August 1954, and ABC to WGR-TV when NBC moved its programs to newly purchased WBUF-TV (channel 17, now WNED-TV) in 1956. WBEN-TV continued to share DuMont programming with WGR-TV until 1956 when that network ceased operations. It operated from studios on the 18th floor of the Statler Hotel until 1960, when it moved to its current facilities on Elmwood Avenue. That studio had originally been built for WBUF-TV, which had gone dark in 1958, two months prior to the sign-on of present-day ABC affiliate WKBW-TV (channel 7).
One early show running from the late-1940s until 1970 was Meet the Millers, a weekday afternoon series featuring Bill and Mildred Miller providing cooking and household tips. Two educational local shows aimed toward children were the hour-long Fun to Learn consisting of 15-minute segments which taught various subjects including the language of Spanish at 5 p.m. weekdays and the half-hour Your Museum of Science, which featured the currator of the Buffalo Museum of Science on Saturday mornings. Another staple throughout the 1950s and early-1960s was a short visit to the North Pole with Santa Claus and Forgetful the Elf. This was a daily show that aired only during December and was sponsored by Hengerer's Department Store. During the late-1970s, WIVB took over production of the public-access cable television program Disco Step by Step.
When the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) disallowed same market co-ownership of newspapers and broadcast licenses in the early 1970s, the combination of the Buffalo Evening News and WBEN-AM-FM-TV was grandfathered under the new rule. However, the 1974 death of Katherine Butler (longtime owner and publisher of the Evening News) led to the placement of the Evening News's properties in a blind trust (since Butler left no heirs). This trust company then sold the newspaper to its current owner, Berkshire Hathaway in 1977. This sale brought an end to 101 years of Butler family ownership of the Evening News. With the loss of the WBEN stations' grandfathered protection, Berkshire Hathaway opted to keep the newspaper and sell off the broadcasting properties. WBEN-TV was sold to newspaper publisher Robert Howard of Oceanside, California for $25.5 million. The new owner changed channel 4's callsign to WIVB, which stands for "We're IV (4) Buffalo", on November 1, 1977. The WBEN callsign remains on 930 AM, which along with its FM sister station had been sold to Larry Levite's Algonquin Broadcasting (both of those stations are currently owned by Entercom Communications). WIVB added the -TV suffix to its legal call sign in 1981. Channel 4 was then sold to King World Productions (at that time a separate entity from both Viacom and CBS) in 1988.
WIVB nearly dropped its CBS affiliation and became an NBC affiliate in 1994, when King World put itself up for sale (NBC parent company General Electric's announced purchase of the company never materialized). After attempts by Westinghouse Broadcasting (whose parent company would later purchase CBS) and New World Communications (to make the station a Fox affiliate) to purchase the station fell through, WIVB was sold to LIN TV Corporation (now LIN Media) in 1995; King World is now owned by CBS Corporation and has since been absorbed into CBS Television Distribution. The new owner renewed the station's CBS affiliation through a long-term contract; it is currently set to expire at the end of 2014. At the time of the aborted NBC purchase, WIVB's viewership was in a strong second place in the local ratings, while NBC's existing affiliate WGRZ was in third place, although not as distant as it had been throughout much of the 1980s and early 1990s. Both stations have since passed then-first-place WKBW.
WIVB did gain the local rights to the National Football League's Buffalo Bills from WGRZ in 1998, when the American Football Conference package moved to CBS. WGRZ had aired most Bills games since the team's inception. Van Miller, channel 4's longtime sports director, was the Bills' play-by-play announcer from 1960 to 2006, except for a brief time in the 1970s when WKBW-AM was the flagship.
