|City of license||Cleveland, Ohio|
|Broadcast area||Greater Cleveland
|Branding||100.7 WMMS: The Buzzard|
|Slogan||Cleveland's Rock Station|
(also on HD Radio)
|Translator(s)||W256BT/Cleveland 99.1 MHz|
|First air date||November 13, 1947 (commercial license)
September 28, 1968 (as WMMS)
|Format||Active rock/hot talk
HD2: Alternative rock
|Callsign meaning||MetroMedia Stereo|
|Former callsigns||WHKX (1947–48)
|Affiliations||City Club of Cleveland
Compass Media Networks
Total Traffic Network
United Stations Radio Networks
|Owner||Clear Channel Media and Entertainment
(Citicasters Licenses, Inc.)
|Sister stations||WAKS, WGAR-FM, WHLK, WMJI, WTAM|
|Webcast||Listen Live (Analog/HD1)
Listen Live (HD2)
WMMS (100.7 FM) – branded 100.7 WMMS: The Buzzard – is a commercial radio station licensed to Cleveland, Ohio, serving Greater Cleveland and much of surrounding Northeast Ohio. Widely regarded as one of the most influential rock stations in America throughout its history, the station has also drawn controversy for unusually aggressive tactics both on and off the air.
Owned by Clear Channel Media and Entertainment and currently broadcasting a mix of active rock and hot talk, WMMS serves as the flagship station for Rover's Morning Glory; the Cleveland affiliate for Skratch 'N Sniff and The House of Hair with Dee Snider; the FM home for the Cleveland Indians; and the home of radio personality Alan Cox. Besides a standard analog transmission, WMMS broadcasts over two HD Radio channels, and is available online via iHeartRadio. The HD2 digital subchannel, which airs alternative rock under the brand 99X, also simulcasts over Cleveland translator W256BT (99.1 FM).
The WMMS studios are located at the former Centerior Energy building in the Cleveland suburb of Independence, while the station transmitter resides in neighboring Seven Hills. The WMMS call letters first referred to an owner – "MetroMedia Stereo" – but have since taken on a variety of other meanings.
- 1 Overview
- 2 History
- 2.1 First years
- 2.2 WHK-FM (100.7)
- 2.3 Progressive rock (1968–73)
- 2.4 Album-oriented rock (1973–94)
- 2.5 Alternative rock (1994–97)
- 2.6 Active rock/mainstream rock (1997–present)
- 2.7 Studio and transmitter locations
- 3 Current programming
- 4 References
- 5 Further reading
- 6 External links
Created in April 1974 as "an ironic twist on Cleveland's down-and-out reputation as a decaying Rust Belt city," the station's longtime promotional mascot has been The Buzzard. In 1981, Radio & Records identified "the malevolent feathered figure" as "the best-known station symbol in the country." "De-emphasized" in the fall of 2007, the iconic scavenger was revived the following spring to coincide with both the station's 40th anniversary and the arrival of current morning personality Rover.
Throughout the 1970s and 80s, WMMS had a stable of personalities that remained fundamentally unchanged, attained a dominant market share in the local ratings and posted market record-high figures "never duplicated by any other station." WMMS played a key role in breaking several major acts in the U.S., including David Bowie, Rush, and Bruce Springsteen. Station employees went on to take director and executive-level positions in the recording industry, namely with labels RCA, Mercury, and Columbia. Considered "a true radio legend," WMMS DJ Kid Leo was chosen for Rolling Stone's "Heavy Hundred: The High and Mighty of the Music Industry" (1980) and named "The Best Disc Jockey in the Country" in a special 1987 issue of Playboy. Noted filmmakers, including Cameron Crowe (Almost Famous) and Paul Schrader (Light of Day), have called on both The Buzzard and its personnel while preparing for various rock-themed productions. WMMS was also a major driving force behind the successful campaign to bring the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to Cleveland.
The station is not without controversy. Although Rolling Stone named WMMS "Best Radio Station" (Large Market) nine straight years (1979–87) as part of the magazine's annual Readers' Poll, the station admitted to stuffing the 1987 ballot following a February 1988 front-page story in The Plain Dealer exposing manipulation. Seven years later, members of both the station's staff and management pled guilty to disrupting a national broadcast of The Howard Stern Show that originated via the local Stern affiliate, cross-town rival WNCX. A federal offense, the act nearly cost WMMS its broadcasting license.
On March 30, 1946, radio station WHK – owned at that time by United Broadcasting Company, a subsidiary of Forest City Publishing, itself the parent company of The Plain Dealer – launched an experimental FM station under the callsign W8XUB at 107.1 megahertz (MHz). On July 31, 1947, W8XUB began broadcasting at 100.7 MHz. On November 13, 1947, the new FM station transitioned from experimental to commercial status; increased its power; and changed its callsign to WHKX.
On November 11, 1948, the station adopted the callsign WHK-FM. In 1958, both WHK and WHK-FM were sold to Metropolitan Broadcasting, itself renamed MetroMedia two years later. Like most early FM stations, WHK-FM mostly simulcast the Top 40 programming of its AM sister station. In 1966, in an effort to make the medium more commercially viable, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) mandated that FM stations could no longer duplicate the programming of their AM sister stations. Seeing a small but significant groundswell of support for the medium in the market, WHK-FM adopted a new progressive rock format on August 15, 1968. WHK-FM became one of a handful of commercial stations in the country to try that format, many of which were owned by MetroMedia. In order to firmly establish a separate identity, and to reflect the station's ownership, the WHK-FM callsign was changed to WMMS ("MetroMedia Stereo") on September 28, 1968.
Progressive rock (1968–73)
MetroMedia found major success with progressive rock at KMET/Los Angeles, KSAN/San Francisco, WMMR/Philadelphia and WNEW-FM/New York, but low ratings and revenue in Cleveland led the company to drop the format at WMMS by May 1969. The station first turned to adult contemporary, then Top 40, big band and finally the Drake-Chenault automated Hit Parade '69.
WMMS reverted to progressive rock on September 11, 1970. Following a legal dispute with a competing station owner over non-compete clauses in their contracts, former WIXY personalities Dick "the Wilde Childe" Kemp and Lou "King" Kirby were signed by MetroMedia. The station briefly battled with WNCR of Nationwide Communications, itself filling the void created by the brief absence of WMMS on the rock scene. Key WNCR personnel – including former WHK-FM/WMMS personalities Martin Perlich and Billy Bass, and station newcomer David Spero – were soon hired by WMMS, taking most of their audience with them. During this time, WMMS was billed first as "Music Means Satisfaction", and later as the place "Where Music Means Something".
Under the leadership of station manager Billy Bass and program director Denny Sanders (who came to WMMS from Boston in 1971), WMMS helped break many new rock artists nationally, most notably David Bowie. Based on considerably high record sales in the Cleveland market, Bowie – in his Ziggy Stardust persona alongside The Spiders from Mars – kicked off his first U.S. tour in the "The Rock Capital" (a term coined by Bass). The WMMS-sponsored concert was a "phenomenal success" and prompted the station to sponsor a second show that year – rarely done at that time for an artist's first tour. This second show sold out immediately, and was held at the city's largest venue: Cleveland Public Hall.
In November 1972, WMMS was sold to Malrite Communications, a Michigan-based firm that relocated to Cleveland upon purchase. Under Malrite ownership, WMMS would become an album-oriented rock (AOR) powerhouse, much in the same vein as its former MetroMedia progressive rock siblings.
Coffee Break Concerts
During this time, WMMS also began broadcasting a remarkable amount of live concerts, many of which originated in Cleveland and were produced by the station itself. The WMMS Coffee Break Concert was a weekly music-interview show broadcast live from the station's studio, and later with an audience at the Agora Ballroom. Warren Zevon, John Mellencamp, Lou Reed, Peter Frampton, and a host of others performed on the program over the years, recordings of which are still widely available as bootlegs. The WMMS Coffee Break Concerts were booked by Denny Sanders and hosted by Len "Boom" Goldberg, and later, Matt the Cat. The concert series continued on well into the 1990s and early 2000s, albeit much less frequently.
Album-oriented rock (1973–94)
From "Find Me" to FM powerhouse
In July 1973, John Gorman joined WMMS as music director and was promoted to program director and operations manager two months later where he remained for 13 years. During this time, with Denny Sanders as his creative services director and Rhonda Kiefer as programming assistant, WMMS broke all Cleveland ratings and revenue records. WMMS was the first radio station to employ full-time promotion and marketing directors: Dan Garfinkel and his successor, Jim Marchyshyn.