In 2000, LIN bought the station then known as WNEQ, the market's secondary PBS member station. On January 23, 2001, WNEQ was relaunched as independent station WNLO; that station became a UPN affiliate in 2002. The previous UPN stations, WNGS/WONS, later switched to the Retro Television Network and were eventually sold to the Daystar Television Network (Daystar has since sold WNGS, which today serves as Buffalo's Me-TV and This TV affiliate under new call letters WBBZ-TV). In September 2006, WNLO became Buffalo's CW affiliate. On May 18, 2007, LIN announced that it was exploring strategic alternatives that could have resulted in the sale of the company; such a sale would not materialize until March 21, 2014, when it announced a merger with Media General. Said sale will bring WIVB and WNLO under common ownership with ABC affiliate WTEN and the same management as Fox affiliate WXXA in Albany.
|Channel||Video||Aspect||PSIP Short Name||Programming|
|4.1||1080i||16:9||WIVB-HD||Main WIVB-TV programming / CBS|
WIVB-TV discontinued regular programming on its analog signal, over VHF channel 4, at 9:00 a.m. on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate. The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 39. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 4. It is one of several Buffalo area stations seen in the southern portion of the Canadian province of Ontario, including Toronto, which is the station's largest target audience. On April 30, 2009, Shaw Broadcast Services and Shaw Direct stopped transmitting the WIVB signal, replacing it with CBS-owned WWJ-TV in Detroit. WIVB also served as the default CBS station for portions of Steuben County, New York, due to the absence of a local affiliate in the Elmira market; this lasted until 2009 when Elmira ABC affiliate WENY-TV launched a third digital subchannel that is affiliated with CBS.
WIVB currently airs no local non-news programming, except for the public affairs program By the People, which has been a staple of its programming on Sunday mornings at 6 a.m. for many decades. Syndicated programming includes Rachael Ray, Bethenny, The Dr. Oz Show, Wheel of Fortune and Jeopardy! (the last two of which were acquired in 2012 after having spent most of their runs on WKBW); on weekends, the station airs Star Wars: The Clone Wars, Law & Order, Numb3rs and Criminal Minds, all of which air late at night. The majority of the station's non-network programming on weekends is devoted to infomercials.
Like most LIN-owned CBS affiliates in markets where the company owns a station duopoly, WIVB does not broadcast CBS This Morning Saturday nor (in most cases) the weekend editions of the CBS Evening News, broadcasting extended hour-long local evening newscasts on Saturdays and Sundays instead. Sister station WNLO airs the weekend editions of the CBS Evening News but, unlike most LIN duopoly stations in this scenario, does not carry CBS This Morning Saturday as it is committed to The CW's Vortexx block on Saturday mornings. As an exception, if CBS sports programming runs into the 6:30 half-hour on weekends, local news will air from 6-7 on WNLO and the abbreviated network newscast, if any, may air on WIVB.
As well, on the numerous occasions that CBS's coverage of the men's final of tennis's US Open was pushed back from Sunday to Monday afternoon (and occasionally other sports coverage held over to weekdays), WIVB has delegated this coverage to WNLO in order to air its regular local and syndicated programming. If necessary due to the length of the match, WIVB will simulcast coverage during the usual CBS Evening News timeslot and take over coverage fully once WNLO goes to CW programming at 8:00 p.m. The station did carry the final in full in 2013, when it was scheduled for Monday instead of Sunday from the outset. This issue will no longer apply as of 2015 when ESPN becomes the exclusive carrier of the tournament.
WIVB has had significant contract disputes with both of the major cable television providers in the station's coverage area, Time Warner Cable (which covers most of Western New York) and Atlantic Broadband (which covers much of its Northern Pennsylvania area as well as the rest of the Western New York region). In both cases, WIVB demanded a rights fee of 25 cents per month per subscriber (in addition to another 25 cents for sister station WNLO) and refused to allow the carriers the right to carry the signal. The agreement with Time Warner expired on October 2, 2008. WIVB and WNLO were taken off Time Warner Cable at 12:30 a.m. on October 3 and were replaced with CBS College Sports Network and HBO Family respectively when an agreement between LIN Television and Time Warner Cable could not be reached. According to the station, LIN Television and Time Warner Cable were still trying to work on a deal even after the channels were dropped. Time Warner Cable stated negotiations broke off at the time of the shutoff.
After that, WIVB openly advocated for Time Warner Cable customers to switch to Dish Network. Time Warner, in turn, gave away free antennas and struck a deal with the Buffalo Bills Radio Network to simulcast the audio of the games on cable channel 4. Buffalo Bills games and some CBS programs were restored in Niagara County through Toronto-based CTV station CFTO-TV (and in other parts of the region through WROC-TV and WSEE-TV). In Erie, Cattaraugus, Allegany, and western Steuben counties, WIVB continues to (in addition to block its signal) enforce its syndication exclusivity on Bills games preventing them from being brought in from another market. An agreement was reached between LIN TV and Time Warner Cable on October 29 allowing WIVB and WNLO to return to Time Warner channel lineups. The deal, the financial terms of which were not made available, was to expire on May 31, 2013.
There was no agreement or negotiation with Atlantic Broadband, but that company continued to retransmit WIVB without permission through 2008. Atlantic Broadband announced it would discontinue carrying WIVB in favor of WSEE-TV on January 1, 2009 and were apparently making no effort to negotiate a new deal. However, due to this date falling on a holiday, WIVB granted a 30-day extension at the end of which was an agreement that allowed WIVB to continue to be carried uninterrupted. The agreement, originally set to expire in January 2012, was presumably renewed, as the channel remains available on that company's providers. WNLO was not included in the agreement, and CW service is now provided in these areas by WSEE-DT2.
On March 4, 2011, LIN Media pulled WIVB and WNLO from Dish Network (the same service WIVB and WNLO explicitly advised viewers to change to during the Time Warner Cable dispute) due to the expiration of the existing retransmission consent agreement; the blackout lasted nine days.
WIVB-TV presently broadcasts 29½ hours of locally produced newscasts each week (with 4½ hours on weekdays, and 3½ hours each on Saturdays and Sundays). In addition, the station produces an additional 8½ hours of newscasts weekly for WNLO (with 1½ hours on weekdays, and a half-hour each on Saturdays and Sundays). This totals 38 hours of newscasts on a weekly basis between the two stations; in regards to the number of hours devoted to news programming, it is the highest local newscast output among all broadcast television stations in the Buffalo market (in contrast, WGRZ produces 34½ hours and WKBW produces 24½ hours of newscasts each week).
Appropriately for a station with roots in a newspaper, WIVB has a strong news tradition. WBEN-TV was the early news leader in Buffalo until approximately 1972, when (briefly) WGR-TV and then (more long-term) WKBW overtook it. Channel 4 then spent most of the next 30 years as a solid, if usually distant, runner-up to WKBW, well ahead of market laggard WGR-TV (later WGRZ). However, it was a major beneficiary of various changes (including WKBW changing hands to a smaller company, aging of its news team, and general programming mistakes) at WKBW in the mid-1990s. Most notably, it snagged local rights to The Oprah Winfrey Show from WKBW in 1995. By 2000, after the retirement of WKBW's longtime anchorman Irv Weinstein and weather anchor Tom Jolls – the last of the traditional "Irv, Rick and Tom" team at channel 7 – and Nielsen's adoption of market metering in Buffalo at the same time, WIVB had taken over the number-one spot for the first time in over a quarter century. It remained number one for the next decade until a series of budget cuts, a retransmission consent dispute with Time Warner Cable, and the slow response to replace departing news anchors pushed most of its newscasts to second, behind WGRZ, who has since also come under ownership of a major national media company. By 2013, WIVB, despite producing the most hours of news content, had the smallest news staff of any of the three stations in the market, after WKBW went on a hiring spree to boost its staff.