In time, the station adopted new slogans reflecting the callsign: "We're your Modern Music Station" and "your Music Marathon Station." Although never used on the air, listeners alternately knew the callsign as an acronym for "Weed Makes Me Smile" and "Magic MushroomS," the latter referencing the somewhat controversial logo used before the Buzzard. WMMS also began referring to its frequency in promotions as "101 FM", a rounding-off which continued for the next decade.
Contrary to what many believe, the choice of the second Malrite logo had nothing to do with Buzzard Day, the annual "folksy event" held in Hinckley Township, Ohio. Rather, WMMS adopted a buzzard as its mascot in April 1974 because of the then tenuous economic state of Cleveland – less than five years away from becoming the first major American city to enter into default since the Great Depression – and the winged-creature's classification as a scavenger. In other words, the carrion-eating bird represented "death and dying" – a darkly comic reflection of the city's decline. EC horror comics, Fritz the Cat, Rocky and Bullwinkle, and even Looney Tunes – all served as inspirations for the "bird of prey with attitude" concept. The station was known as The Home of the Buzzard at first. The Buzzard was the co-creation of Gorman, Sanders and American Greetings artist David Helton.
A study conducted by MBA students at Case Western Reserve University in 1975 found that the new WMMS logo was more recognizable to those living in Greater Cleveland than both Chief Wahoo of the Cleveland Indians and even Coca-Cola.
From the onset, Helton's streamlined artwork resulted in an aggressive, yet family-friendly symbol for the station, one that continues to endure more than 40 years later. The Buzzard became synonymous with WMMS, Cleveland radio and the city itself, spawning a series of T-shirts so numerous that they are now impossible to catalog, many with slogans like "Where Music Means Something" and "Ruler of the Airwaves."
A major contributor to the ratings success was an airstaff that remained fundamentally unchanged for many years: personalities like Kid Leo, Jeff & Flash, Matt the Cat, Dia Stein, Denny Sanders, Murray Saul, Betty "Crash" Korvan, Ruby Cheeks (Debra Luray), BLF Bash (Bill Freeman), TR (Tom Renzy) and the late Len "Boom" Goldberg were invaluable to the station's popularity. Of all the personalities that worked at WMMS, Len "Boom" Goldberg remained the longest. He joined the station in early 1972 before its sale to Malrite, and stayed in different capacities until 2004. He was best known as the voice for the station's hourly IDs, music segues, sweepers, and commercials, and was also a member of The Buzzard Morning Zoo in the mid-80s.
WMMS during this period would play a key role in breaking several major acts in the U.S., including: Rush, Roxy Music, Bruce Springsteen, Southside Johnny, Fleetwood Mac, Meat Loaf, the Pretenders, the New York Dolls, Lou Reed, Mott the Hoople, Boston, and Cheap Trick. Of special note was the early support of Bruce Springsteen by Kid Leo and others, prior to the release of the Born to Run album. For the station's tenth anniversary in 1978, WMMS hosted and broadcast a live Springsteen concert at the Agora Theatre and Ballroom independent of his concert tour. Heavily bootlegged, the concert further cemented the relationship between the two in fans' minds, and well into the 2000s Cleveland remains one of Springsteen's strongest bases. Right up until his departure in 1988, Kid Leo played "Born to Run" as his signature sign-off song every Friday night at 5:55 to kick off the weekend for area listeners.
World Series of Rock
The World Series of Rock was a recurring, day-long and usually multi-act summer rock concert held outdoors at Cleveland Municipal Stadium from 1974 through 1980. Belkin Productions staged these events, attracting popular hard rock bands and as many as 88,000 fans. WMMS sponsored the concerts. Attendance was by general admission. Concertgoers occasionally fell – or jumped – off the steep stadium upper deck onto the concrete seating area far below, causing serious injury. The Cleveland Free Clinic staffed aid stations in the stadium with physicians, nurses and other volunteers, and through 1977, made its treatment statistics public. From 1978 on, Belkin Productions conditioned its funding of the Free Clinic on the nondisclosure of the number of Clinic staff on duty at the concerts, the nature of conditions treated and the number of patients treated.
Rock Forty and the Rock Hall
WMMS was directly influenced by then and current sister station WHTZ/New York (Z100), which rose to the top of the ratings books immediately after installing a contemporary hit radio (CHR) format. Among the more significant moves taken by WMMS was the formatting of the morning zoo concept created by Z100's Scott Shannon onto the show Jeff & Flash (Jeff Kinzbach and Ed Ferenc) were already hosting. Kinzbach and Ferenc had already been a morning team – with sidekicks – since 1976, seven years prior to adopting the "morning zoo" label, so the basic structure was already in place.
The music structure also was modified at this time as artists such as Michael Jackson, Madonna and Prince soon found airplay on WMMS. The change was done for many reasons: as a nod to the sudden influence Z100's format had on the Malrite group; Gorman and Sanders intention to stay with the current music trends as the album-oriented rock (AOR) format was, even then, in a state of decline; and as a means to attract a female audience. By 1984, the WMMS format moved to an CHR/AOR hybrid, playing a great deal of Top 40 rock singles in hot rotation mixed with album cuts; this new blended rock/Top 40 format was soon known by those at the station as Rock Forty. The station also started to devote weekend programming to the classic rock format.
In the mid-1980s, WMMS was an important contributor in organizing a campaign (along with former Cleveland ad agency president Edward Spizel and author-deejay Norm N. Nite) which brought the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame to Cleveland. John Gorman, Denny Sanders and Kid Leo organized the original campaign with Tunc Erim, assistant to Atlantic Records president Ahmet Ertegun.
John Gorman and Denny Sanders left the station in fall of 1986, leading 14 staff members with them to start rival station WNCX. Gorman credits his decision to leave to changes in management, and the station's overall shift to a more "corporate" mentality.
Rolling Stone Readers' Poll
Rolling Stone named WMMS "Radio Station of the Year" nine straight years (1979–87) as part of its annual Readers' Poll, but a February 1988 front-page story in The Plain Dealer revealed station employees had stuffed the annual survey's ballot box for the 1987 poll to allow for the possibility of a tenth straight win the following year. Lonnie Gronek, then general manager of the station, claimed in The Plain Dealer article that the process had gone on "for years", however other accounts dispute Gronek's claim.
The station claimed it was simply "a marketing strategy" and "much in line with what many stations did." Negative reaction was swift and widespread; some called the scheme a mere "lack of judgement," while a reporter for the Akron Beacon Journal compared the station's response to that of discredited former Vice-President Spiro Agnew.
By the late 80s, most of the original staff members had departed: John Gorman and Denny Sanders left in 1986 to launch upstart station WNCX, and Columbia Records hired Kid Leo in 1988. Four different program directors, including Rich Piombino and Michael Luczak, came and went with varying levels of success. DJ additions included station engineer Ric Bennett as "Rocco the Rock Dog," Scooter (WMMS music director Brad Hanson), Lisa Dillon and station veteran Matt the Cat, who returned to the midday slot in 1990 after a two-year absence. However, Matt would be dismissed permanently from the station in late 1992, the victim of budget cuts.
Ratings steadily increased during the time of the First Gulf War, but The Howard Stern Show was soon picked up by a then struggling WNCX. Stern's ratings exploded and this – along with a growing urgency from management not to compete with or mention Stern on the air – led to a sudden and steep ratings decline for The Buzzard Morning Zoo. Matt the Cat was permanently let go in December 1992 due to "budget problems." From 1991 to 1993, WMMS served as the FM flagship for the Cleveland Browns, sharing coverage with then-sister WHK; the late Nev Chandler served as play-by-play announcer. Unable to service its growing debt, Malrite chose to leave radio and sold off all its remaining properties in 1993: WMMS went to Shamrock Broadcasting, the Roy Disney broadcasting firm. Management ordered a change to the Buzzard by giving it a flat-top and mullet.
The station continued to decline during the ownership transition from Malrite to Shamrock; then Shamrock sold both WMMS and WHK to OmniAmerica, a broadcasting company run by former Malrite executives Carl Hirsch and Dean Thacker, which already owned oldies station WMJI. WMMS' decline culminated on April 14, 1994 with the high-profile departure of Jeff Kinzbach effectively ending "Jeff & Flash" on WMMS (Ferenc would leave the station several weeks later; both would pair up again at WWWE). Lisa Dillon, Ric Bennett and Tom Renzy also would depart the station that same day.
The Cleveland Funeral
Among the most notorious broadcasts of The Howard Stern Show occurred on June 10, 1994. Stern had arrived on the Cleveland airwaves less than two years earlier, and in that time took his syndicated program on rival WNCX from an Arbitron ranking of thirteen to number one. As promised, Stern held a party for his fans on the streets of Cleveland – a "Funeral" for his local rivals, much like similar events held in New York, Los Angeles and Philadelphia – and broadcast it nationwide.
During the now infamous broadcast, WMMS engineer William Alford snipped a broadcast wire used for the Stern show's satellite feed. Stern continued on with the program over a phone line as engineers worked to quickly patch together the severed broadcast wire. Alford was subsequently caught, arrested and later sentenced to ten days in jail and a $1,000 fine. Station management initially claimed that Alford acted alone, however WMMS Promotions Director Heidi Klosterman – working under the name Heidi Kramer – later pled guilty to a felony charge of attempted disruption of a public service and a misdemeanor of receiving stolen property; Greg Smith, a former Klosterman colleague, pled guilty to a misdemeanor of breaking and entering.
Alternative rock (1994–97)
The Next Generation
Already program director at OmniAmerica station WMJI, station veteran John Gorman returned to WMMS as vice-president and director of operations in early 1994. Gorman changed the WMMS format to alternative rock, playing new acts like Nirvana, The Offspring, and Nine Inch Nails. To emphasize this change, WMMS was re-branded and aggressively promoted as Buzzard Radio: The Next Generation, a reference to the success of Star Trek: The Next Generation and its continuation of the Star Trek franchise. Gorman brought back the original Buzzard design, now drawn by David Helton's successor Brian Chalmers. WMMS also lured popular morning personalities Brian Fowler and Joe Cronauer away from rival WENZ – then an alternative rock station known as 107.9 The END – as the successors to Jeff and Flash (Jeff Kinzbach, Ed Ferenc) on The Buzzard Morning Zoo.
While the change in programming alienated many longtime listeners – many of whom switched to WNCX and their full-time classic rock format – WMMS boosted its ratings for the first time in years with a new, younger audience. Billboard and Airplay Monitor magazines together named WMMS Rock Station of the Year (Medium Market) in 1995, and Modern Rock Station of the Year (Medium Market) in 1996. John Gorman was named Program Director of the Year (Rock) in 1995.
Despite signs of success, the station was sold again in 1996. WMMS went to Nationwide Communications; longtime sister station WHK went to Salem Communications – the first time the two had ever operated under separate ownership. The sale came almost immediately after passage of the Telecommunications Act of 1996, a time when radio companies nationwide rushed "at a fever pitch" to acquire new properties. John Gorman – who has since openly criticized the industry's current state – first departed for CBS Radio in Detroit, but soon moved to media consulting.
During this time, WMMS held a series of sold-out rock festivals that featured many of the new up-and-coming artists receiving station airplay. Buzzard-Palooza was the first of these: held in July 1994 at the Nautica Stage, the all-day concert included sets from Collective Soul, Junkhouse and Fury in the Slaughterhouse, but was cut short after turning into a "rock-and-bottle-throwing melee." Cleveland Police wearing riot gear were called in just as headliner Green Day took the stage. WMMS scheduled a second Green Day performance just two months later – this time at Blossom Music Center – and at a near-record-low cost of $5 per ticket, the station gave fans a "second chance" to see the band live.
The Ramones headlined BuzzardFest '95 the following spring (May 1995) at Blossom; other acts included Our Lady Peace, The Rugburns and Face to Face. BuzzardFest II was held the very next fall (September 1995) – again at Blossom – and featured performances from the Goo Goo Dolls, Alanis Morissette, Jewel, as well as the Dance Hall Crashers, Eleven, Green Apple Quick Step, Prick and Sons of Elvis.
The next of these multi-act shows – simply titled BuzzardFest – was held in May 1996 at Blossom Music Center and featured performances from 311 and No Doubt, along with Candlebox, The Nixons, Goldfinger, Gods Child, Dash Rip Rock and the Holy Barbarians.
Active rock/mainstream rock (1997–present)
WMMS owner Nationwide Communications was bought out by Jacor Communications in 1997. Following Jacor's takeover, WMMS ran a "Death of the Buzzard" month-long stunt in October 1998. Geared as a format change to Contemporary Hit Radio (CHR) as KISS 100.7, the decision was reversed last-minute by management, though the "KISS" brand and format did later end up on WMMS sister station WAKS. In the wake of the month-long stunt, a new airstaff was assembled. Most notably, Slats (Tim Guinane) was hired for afternoon-drive replacing Brian & Joe, who took the morning slot on sister station WMVX, and music director Mark Pennington replaced "BLF Bash" (Bill Freeman) during overnights. Seth the Barbarian (Seth Williams) took the overnight shift when Pennington moved to evenings in 2001.
Bo Matthews (Alex Gutierrez), who became program director for WMMS in early 2004, hired Maxwell (Benjamin Bornstein) that April for a more "personality-driven" afternoon show: The Maxwell Show gradually evolved from airing mostly music to all talk, and by 2009 had become the number one afternoon program in several key demographics. Loveline – Westwood One's nationally syndicated call-in show hosted by Dr. Drew – aired weeknights from August 2008 through June 2010.
WMMS veteran John Gorman has remained a vocal critic of Clear Channel; Gorman recently commented on the company's former Cleveland executive, Kevin Metheny (the man dubbed "Pig Virus" by Howard Stern during their time at WNBC): "He had a volatile time here. People in radio say he was not an easy guy, that dealing with him was like a daily root canal."
In September 2007, WMMS management chose to "de-emphasize" both the Buzzard and WMMS call letters, referring to the station as simply 100.7, save for the FCC-mandated legal ID at the top of every hour. Regarding the change, WMMS program director Bo Matthews (Alex Gutierrez) said, "… nobody's killing anything... Chief Wahoo is not on every piece of Indians promotional material... Ronald McDonald is not in every McDonald's commercial... We're not losing the letters. All we're doing is shifting an image." By April 2008, the station had reverted to its traditional branding, once again frequently making use of both the noted mascot (in name) and famed call letters – though the station had also opted to replace the classic Buzzard design (David Helton's original is still used for promotional purposes). The change continued the reduced emphasis on the station's earlier years while also acknowledging The Buzzard's storied past. The current WMMS logo displays orange wings on the sides of a weathered black sign in the shape of a U.S. Route shield, with white print reading "100.7 WMMS".
WMMS served as the FM flagship for the Cleveland Browns for a second time from 2002 to 2012, sharing coverage with AM sister WTAM. Games were covered on-site by play-by-play announcer Jim Donovan, sports director for WKYC (TV channel 3); and color commentator Doug Dieken, a former Browns offensive tackle. Play-by-play coverage did not stream online due to league restrictions.
Comedian Chad Zumock was co-host of The Alan Cox Show from early 2010 to late 2012; on December 3, 2012, it was announced that he was no longer with WMMS after being arrested for driving while intoxicated. However, on May 3, 2013, Cleveland Scene reported that Zumock had been acquitted of the charge.
At this point, WMMS has not regained the number one total listener audience which it held, more or less continuously, from 1975 to 1991. Additionally, the station now carries more than nine hours of talk programming every weekday (moreover, during drive time). The station's problems are further compounded by lesser emphasis on local personalities (in particular, voice-tracking nights and weekends); ever shrinking and homogenized playlists; over-commercialization; greater censorship; and increasingly limited creative control. Much of this is attributed to the station's current ownership of Clear Channel Communications. Regardless, WMMS remains one of the most important rock stations in the history of FM radio. Radio & Records twice named WMMS "Rock Station of the Year: Markets 1-25" (2005–06) as part of the now defunct publication's annual Industry Achievement Awards.
From the 1994 exit of Jeff & Flash (Jeff Kinzbach, Ed Ferenc) – themselves enjoying a run of nearly twenty years – until the arrival of Rover (Shane French) in 2008, WMMS was beset by a roster of thirteen different morning shows in as many years. Ross Brittain temporarily filled in prior to the arrival of Brian and Joe (Brian Fowler, Joe Cronauer). Brian and Joe were moved to afternoons in February 1997 after a change in ownership; the station then turned to shock jock Liz Wilde (Anne Whittemore) from WPLL/Miami. Her firing less than a year later sparked a successful lawsuit against both the station and then-owner Nationwide Communications. Danny Czekalinski and Darla Jaye teamed up in October 1997 with Liz Wilde holdover Cory Lingus (Cory Gallant) until August 1998. Matt Harris served in the interim until WMMS hired Dick Dale (Bert Morris) from WPLA/Jacksonville.