WIVB has long been considered to favor older viewers, even dating back to the 1970s when its rivals were promoting flashier, more sensational approaches to the news; the station frequently places significant emphasis on its weather operation, which is operated by veteran meteorologists Don Paul and Mike Cejka, both of whom have spent nearly 30 years each at the station, and by Todd Santos, a longtime meteorologist for The Weather Channel and NBC Weather Plus before that (in contrast to WGRZ and WKBW, both of whom employ mostly native Western New Yorkers as their meteorologists, WIVB has not had a person raised in the region on its weather team since declining to renew Mary Beth Wrobel's contract in 2009; Paul is from New Jersey while Cejka and Santos are from Massachusetts).
The news operation at WIVB has historically favored a straight newscast, as opposed to the more activist approach of WGRZ (WIVB highlighted this in an advertising campaign in the mid-2000s, when it used the slogan "today's news and tomorrow's weather" and asserted that it "doesn't take sides," a reference to WGRZ's use of the "On Your Side" slogan); however, by 2013, WIVB had begun developing a reputation for ripping off WGRZ's promotional tactics.
This station debuted a weekday morning newscast on September 19, 1994, known as Wake Up!. It was the second local broadcast in the market after WKBW's Good Morning Western New York, which launched in 1987. Unlike the WKBW broadcast, which was (and remains) a weekday-only program, Wake Up! has aired seven days a week from its inception, with a two-hour version (originally only one hour from 1994 to January 2013) airing on Saturdays and Sundays. During the mid-1990s, WIVB used the 24 Hour News Source format, which had previously been used earlier in the decade on WGRZ. In March 2001, WIVB began airing a nightly 10 p.m. newscast on WNLO known as The 10 O'Clock News. During the week, this program competes with WGRZ's prime time newscast that currently airs on Fox Broadcasting Company affiliate WUTV (and previously ran on WPXJ-TV and WNYO-TV); WNLO has led the ratings race at 10 p.m. ever since the program's debut.
Starting on February 2, 2009, WNLO began airing a two-hour extension of WIVB's weekday morning newscast. It has since cut the extended morning show by an hour to make room for a partially brokered local talk show. It also rebroadcasts WIVB's weekend morning newscast and may air the hour-long weekend 6 p.m. newscasts which normally air on WIVB, if CBS Sports programming runs over into the timeslot.
WIVB began broadcasting its newscasts in true high definition on February 1, 2012. It was the last of the television stations in the Buffalo market to upgrade its news programming to HD; WKBW-TV had done so in 2011, and WGRZ aired some HD content as early as February 2010. The 10 p.m. newscast on WNLO was included in the upgrade.
From approximately 1995 until the end of 2009, WIVB built and operated a large network of over eighty AWS/WeatherBug weather stations (under the name "Neighborhood WeatherNet"), mostly located at local schools. WIVB's involvement in the Neighborhood WeatherNet was discontinued at the beginning of 2010, though the stations, now under WeatherBug's control, remain operational. WIVB also previously operated a local Doppler radar in the 1990s and early 2000s (known as "4 x 4 Warn Doppler" because it factored in stations in Rochester, Syracuse and Cleveland), but shut it down in the early 2000s in favor of using data from the nearby National Weather Service Doppler Radar in Cheektowaga.
Accolades and honors
For most of the time since 2000, WIVB has been the most-watched news station in Western New York (according to Nielsen) after rival WKBW's long winning streak ended. The station regularly scores ratings wins for every newscast it airs from morning to night. It has become so dominant in the market that it at one time garnered the highest television ratings for a local newscast in the entire nation, according to advertisements run by the station, an honor regained in February 2008. As of late, rival WGRZ, which has also had strong ratings in the area has begun to challenge WIVB's dominance, specifically in the weeknight 5 and 5:30 newscasts according to Nielsen's May 2007 sweeps data.