In 2000 the station turned to Wakin' up with Wolf and Mulrooney (Bob Wolf, John Mulrooney) from sister station WPYX/Albany. The show was simulcast from Albany, marking the first time that a morning show on WMMS did not originate in Cleveland. The team did later relocate to Cleveland, but lasted only months until an acrimonious breakup forced the station to look elsewhere. Other shows, like The Buzzard Morning Show with Rick and Megalis (Rick Eberhart, Tom Megalis) and WMMS Mornings with Sean, Cristi, and Hunter (Sean Kelly, Cristi Cantle, Hunter Scott), came and went in quick succession. The Bob and Tom Show aired from 2006 through early 2008, the only time since adopting a rock format that WMMS carried a syndicated program in that time slot with no connection to the station throughout the duration of its run.
The Maxwell Show
Ohio native Maxwell (Benjamin Bornstein) was hired on for the WMMS afternoon drive in April 2004 following the departure of Slats (Tim Guinane) for rival station WXTM. An experienced on air personality, Maxwell was joined by WMMS music director Dan Stansbury and Chunk (Tiffany Peck), a young phone screener whose role grew significantly during the course of the show's run.
The Maxwell Show began as a mostly a kind-of rock/talk hybrid, but gradually became all talk. Maxwell was known for having feuds with other radio personalities during the show's time at WMMS, including fellow WMMS personality Rover of Rover's Morning Glory and fellow Clear Channel host Mike Trivisonno, airing directly opposite The Maxwell Show on WTAM.
On April 3, 2009, The Maxwell Show went on the air claiming that Metallica – in Cleveland for the 2009 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction ceremony the very next day – was playing a free show in the WMMS parking lot later that evening. Following the prank announcement, station management placed Maxwell on probation for 90 days. Already strained by ongoing contract renewal negotiations, the incident further alienated the two parties, and by November of that year the show was cancelled.
Studio and transmitter locations
(now Agora Theatre and Ballroom)
|1968–77||5000 Euclid Ave.
Cleveland, OH 44103
|The Cleveland Plaza/Statler Office Tower
(now Statler Arms Apartments)
|1977–92||Euclid Ave. at E. 12th St., 12th Floor
Cleveland, OH 44115
|Skylight Office Tower||1992–2001||1660 W. 2nd St., 2nd Floor
Cleveland, OH 44113
|6200 Oak Tree Boulevard
(formerly Centerior Energy Building)
|2001–present||6200 Oak Tree Blvd., 4th Floor
Independence, OH 44131
|Address||Tower 2 (primary)||Tower 1 (backup)|
|3650 E. Pleasant Valley Rd.
Seven Hills, OH 44131
|2855 W. Ridgewood Dr.
Parma, OH 44134
|Problems playing this file? See media help.|
Hot talk accounts for all programming during weekday drive times, and the station currently serves as the FM home for the Cleveland Indians. However, WMMS continues to air rock music during middays, nights, and overnights; during all weekend shifts; and continuously on the HD2 digital subchannel. In addition, Cleveland Magazine describes the morning and afternoon drive programs as "talk shows with a younger, rock-oriented sensibility". Readers of Cleveland Scene named WMMS the best Cleveland radio station for music in 2009, and the best station overall in 2010 and 2012.
WMMS airs regular traffic and weather updates via the Total Traffic Network and former sister station WOIO (TV channel 19), and the station satisfies FCC-mandated public affairs programming on Sunday mornings with the City Club of Cleveland's Friday Forum. Most station imaging is produced out-of-market by national voice talents "David Lee" Olejniczak, Malcolm Ryker, and RenaMarie Villano; additional voice-over audio is produced on-site by WMMS assistant program director Miles Hlivko in his dual role as creative services director. WMMS also transmits text to compatible analog receivers, such as station IDs and artist and song information, via the Radio Data System (RDS); similarly, WMMS transmits text to HD Radio receivers known as Program Service Data (PSD).
This radio station is known for breaking the rules, changing the game, and being successful. We all have such respect for what this station did back in the day. That will never be done again. All we can do is hope to create something cool so that in 20 years people will say, "Man, remember what WMMS used to be like? It really was an awesome time."
— Program director Bo Matthews (Alex Gutierrez)
Rover's Morning Glory
Radio personality Rover (Shane French), host of Rover's Morning Glory, took over weekday mornings at WMMS on April 1, 2008 following a contract dispute with cross-town rival WKRK-FM; former WMMS program director John Gorman compared signing the popular morning personality to a "coup". Born in Chicago but raised in Las Vegas, Rover worked for stations KISW/Seattle and KXPK/Denver prior to his time in the Cleveland market; the morning host also served as the Midwest replacement for Howard Stern following the latter's move to Sirius Satellite Radio in 2006. Co-hosts Duji (Susan Catanese) and Dominic Dieter, as well as phone screener Dumb (Shaun Street), each worked on Rover's Morning Glory before the move to WMMS; since then, the show has expanded to include sound effects producer Chocolate Charlie (Mike Toomey), show producer Rob Garguilo, and former intern Jeffrey LaRocque. The show formerly syndicated to WMFS/Memphis and WRXS/Columbus while at WMMS. Currently the show syndicates to WZNE/Rochester, WKGB-FM/Binghamton, and WAMX/Huntington; replays continuously on a dedicated iHeartRadio channel; and streams a tape delay version on Extreme Talk, KEGL/Dallas, and WEBN/Cincinnati. Rover is under contract with WMMS through 2017.
Described by The Plain Dealer as "testosterone-fueled", the show dominates younger demographics, particularly male listeners ages 18–34. Cleveland Magazine has called the show a "juggernaut", and readers of Cleveland Scene named Rover the best Cleveland radio personality in 2009 (Scene had previously recognized either Rover or his show four straight years, from 2004 to 2007, all prior to the move to WMMS). The broadcast consists entirely of talk, an edgy blend of current events, pop culture, and stories from the staff. Regular segments include "The Shizzy", a daily news update; "Tech Tuesday", where listeners pose consumer electronics questions to an industry expert; and "The Thursday Hook-Up", a call-in dating game. Rover regularly takes calls throughout the show, and often interviews guests in studio and over the phone. Cleveland Police briefly detained Ky-Mani Marley after the singer threatened Rover for comments made during an April 20, 2010 in-studio interview. On October 26, 2010, Rover hired a witch doctor to curse LeBron James after the NBA star left the Cleveland Cavaliers.
The Alan Cox Show
Radio personality Alan Cox, formerly host of The Morning Fix at WKQX/Chicago and The Alan Cox Radio Show at WXDX-FM/Pittsburgh, took over weekday afternoons as host of The Alan Cox Show on December 16, 2009. Joining the Chicago native are: Erika Lauren Wasilewski, a cast member on The Real World: D.C.; and Bill Squire, a Cleveland area comedian who replaced former co-host Chad Zumock following the latter's exit in 2012. Described by Talkers magazine as "a bold anomaly worthy of industry attention", the show itself has successfully continued the format established by its predecessor The Maxwell Show – all talk during afternoon drive on an FM rock station. The Alan Cox Show is rated #1 in several key demographics, and readers of Cleveland Scene have named Alan Cox the best Cleveland radio personality four straight years (2010–13). In addition to the live broadcast, the show streams a tape delay version on Extreme Talk; is available for online playback through iHeartRadio Talk; and can be downloaded as a podcast through iTunes. Alan Cox is under contract with WMMS through 2014.
Cox considers himself more of a comedian than a disc jockey. The show itself rapidly covers a range of topics in a comedic format, from major current events to obscure pop culture; regular segments like "Audio Dump", "Sperm News", and "Why Florida Sucks" typify the show's irreverent style. Cox also frequently takes calls from listeners, and often interviews guests in studio and over the phone. During a June 19, 2012 interview with Aerosmith frontman Steven Tyler, the show broke news of the delayed release for Music from Another Dimension!, the band's first studio album in eight years. On February 9, 2010, the show aired "Parma State of Mind", both a parody of the Jay-Z/Alicia Keys hit "Empire State of Mind" and a way of continuing the Northeast Ohio tradition of poking fun at the Cleveland suburb. Dean DePiero, then mayor of Parma, criticized the song and its accompanying YouTube video: "It's pretty sick. ... The people who put it together aren't even smart enough to know where our city boundaries are." The show also drew national attention after holding a book burning party for Fifty Shades of Grey on July 8, 2012.
Active rock accounts for nearly all other weekday programming. WMMS personality Maria Calo hosts the midday music shift, including "Under the Covers", a daily segment devoted to cover songs, and "Big Hair Wednesday", a weekly segment devoted to hair metal. WMMS personality "Corey Rotic" Hawkins hosts both the weeknight music shift and The Rock Report, a daily rock news update. Content for the weekday overnight shift, including music and on-air talent, comes from the active rock national format available through Premium Choice. Online, the overnight shift is split between Premium Choice content and a replay of Rover's Morning Glory, a move to reduce music royalties during non-peak streaming hours.