This station reclaimed the top position in the November 2007 sweeps although still in a statistical tie with WGRZ, and as of May 2009, is now solidly back in first place. All three stations in the Buffalo market have been, at various times in their history, among the highest-rated stations in the country and they continue to be fiercely competitive. The cable coverage disputes in October 2008 threatened WIVB's high standing, pushing the station to a distant third, but with the official November sweeps out and the disputes resolved, WIVB regained the lead. The end of The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2010, which traditionally has given a strong lead-in to WIVB's newscasts, were expected to mark the end of WIVB's lead in the ratings. Ratings for its replacement for the 2011-12 and 2012-13 seasons, Anderson, had initially been very poor, to the point where despite being placed in an earlier time slot, it had caused harm to both the show airing immediately after it (The Dr. Oz Show) and the evening newscasts, which are currently firmly in second place, halfway between new market leader WGRZ (which has The Ellen DeGeneres Show as a lead-in to its evening newscast) and third-place WKBW (which had The Doctors as its lead-in). By the start of the 2012 season, the ratings for both Anderson and the WIVB newscasts had recovered.
The station and its staff have won several Emmy awards including one in 1999. Meteorologist Don Paul has recently been voted Buffalo's favorite television personality according to advertisements run on the station.
- The WBEN-TV Newsreel (1948–1956)
- The Buffalo-Niagara Falls Report (1956–1960)
- The Big News on 4 (1960–1966)
- The Channel 4 Sign-on/Early/Late/Sign-off Report (1966–1972)
- Channel 4 News (1972–1976)
- First Team News (1976–1978)
- News 4 Buffalo (1978–1992)
- News 4 (1992–present)
- "We're 4 Buffalo" (1982–1992, 2013–present; general slogan)
- "Western New York's No. 1 Newscast" (1984–1992)
- "Your 24-Hour News Source" (1992–1997)
- "First In Western New York"
- "First 4 WNY"
- "4 Today's News, 4 Tomorrow's Weather" (mid-2000s)
- "Gotta Watch 4" (2000–2013)
- "Western New York's News Leader" (2007–present, primary news slogan)
- "Keeping You Connected" (2007–2012, secondary news slogan)
- Diana Fairbanks - weeknights at 5:30 and 10:00 p.m. (WNLO)
- Don Postles - weeknights at 5:00, 5:30, 6:00, 10:00 (WNLO) and 11:00 p.m.
- Lou Raguse - weekends at 6:00, 10:00 and 11:00 p.m.
- Nalina Shapiro - weekday mornings on Wake-Up! (8:00-9:00 a.m. on WNLO), also reporter
- Brittni Smallwood - weekend mornings on Wake-Up! (7:00-9:00 a.m.); also reporter
- Jacquie Walker - weeknights at 5:00, 5:30, 6:00, 10:00 (WNLO) and 11:00 p.m.
- Teresa Weakley - weekday mornings on Wake-Up! (5:00-7:00 on WIVB and 7:00-9:00 a.m. on WNLO) and weekdays at noon
- Jordan Williams - weekday mornings on Wake-Up! (5:00-7:00 on WIVB and 7:00-9:00 a.m. on WNLO); also investigative reporter
- 4 Warn Weather
- Don Paul (AMS Seal of Approval) - chief meteorologist; weeknights at 5:00, 5:30, 6:00, 10:00 (WNLO) and 11:00 p.m.
- Todd Santos (AMS Seal of Approval) - meteorologist; weekday mornings on Wake-Up! (5:00-7:00 on WIVB and 7:00-9:00 a.m. on WNLO) and weekdays at noon 
- Mike Cejka (AMS Seal of Approval) - meteorologist; weekends at 6:00, 10:00 (WNLO) and 11:00 p.m.
- Keith Eichner (Certified Broadcast Meteorologist) - fill-in
- Sports team
- Steve Vesey - sports director; weeknights at 6:00, 10:00 (WNLO) and 11:00 p.m.
- Lauren Brill - sports anchor; weekends at 6:00, 10:00 (WNLO) and 11:00 p.m.
WIVB uses its regular news anchors on weekend sports reports when one of the other two sports anchors is unavailable.