Active rock also accounts for nearly all weekend programming. Maria, Corey Rotic, WMMS assistant program director Miles Hlivko, and WMMS general sales manager Keith Hotchkiss each host weekend music shifts. The Saturday Sanitarium, a local block of Metallica airing Saturday nights, precedes Skratch 'N Sniff, a mashup of rock and hip-hop via Compass Media Networks. On Sunday nights, radio personality Kennedy (Lisa Montgomery) hosts NEW! Discover & Uncover, a showcase of new and unsigned rock artists via iHeartRadio. Also on Sunday nights, Twisted Sister frontman Dee Snider hosts The House of Hair with Dee Snider, a mix of heavy metal, glam metal, and hard rock via United Stations Radio Networks. All other weekend content either is voice-tracked out-of-market specifically for WMMS, or comes from the active rock national format through Premium Choice. Online, the overnight shift is again split between Premium Choice content and a replay of Rover's Morning Glory.
Alternative rock accounts for nearly all programming on the HD2 digital subchannel. Branded 99X, WMMS-HD2 also simulcasts over Cleveland translator W256BT (99.1 FM). WMMS program director Bo Matthews also handles HD2 programming duties, while imaging is produced on-site by Miles Hlivko and Alan Cox Show co-host Erika Lauren. The majority of 99X content, including music and on-air talent, comes from the alternative rock national format available through Premium Choice. On weeknights, Mötley Crüe co-founder Nikki Sixx and radio personality Kerri Kasem host Sixx Sense with Nikki Sixx, a mix of talk via Premiere Networks and alternative rock via Premium Choice. On Saturday nights, musician/DJ/producer Diplo (Wesley Pentz) hosts Diplo & Friends, a dance mixset via Premiere. On Sunday nights, Nikki Sixx and Kerri Kasem host The Side Show Countdown with Nikki Sixx, a late night companion to Sixx Sense that counts down twenty top alternative rock songs. Although FM translators in the U.S. are generally not permitted to originate their own programming, the FCC has recently allowed FM translators to simulcast the programming of both AM stations and HD2 subchannels. In effect, this allows radio companies to create additional analog stations, like W256BT, outside the traditional path established by the FCC.
WMMS airs approximately 144 Cleveland Indians games each season, serving as the team's FM home in the Cleveland radio market. Nearly all coverage is simulcast with sister station WTAM, flagship for the Cleveland Indians Radio Network. Games are covered on-site by primary play-by-play announcer Tom Hamilton and secondary play-by-play announcer Jim Rosenhaus; together, both Hamilton and Rosenhaus provide color commentary. WMMS also airs Indians Warm-Up and Indians Wrap-Up, the network pregame and postgame shows, respectively. Play-by-play itself is limited to on-air; due to league restrictions, the station online stream does not air in-game coverage.
- "Rock Hall to Celebrate 40 Years of WMMS with New Exhibit". RockHall.com. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum, Inc. August 25, 2008. Retrieved April 12, 2010.
- Christgau, Robert (April 17, 1978). "A Real New Wave Rolls Out of Ohio". The Village Voice. p. 67. "... one of the few outlets in the country for the Velvet Underground, the MC5, and the New York Dolls... It aired David Bowie well before RCA's Ziggy Stardust push, and was an early supporter of Roxy Music."
- Schwartz, Tony (April 2, 1984). "The Wizard of Z100". New York. p. 54. "... Cleveland's WMMS, perhaps the most admired rock station in America."
- Neus, Elizabeth (February 27, 1985). "A Station's Name Built Enduringly on Rock". The Philadelphia Inquirer. p. C3. "Even industry officials say WMMS... is a model for other rock stations..."
- McNamara, Denis (February 8, 1986). "How WMMS and WBCN Remained on Top While the Music Changed". Billboard: 20. "Two of the best radio station images in America belong to WMMS Cleveland and WBCN Boston."
- Bednarski, P.J. (March 23, 1986). "Rock Is No Joke in Cleveland". Chicago Sun-Times. p. 4. "WMMS-FM, the city's top rock radio station... fanatical devotion by its listeners..."
- Goldstein, Patrick (June 1, 1986). "Cleveland Is on a (Rock 'N') Roll". Los Angeles Times. p. 64. "Welcome to Cleveland, new home of the Rock & Roll Hall of Fame and home of WMMS-FM, a bona fide hall of fame radio station."
- Pareles, Jon (June 18, 1986). "Oldies on Rise in Album-Rock Radio". The New York Times. p. C26. "Cleveland's top radio station, WMMS-FM, a major force in album-rock radio..."
- Ridgeway, Karen (June 10, 1988). "The Playlist/Hot Pop LPs". USA Today. p. 4D. "USA Today regularly queries DJs from top stations across the USA. ... Cleveland: 'Kid Leo' Travagliante, WMMS (100.7 FM)..."
- R&R: Twenty Years of Excellence. Los Angeles, CA: Radio & Records. 1993. p. 12. "WMMS/Cleveland. The AOR format's most acclaimed station, and a Midwestern titan for more than two decades."
- Boehlert, Eric (November 5, 1994). "Modern Rock Radio Roars Ahead". Billboard: 5 (continued on p. 115). "In Cleveland, legendary album rock station WMMS... began adding alternative tracks in the spring..."
- Pride, Dominic; Taylor, Chuck (January 13, 1996). "Amos Bares Soul on Atlantic Set". Billboard: 1 (continued on p. 66). "Among the first to ignite the fires on radio is WMMS Cleveland."
- Boyle, Mike (May 27, 2006). "Flyleaf: Banshee Voice, Christian Base". Billboard: 42. "... help secure airplay on influential rock and modern rock stations such as KISS San Antonio, WAAF Boston, WMMS Cleveland..."
- Berti, p. 134. "Initially championed by Donna Halper of Cleveland's WMMS, the song helped establish the band's value in the States, a formerly distant market."
- Carr, p. 25. "The Cleveland music scene... was dominated by local rock radio station WMMS, whose programmers broke David Bowie and Roxy Music and supported Bruce Springsteen early in his career. As a result, major acts, especially British ones, began their tours before adoring Cleveland audiences..."
- Chapman, p. 95. "The 'Jaded Virgin' track received heavy airplay on some influential rock stations, namely WMMS in Cleveland, WNEW in New York..."
- Denisoff, p. 151. "Cleveland's WMMS-FM was one of the few stations nationally to scoop their competitors with live broadcasts... WMMS's clout was undisputed..."
- Edwardson, p. 205. "... Rush cracked the American (and, in turn, Canadian) market thanks in part to the support of Donna Halper at WMMS in Cleveland."
- Goldberg, pp. 124–25. "... the renegade station that had the most impact on the careers of edgier rock artists was WMMS in Cleveland... WMMS launched David Bowie and Bruce Springsteen and was an oasis in an otherwise resistant rock radio environment for artists such as Roxy Music and the New York Dolls."
- Hoskyns, p. 145. "... Kid Leo was an early and avid supporter of Bruce Springsteen on WMMS, which helped break many seventies rock acts in the Midwest and beyond."
- Marsh, p. 68. "Only a few loyal disc jockeys, usually at FM stations that allowed the deejays to pick a proportion of their own music, bothered with Springsteen’s second album. ... above all, Ed Sciaky at WMMR in Philadelphia, Cerph Caldwell at WHFS in Washington D.C., and, later, Kid Leo at WMMS in Cleveland..."
- Neer, p. 288. "... the venerable WMMS in Cleveland... They were the role model for what Brazell envisioned for KMET, as the Cleveland rocker broadened their appeal even further and reached sixteen shares."
- Nicks, p. 198. "Rush... enjoyed minor success touring Southern Ontario until a DJ at WMMS in Cleveland began to play their music."
- Pegg, p. 493. "Bolstered by extensive publicity and wall-to-wall playing of the Ziggy Stardust album on local WMMS radio, the opening Cleveland Music Hall gig... was filled to its 3200-seat capacity."
- Reynolds, p. 73. "... the city was blessed with one of the most progressive radio stations in America, WMMS."
- Spitz, p. 201. "... perhaps the most famous free-form station of the era, WMMS in Cleveland had the ability to turn a cult artist into a worldwide star."
- "WMMS". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. May 13, 1998. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- Stricharchuk, Gregory (March 2, 1988). "Repeat After Me: I Like WMMS, I Like WMMS, I Like WMMS...". The Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company). p. 31.