- Ed Drantch - general assignment reporter
- Emily Guggenmos - general assignment reporter; also fill-in anchor
- Keith Kelly - traffic (rotating)
- Rachel Kingston - general assignment reporter
- Elysia Rodriguez - general assignment reporter 
- Luke Moretti - investigative reporter
- Rich Newberg - senior correspondent
- Dr. Peter Ostrow, MD - medical reporter
- George Richert - general assignment reporter
- Gordon Scherer - traffic (rotating)
- Al Vaughters - "Call 4 Action" consumer reporter
Notable former staff
- John Beard – evening anchor (1978–1981; later worked at KNBC and KTTV in Los Angeles; now at WGRZ as anchor of Daybreak)
- Van Miller was associated with WBEN/WIVB's from 1955 until his retirement from the station in 1998. For much of that time he was the station's sports director. He also hosted the station's high school quiz show It's Academic from the late 1960s until the 1990s. He also hosted the bowling show Beat the Champ from 1978 until its cancellation taking over from the retiring Chuck Healey, himself a long-standing news and sports anchor for the station. Probably best known for radio broadcasting Buffalo Bills games on the radio for about four decades.
- John Murphy was the station's sports director from 2008 to 2012. He is best known as the successor to Van Miller as "Voice of the Bills." He now hosts a radio program on WGR.
- Tom Jolls was a news anchor at WBEN-TV in the early 1960s before moving to WKBW-TV in 1965, where he was the weather anchor for 34 years.
- Kevin O'Connell was an anchor at WIVB throughout the 1970s before moving to Los Angeles, where he worked as a weather anchor at KNBC, KABC-TV and KCBS-TV in Los Angeles, as well as hosted the short-lived NBC game show Go!; he returned to Buffalo in the 1980s before moving to WGRZ-TV in the mid-1990s.
- Pam Oliver - reporter (1988–1990; went on to become a sideline reporter for NFL on Fox and NBA on TNT)
- Dick Rifenburg - sports (1951–1982, retired; died in 1994)
- "WBEN-TV, seventh for NBC, opened." Broadcasting - Telecasting, May 24, 1948, pg. 104. 
- "WBEN-TV to CBS; makes 29 for network." Broadcasting - Telecasting, January 17, 1949, pg. 59. 
- Fink, James (March 21, 2014). WIVB, WNLO part of $1.6B TV deal. Business First. Retrieved March 21, 2014.
- RabbitEars TV Query for WIVB
- "DTV Tentative Channel Designations for the First and Second Rounds" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-03-24.
- Pergament, Alan (May 23, 2013). Ch. 4, TWC in money dispute again. The Buffalo News. Retrieved May 23, 2013.
- Atlantic Broadband Customers. WIVB-TV press release. December 19, 2007.
- Holliday, Anne. WIVB Being Pulled from Bradford Lineup. WESB. December 22, 2008.
- Channel 4 still on board for Bradford and Salamanca, N.Y. Bradford Era. January 31, 2009.
- Pergament, Alan (May 26, 2011). Oprah exits, impact to be felt at Ch. 4. Retrieved May 26, 2011.
- Pergament, Alan (September 15, 2011) Beard Dropping Midday News; Ch. 2 News on Early Roll. Still Talkin' TV. Retrieved September 15, 2011.
- Pergament (September 11, 2012). Couric's show has an uphill climb on channel 7. Retrieved September 11, 2012.
- Staff Bios
- "Bio". Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Van Miller Television Sportscaster, Voice of the Buffalo Bills". Greater Buffalo Sports Hall of Fame. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Pergament, Alan (25 June 2012). "Higgins’ Blackout Proposal Is Another Loser". Still Talkin' TV. Retrieved 26 July 2012.
- "The Buffalo Broadcasters: Broadcasting Hall of Fame - 1998 Inductees". Retrieved 15 October 2012.
- "Kevin O'Connell Basic Information". Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- Baker, Vic. "History of WBEN-TV". Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- WIVB.com - Official website
- Query the FCC's TV station database for WIVB - This page lists conflicting data; a request to remove incorrect data has been sent to Hossein Hashemzadeh, firstname.lastname@example.org.