- Hinckley, David (March, 21, 1995). "Stern Punishment In Store?". New York Daily News. Retrieved August 29, 2013. "WMMS, long known for its aggressive approach to promotion and competition..."
- Brown, Roger (November 2, 1998). "Stunt Puts Even More Pressure on WMMS". The Plain Dealer. p. 1E - Entertainment.
- Norman, Michael (November 24, 2007). "Chapter 7 - Hatching the Buzzard". Cleveland.com: Plain Dealer Extra. Cleveland Live, Inc. Retrieved December 24, 2009.
- Gorman, John (November 2, 2009). "Radio & Records 1981 on the WMMS Buzzard and Other Station Mascots". BuzzardBook.WordPress.com. John Gorman/Gray & Co. via WordPress.com. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Heaton, Michael (September 15, 2007). "The Buzzard Takes a Break as WMMS Branches Out". The Plain Dealer. p. E1 - Arts & Life.
- Vickers, Jim (June 2008). " 'Glory' Days". ClevelandMagazine.com. Great Lakes Publishing. Retrieved October 17, 2010.
- Brown, Roger (October 31, 1998). "Buzzard to Keep Circling Airwaves". The Plain Dealer. p. 1B - Metro.
- Pantsios, Anastasia (January 28, 2004). "The Glory Daze of Cleveland Radio". Cleveland Free Times (Kildysart LLC).
- Fabrikant, Geraldine (March 6, 1989). "The Media Business; Malrite's Buyout Price Disturbs Wall Street Analysts". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved March 20, 2010.
- Wagner, Vit (May 11, 2002). "What a Rush". Toronto Star (Torstar). p. J1 - Arts.
- "Underground Garage DJs: Kid Leo". Sirius.com. Sirius XM Radio. 2010. Archived from the original on January 31, 2010. Retrieved February 10, 2010.
- Adams, p. 332.
- Lewis, Frank (June 23, 2009). "R.I.P. Brian Chalmers, Rock 'N' Roll Artist". Cleveland Scene official website: Scene & Heard Archives. Cleveland Scene. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- Freedman, Samuel G. (February 15, 1987). "Film; Paul Schrader Plumbs Grassroots Rock". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved March 20, 2010.
- Gorman, John (April 15, 2009). "How the Rock Hall Was Won". BuzzardBook.WordPress.com. John Gorman/Gray & Co. via WordPress.com. Retrieved December 25, 2009.
- Olszewski, p. 315.
- Gorman, p. 278.
- Dyer, Bob (February 26, 1988). "WMMS wins poll by voting for self". Akron Beacon Journal (Beacon Journal Publishing Co.). p. D11.
- Santiago, Roberto (October 6, 1994). "Stability at WMMS Hangs by a Wire". The Plain Dealer. p. 12E - Arts & Living.
- Stephan, Robert S. (March 31, 1946). "WHK Dedicates First FM Experiment Station in Area". The Plain Dealer (The Plain Dealer Broadcasting Co.). p. 26A.
- "Cleveland Broadcast Radio Archives WMMS timeline". Cleveland Broadcast Radio Archives. Mike Olszewski & SofTrends, Inc. 2002. Retrieved December 28, 2009.
- "Notice of W8XUB frequency change". The Plain Dealer. July 31, 1947. p. 15.
- Stephan, Robert S. (November 13, 1947). "WHK's FM Station Graduates, Expands Program Schedules". The Plain Dealer. p. 19.
- "1961-61 Broadcasting Yearbook" (PDF). AmericanRadioHistory.com. David Gleason on the Web. 1961. p. B-128. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Olszewski, p. 14.
- "Station Guide: Call Letters". Cleveland Broadcast Radio Archives. Mike Olszewski & SofTrends, Inc. 2002. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Olszewski, p. 21.
- Olszewski, p. 24.
- "Best of All Time: Radio". Cleveland Free Times (Kildysart LLC). January 3, 2007.
- "About Martin Perlich". MartinPerlich.com. Martin Perlich Interviews. 2010. Retrieved August 22, 2012.
- Gorman, p. 10.
- "Rock 'n' Roll". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. February 24, 2009. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
- Olszewski, p. 82.
- Norman, Michael (February 20, 1997). "Coffee Break Concert Gets Shot of Metallica". The Plain Dealer. p. 4B - Metro.
- Scott, Jane (December 15, 2000). "Pair of Earles Headed to the Odeon in February". The Plain Dealer. p. 13 - Friday.
- Gorman, John (March 16, 2009). "St. Patrick's Day, Buzzard-style, 1983". BuzzardBook.WordPress.com. John Gorman/Gray & Co. via WordPress.com. Retrieved January 14, 2010.
- Gorman, John (April 8, 2008). "The Second WMMS Music Marathon Station TV Spot". BuzzardBook.WordPress.com. John Gorman/Gray & Co. via WordPress.com. Retrieved December 23, 2009.
- Gorman, p. 62.
- Gorman, John (April 15, 2009). "35 Years Ago – The Buzzard Is Born!". BuzzardBook.WordPress.com. John Gorman/Gray & Co. via WordPress.com. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- Gorman, pp. 61, 70–71.
- "Cleveland: A Bicentennial Timeline". The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History. Case Western Reserve University. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- Santiago, Roberto (February 4, 1993). "Digging the Graveyard Shift in Radio". The Plain Dealer. p. 5E - Arts & Living.
- Gorman (photo captions)
- Adams, p. 233.
- Gorman, p. 95.
- Masur, Louis P. (September 22, 2009). "The Birth of Born to Run". Slate.com. Washington Post. Newsweek Interactive Co. LLC. Retrieved January 1, 2010.
- Gorman, pp. 72–79.
- "Some Fans Got off on Music, Others High on Marijuana". The Plain Dealer (The Plain Dealer Publishing Co.). September 2, 1974. p. A4.
- "88,000 Rock Fans Win Modell's Praise". Cleveland Press (Joseph E. Cole). September 2, 1974. p. A1.
- "Rainy Sunday". Cleveland Press (Joseph E. Cole). June 6, 1977. p. C1.
- "It's a Gas, Gas, Gas: Roisterous Crowd Greets Rolling Stones". The Plain Dealer. July 2, 1978. p. A1.
- "Fleetwood Mac Show Crowd Praised as Best Behaved". The Plain Dealer. August 27, 1978.
- "Fleetwood Mac Concertgoers Are Rob Victims". Cleveland Press (Joseph E. Cole). August 28, 1978. p. A12.
- Neer, p. 248.
- O'Connor, Clint (August 27, 1995). "Memorable Moments: A Quick Look Back at Cleveland History Shows the Events and People Who Helped Make This City a Happening Place". The Plain Dealer. p. 1I - Arts & Living.
- Sandstrom, Karen (April 15, 1994). "It's Farewell Today to the Zoo: Zany WMMS Team Bowing Out as Station's Ownership Changes". The Plain Dealer. p. 1A - National.
- Dyer, Bob (March 6, 1988). "Rationalization of 'MMS worthy of Spiro Agnew". Akron Beacon Journal (Beacon Journal Publishing Co.). p. D1.
- Hyduk, John (December 2007). "The Hit King: Kid Leo". ClevelandMagazine.com. Great Lakes Publishing. Retrieved January 8, 2010.
- "MTV 'Choose or Lose' Creater Tapped by NBC". The Plain Dealer. December 14, 1992. p. 7C - Arts & Living.
- Santiago, Roberto (February 21, 1994). "Browns End Use of Flagship Radio Station". The Plain Dealer. p. 7E - Arts & Living.
- Heaton, Chuck (August 4, 1993). "Belichick Is Optimistic as First Exhibition Nears". The Plain Dealer. p. 2F - Sports.
- "Shamrock Completes Purchase of Malrite". The Plain Dealer. August 4, 1993. p. 2E - Business.
- Albrecht, Brian E. (June 11, 1994). "Curses! Stern Sabotaged: Reveling Shock Jock Has Broadcast Jammed". The Plain Dealer. p. 1E - Arts & Living.
- Santiago, Roberto (April 22, 1994). "Shock Jock Stern Grabs No. 1 Morning Spot". The Plain Dealer. p. 4B - Metro.
- McIntyre, Michael K. (May 27, 1994). "Live Stern to Hold Funeral for 2 Rivals". The Plain Dealer. p. 1B - Metro.
- Ewinger, James; Santiago, Roberto (September 8, 1994). "Ex-Technician Pleads Guilty to Silencing Stern". The Plain Dealer. p. 4B - Metro.
- Ewinger, James (June 29, 1995). "Stern Silencer Gets Jail". The Plain Dealer. p. 4B - Metro.
- Seper, Chris (June 27, 1995). "Stern Broadcast Saboteurs Plead Guilty". The Plain Dealer. p. 2B - Metro.
- Norman, Michael (May 8, 1994). "WMMS' Gorman Tries Ratings Magic Again". The Plain Dealer. p. 2J - Arts & Living.
- Boehlert, Eric (November 5, 1994). "Modern Rock Radio Roars Ahead". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media via Google Books. p. 5. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Santiago, Roberto (November 26, 1994). "Here's How the Buzzard Put WENZ on the Rocks". The Plain Dealer. p. 8E - Arts & Living.
- Olszewski, pp. 414-415.
- Rauzi, Robin (July 9, 1994). "Brian and Joe End Up at WMMS' Zoo". The Plain Dealer. p. 4B - Metro.
- Taylor, Chuck (October 28, 1995). "WPLJ N.Y. Big Winner At Awards". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media via Google Books. p. 8 (continued on p. 95). Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Taylor, Chuck (September 21, 1996). "Billboard/Airplay Monitor Radio Awards Bestowed". Billboard. Prometheus Global Media via Google Books. p. 1 (continued on p. 69, 76). Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Brown, Roger (April 23, 1996). "Nationwide 'to Own' Cleveland Radio; Insurer to be Largest Owner of Stations with WGAR, WMMS, WMJI". The Plain Dealer. p. 1A - National.
- Brown, Roger (April 26, 1996). "WHK sold to West Coast firm". The Plain Dealer. p. 6E - Arts & Living.
- Feran, Tom (March 26, 2000). "Net's New Bird for Local Radio". The Plain Dealer. p. 1I - Arts & Entertainment.
- Feran, Tom (June 21, 1996). "WMJI, WMMS Vice President Resigns Post". The Plain Dealer. p. 7B - Scene & Heard.
- Strassmeyer, Mary (April 15, 1997). "Alive and Well and Researching". The Plain Dealer. p. 5B - Scene & Heard.
- Norman, Michael (April 30, 2010). "Kevin Metheny, a.k.a. 'Pig Virus,' riles WGN Radio's Chicago fan base". Cleveland.com (Cleveland Live, Inc.). Retrieved November 15, 2010.
- "Flats Hosts Illuminating River Expo". The Plain Dealer. July 22, 1994. p. 9 - Friday.
- Stephens, Scott (July 25, 1994). "Thousands Jam Flats for Festival; Melee at Rock Concert Can't Mar River Expo". The Plain Dealer. p. 1B - Metro.
- "Bluesman Returns with Weird Al". The Plain Dealer. August 12, 1994. p. 39 - Friday.
- Yarborough, Chuck (May 22, 1995). "Youth Rules at BuzzardFest '95". The Plain Dealer. p. 4E - Arts & Living.
- Soeder, John (September 11, 1995). "Radio Station Bash Features Up-and-Coming Performers". The Plain Dealer. p. 5B - Scene & Heard.
- Bish, Diana (September 25, 1995). "Price Is Right for Melee with Music". The Plain Dealer. p. 2E - Next.
- Norman, Michael (May 20, 1996). "Sunny Weather Shakes the Blues". The Plain Dealer. p. 8D - Arts & Living.
- "BuzzardFest 2000". WMMS.com. Clear Channel Communications. June 2000. Archived from the original on July 11, 2000. Retrieved February 9, 2011.
- Brown, Roger (November 3, 1997). "Jacor Ownership Taking Radio into New Era". The Plain Dealer. p. 6E - Arts & Living.
- Feran, Tom (October 2, 1999). " 'Mike O'Malley' First Show to Go: Sitcom Canceled After Two Weeks". The Plain Dealer. p. 5E - Entertainment.
- Feran, Tom (October 3, 1998). "WMMS Drops Buzzard, Gets Set to Launch New Format". The Plain Dealer. p. 1A - National.
- "Station Search: Cleveland". ClearChannel.com Radio. Clear Channel Communications. 2009. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
- Schiffman, Mark (November 23, 2001). "Arbitron: Listening Up, Fave Stations The Same". Billboard via Billboard.biz Archive. Prometheus Global Media. Retrieved February 14, 2010.[dead link]
- Lewis, Frank (November 25, 2009). "Maxwell Out at 'MMS". CleveScene.com - Scene & Heard. Cleveland Scene. Retrieved February 14, 2010.
- "WMMS Feelin' the Loveline". AllAccess.com. All Access Music Group. August 7, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2010.
- Hammond, Joel (October 15, 2012). "Browns next to explore market for radio rights". CrainsCleveland.com. Crain Communications Inc. Retrieved January 29, 2013.
- Grossi, Tony (September 11, 2011). "Jim Donovan Pumped for Return to the Booth". The Plain Dealer. p. H10 - 2011 Browns & NFL Preview.
- "Browns Original Programming". ClevelandBrowns.com. Cleveland Browns. 2011. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- "Browns Programming Prominent on Local Scene". ClevelandBrowns.com. Cleveland Browns. February 14, 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- "Draft Coverage". ClevelandBrowns.com. Cleveland Browns. 2012. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Cabot, Mary Kay (October 17, 2011). " 'Insignificant' Cribbs to Refocus on Special Teams". The Plain Dealer. p. C8 - Sports.
- Piker, Scott (April 23, 2012). "Andre Knott Talks Browns and the Upcoming NFL Draft". NewsNet5.com. The E.W. Scripps Co. Retrieved July 16, 2012.
- Steer, Jen (December 3, 2012). "Cleveland radio personality Chad Zumock no longer working at WMMS after OVI arrest". NewsNet5.com. The E.W. Scripps Co. Retrieved December 3, 2012.
- Sandy, Eric (May 3, 2013). "Chad Zumock Acquitted of OVI Charge". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. Retrieved May 3, 2013.
- Boehlert, Eric (April 30, 2001). "Radio's big bully". Salon.com. Salon Media Group, Inc. Retrieved November 15, 2010.
- "Radio & Records Industry Achievement Awards 2005 - Winners: Rock". RadioandRecords.com. The Nielsen Company. June 2005. Archived from the original on May 6, 2008. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- "Radio & Records Industry Achievement Awards 2006 - Winners: Rock". RadioandRecords.com. The Nielsen Company. September 2006. Archived from the original on July 20, 2008. Retrieved July 2, 2011.
- O'Connor, Clint (October 20, 2003). "The Revolving Mike: The Buzzard Hopes Its Latest A.M. Team Will Soar After Many False Starts". The Plain Dealer. p. D1 - Arts & Life.
- O'Connor, Clint (October 20, 2003). "The Search for the Right Fit in the Morning at WMMS". The Plain Dealer. p. D1 - Arts & Life.
- Barbour, Clay (March 31, 2002). "Dale Faces Stern Challenge as Radio Morning Show Host". The Post and Courier. p. 1E.
- "WMMS Adds Bob and Tom to Mornings". AllAccess.com. All Access Music Group. June 16, 2006. Retrieved July 11, 2012.
- "Matthews Builds A Better Buzz". Billboard via Billboard.biz Archive. Prometheus Global Media. September 17, 2004. Retrieved May 17, 2010.[dead link]
- "Individual Bio - Maxwell". bordingk.com/maxwellshow.html. The Maxwell Show. 2010. Retrieved October 6, 2010.
- Vickers, Jim (June 2011). "Heavy Mental". ClevelandMagazine.com. Great Lakes Publishing. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- Hoynes, Paul (January 29, 2013). "Cleveland Indians, WTAM AM/1100 reach 5-year deal to broadcast games". Cleveland.com (Cleveland Live LLC). Retrieved January 29, 2013.
- "Best of Cleveland Readers' Choice". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2009. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- "Readers Poll Winners: Arts & Entertainment". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- "Coverage Maps: Cleveland, OH". TotalTraffic.com. Total Traffic Network. 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- "Radio Imaging Demo". DavidLeeImaging.com. David Lee Productions. 2013. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- "Radio Imaging Demos: Malcolm Ryker". AtlasTalent.com. Atlas Talent Agency. 2013. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- "Radio Demos: Rock". RenaMarieVillano.com. RenaMarie Villano and Plumvoice, Inc. 2013. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- "Miles Hlivko New APD At WMMS". AllAccess.com. All Access Music Group. February 27, 2013. Retrieved October 24, 2013.
- "Northeast Ohio: WMMS". Northeast & Midwest RDS Database. Chris Kadlec. August 2010. Retrieved February 27, 2013.
- "Marketing Tool Kit: 2010 Station Guide" (PDF). HDRadioAlliance.com. HD Digital Radio™ Alliance. 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2013.
- Washington, Julie (February 21, 2008). "DJ Rover Leaving WKRK for WMMS". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live LLC. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- Hoffman, Kevin (July 14, 2004). "Rover Unleashed!". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- "Usual Suspects: Rover's Morning Glory". TheZone941.com. Stephens Media Group. 2012. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- "In Brief - September 13, 2013". FMQB.com. Friday Morning Quarterback, Inc. September 13, 2013. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
- "Meet the Jocks". 93XMemphis.com. Entercom Memphis, LLC and InterTech Media, LLC. 2009. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- "WRXS Wakes Up to Rover's Morning Glory". AllAccess.com. All Access Music Group. January 7, 2010. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- "iHeartRadio: 97.1 The Eagle Rocks". iHeart.com. Clear Channel Broadcasting, Inc. 2012. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- "iHeartRadio: WEBN". iHeart.com. Clear Channel Broadcasting, Inc. 2012. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- "XM Satellite Radio announcement". Rover's Morning Glory. June 7, 2013. WMMS/Cleveland.
- Yarborough, Chuck (February 21, 2012). "Rover and WMMS Agree to a Contract Extension That Will Keep Him on the Air Through 2017". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live LLC. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
- "Best of Cleveland 2004: Best Morning DJ". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2004. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
- "Best of Cleveland 2005: Best Radio Morning Show". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2005. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
- "Best of Cleveland 2006: Best Radio-Host Homecoming". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2006. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
- "Best of Cleveland 2007: Best Radio Show". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2007. Retrieved July 3, 2013.
- "Ky-Mani Loses His Cool". The Gleaner. Gleaner Company. April 27, 2010. Retrieved October 11, 2012.
- "Readers Poll Winners: People & Places". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2010. Retrieved October 15, 2010.
- "Best of Cleveland 2011: People & Places". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2011. Retrieved March 30, 2011.
- "Best of Cleveland 2012: People & Places". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2012. Retrieved March 28, 2012.
- "Best of Cleveland 2013: People & Places". CleveScene.com. Cleveland Scene. 2013. Retrieved April 11, 2013.
- Kevin Casey (May 10, 2012). "Alan Cox Talk Show Rocks Cleveland on WMMS-FM". Talkers.com. Talk Media, Inc. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "iTunes Preview: The Alan Cox Show". iTunes.Apple.com. Apple Inc. 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- "iHeartRadio Talk: The Alan Cox Show". iHeartRadio.com. Clear Channel Broadcasting, Inc. 2013. Retrieved August 27, 2013.
- "Alan Contract Announcement". WMMS.com. Clear Channel Media and Entertainment. November 5, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- "Aerosmith Frontman Explains New Album Delay (Audio) - June 26, 2012". Blabbermouth.net. Roadrunner Records. June 26, 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- McIntyre, Michael (March 1, 2010). "Forbes has it in for Cleveland. There's proof!: Michael K. McIntyre's Tipoff". Cleveland.com. Cleveland Live, Inc. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
- Wells, Charlie (July 19, 2012). "DJs Hold 'Fifty Shades' Book Burning". NYDailyNews.com. NYDailyNews.com. Retrieved August 4, 2012.
- Schneider, Kim (May 2005). " 'Buzz' Words". ClevelandMagazine.com. Great Lakes Publishing. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "Corrections and Clarifications". The Plain Dealer. August 1, 2009. Retrieved September 1, 2013. "The Cleveland Clear Channel stations using the Premium Choice programming package are WAKS, WGAR, WMJI and WMMS. Each station uses it overnight on weekdays, and for selected hours on weekends."
- "Where to Hear Skratch 'N Sniff!". SNSMix.com. Skratch 'N Sniff. 2011. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- "House of Hair Stations List by State". HouseofHairOnline.com. Bernadette Productions, LLC. 2012. Retrieved July 8, 2012.
- Venta, Lance (May 23, 2012). "99X Debuts in Cleveland". RadioInsight.com. Radio Insight. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- "Bo Matthews to Program Cleveland's New 99X". AllAccess.com. All Access Media Group. May 24, 2012. Retrieved March 27, 2013.
- "Radio Affiliates: Ohio". SixxSense.com. Clear Channel Media and Entertainment. 2012. Retrieved April 2, 2013.
- Berti, Jim; Bowman, Durrell (2011). Rush and Philosophy: Heart and Mind United. Chicago: Open Court Publishing. ISBN 9780812697162.
- Carr, Daphne (2007). 33⅓: Nine Inch Nails' Pretty Hate Machine. London: Continuum. ISBN 9780826427892.
- Chapman, Marshall (2003). Goodbye, Little Rock and Roller. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 9780312315689.
- Denisoff, R. Serge (1988). Inside MTV. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9780887388644.
- Denisoff, R. Serge (1986). Tarnished Gold: The Record Industry Revisited. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Publishers. ISBN 9780887386183.
- Edwardson, Ryan (2009). Canuck Rock: A History of Canadian Popular Music. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 9780802099891.
- Goldberg, Danny (2009). Bumping Into Geniuses: My Life Inside the Rock and Roll Business. New York: Gotham Books. ISBN 9781592404834.
- Harris, Larry; Gooch, Curt; Suhs, Jeff (2009). And Party Every Day: The Inside Story of Casablanca Records. New York: Backbeat Books. ISBN 9780879309824.
- Hoskyns, Barney (2010). Lowside of the Road: A Life of Tom Waits. New York: Broadway Books. ISBN 9780767927093.
- Keith, Michael C. (1997). Voices in the Purple Haze: Underground Radio and the Sixties. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger. ISBN 9780275952662.
- Marsh, Dave (2004). Bruce Springsteen: Two Hearts: The Definitive Biography, 1972–2003. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415969284.
- Masur, Louis P. (2009). Runaway Dream: Born to Run and Bruce Springsteen's American Vision. New York: Bloomsbury Press. ISBN 9781608191017.
- Nicks, Joan; Sloniowski, Jeannette (2003). Slippery Pastimes: Reading the Popular in Canadian Culture. Waterloo, Ontario: Laurier University Press. ISBN 9780889203884.
- Pegg, Nicholas (2011). The Complete David Bowie. London: Titan Books. ISBN 9780857682901.
- Popoff, Martin (2004). Contents Under Pressure: 30 Years of Rush at Home and Away. New York: ECW Press. ISBN 9781550226782.
- Reynolds, Simon (2006). Rip It Up and Start Again: Postpunk 1978–1984. New York: Penguin Books. ISBN 9780143036722.
- Spitz, Marc (2009). Bowie: A Biography. New York: Crown Publishing. ISBN 9780307716996.
- Cummings, Tom; Rogant, Dave; Olszewski, Mike (Producers) (2008). Radio Daze: Cleveland's FM Air Wars (Film). Cleveland: Harvard 131 Films.
- Harrington, Ashley (Producer) (2009). Hello, Cleveland! (Film). Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University.
- Heydt, David (Executive Producer) (2009–10). The History of Howard Stern: Act III (Radio). New York City: Howard Stern Productions.
- McFadyen, Scot; Dunn, Sam (Producers) (2010). Rush: Beyond the Lighted Stage (Film). Toronto: Banger Films.
- Adams, Deanna R. (2002). Rock and Roll and the Cleveland Connection. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. ISBN 9780873386913.
- Adams, Deanna R. (2010). Images in America: Cleveland's Rock and Roll Roots. Mount Pleasant, South Carolina: Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 9780738577869.
- Gorman, John; Feran, Tom (2007). The Buzzard: Inside the Glory Days of WMMS and Cleveland Rock Radio. Cleveland: Gray & Co. ISBN 9781886228474.
- Neer, Richard (2001). FM: The Rise and Fall of Rock Radio. New York: Villard Books. ISBN 9780679462958.
- Olszewski, Mike (2003). Radio Daze: Stories from the Front in Cleveland's FM Air Wars. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press. ISBN 9780873387736.
- Wolff, Carlo (2006). Cleveland Rock and Roll Memories. Cleveland: Gray & Co. ISBN 9781886228993.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to WMMS.|
- Official website
- Query the FCC's FM station database for WMMS
- Radio-Locator information on WMMS
- Query Nielsen Audio's FM station database for WMMS
- Query the FCC's FM station database for W256BT
- Radio-Locator information on W256BT
- Encyclopedia of Cleveland History: WMMS
- Cleveland Broadcast Radio Archives: WMMS timeline
- Rock and Roll Hall of Fame: WMMS exhibit