Graphics display resolution
The graphics display resolution describes the width and height dimensions of a display, such as a computer monitor, in pixels. Certain combinations of width and height are standardized and typically given a name and an initialism that is descriptive of its dimensions. A higher display resolution in a display of the same size means that displayed content appears sharper.
|Lines||5:4 = 1.25||4:3 = 1.3||3:2 = 1.5||16:10 = 1.6||5:3 = 1.6||16:9 = 1.7||21:9 = 2.3 or 2.370|
|200||320 or 640 CGA|
|240||320 QVGA||360 WQVGA||384 WQVGA||400 WQVGA||432 FWQVGA (18:10)|
|350||720 MDA or HGC, 640 EGA|
|480||640 VGA||720 WVGA||768 WVGA||800 WVGA||854 FWVGA|
|600||800 SVGA||1024 WSVGA (128:75)|
|768||1024 XGA||1152 WXGA||1280 WXGA||1366 FWXGA|
|900||1440 WXGA+||1600 HD+|
|960||1280 SXGA−/UVGA||1440 FWXGA+|
|1024||1280 SXGA||1600 WSXGA|
|1050||1400 SXGA+||1680 WSXGA+|
|1200||1600 UXGA||1920 WUXGA|
|2048||2560 QSXGA||3200 WQSXGA (25:16=1.5625)|
|2160||3840 UHD (4K)||5120 UHD (5K)|
|2400||3200 QUXGA||3840 WQUXGA|
|4096||5120 HSXGA||6400 WHSXGA (25:16=1.5625)|
|4320||7680 FUHD (8K)|
|4800||6400 HUXGA||7680 WHUXGA|
|8640||15360 QUHD (16K)|
- 1 Aspect ratio
- 2 Video Graphics Array
- 3 Extended Graphics Array
- 4 Quad Extended Graphics Array
- 5 Hyper Extended Graphics Array
- 6 High-Definition
- 7 See also
- 8 References
The gradual change of the favored aspect ratio of mass market display industry products, from 4:3, then to 16:10, and then to 16:9, has made many of the display resolutions listed in this article difficult to obtain in mass market products. The 4:3 aspect ratio generally reflects older products, especially the era of the cathode ray tube (CRT). The 16:10 aspect ratio had its largest use in the 1995–2010 period, and the 16:9 aspect ratio tends to reflect the current (post 2010) mass market computer monitor, laptop, and entertainment products displays. In many cases the resolutions listed in the sections below may have a small market, may only be seen in specialized industrial or computer market products, or may not be available for sale.
The 4:3 aspect ratio was common in older television cathode ray tube (CRT) displays, which were not easily adaptable to a wider aspect ratio. When good quality alternate technologies (i.e., liquid crystal displays (LCDs) and plasma displays) became more available and less costly, around the year 2000, the common computer displays and entertainment products moved to a wider aspect ratio, first to the 16:10 ratio. The 16:10 ratio allowed some compromise between showing older 4:3 aspect ratio broadcast TV shows, but also allowing better viewing of widescreen movies. However, around the year 2005, entertainment industry displays (i.e., TV sets) gradually moved from 16:10 to the 16:9 aspect ratio, for further improvement of viewing widescreen movies. By about 2007, virtually all mass market entertainment displays were 16:9. In 2011, 1920x1080 (Full HD, the native resolution of Blu-ray) was the favored resolution in the most heavily marketed entertainment market displays. The next standard, 3840x2160 (Ultra HD alias 4K) emerged in 2013, but movies and TV stations do not support that resolution yet. Also in 2013, displays with 2560x1080 (aspect ratio 64:27 or 2.37:1, commonly referred to as "21:9", which closely approximates the common CinemaScope movie standard aspect of 2.35-2.40:1) appeared. In 2014, "21:9" screens with pixel dimensions of 3440x1440 (actual aspect 43:18 or 2.39:1) became available.
The computer display industry maintained the 16:10 aspect ratio longer than the entertainment industry, but in the 2005–2010 period, computers were increasingly marketed as dual use products, with uses in the traditional computer applications, but also as means of viewing entertainment content. In this time frame, with the notable exception of Apple, almost all desktop, laptop, and display manufacturers gradually moved to promoting only 16:9 aspect ratio displays. By 2011, the 16:10 aspect ratio had virtually disappeared from the Windows laptop display market (although Macintosh laptops are still mostly 16:10, including the 2880x1800 Retina MacBook Pro). One artifact is that the highest available resolutions moved downward in this time frame (i.e., the move from 1920x1200 laptop displays to 1920x1080 displays).
Video Graphics Array
|Name||x (px)||y (px)||x:y||x×y (Mpx)|
Quarter-QVGA (QQVGA or qqVGA) denotes a resolution of 160x120 or 120x160 pixels, usually used in displays of handheld devices. The term Quarter-QVGA signifies a resolution of one fourth the number of pixels in a QVGA display (half the number of vertical and half the number of horizontal pixels) which itself has one fourth the number of pixels in a VGA display.
The abbreviation qqVGA may be used to distinguish quarter from quad, just like qVGA.
Half-QVGA denotes a display screen resolution of 240x160 or 160x240 pixels, as seen on the Game Boy Advance. This resolution is half of QVGA, which is itself a quarter of VGA, which is 640x480 pixels.
The Quarter Video Graphics Array (also known as Quarter VGA, QVGA, or qVGA) is a popular term for a computer display with 320x240 display resolution. QVGA displays are most often used in mobile phones, personal digital assistants (PDA), and some handheld game consoles. Often the displays are in a “portrait” orientation (i.e., taller than they are wide, as opposed to “landscape”) and are referred to as 240x320.
The name comes from having a quarter of the 640x480 maximum resolution of the original IBM VGA display technology, which became a de facto industry standard in the late 1980s. QVGA is not a standard mode offered by the VGA BIOS, even though VGA and compatible chipsets support a QVGA-sized Mode X. The term refers only to the display's resolution and thus the abbreviated term QVGA or Quarter VGA is more appropriate to use.
QVGA resolution is also used in digital video recording equipment as a low-resolution mode requiring less data storage capacity than higher resolutions, typically in still digital cameras with video recording capability, and some mobile phones. Each frame is an image of 320x240 pixels. QVGA video is typically recorded at 15 or 30 frames per second. QVGA mode describes the size of an image in pixels, commonly called the resolution; numerous video file formats support this resolution.
While QVGA is a lower resolution than VGA, at higher resolutions the "Q" prefix commonly means quad(ruple) or four times higher display resolution (e.g., QXGA is 4 times higher resolution than XGA). To distinguish quarter from quad, lowercase "q" is sometimes used for "quarter" and uppercase "Q" for "quad", by analogy with SI prefixes like m/M and p/P, but this is not a consistent usage.
Some examples of devices that use QVGA display resolution include, Samsung i5500, LG Optimus L3-E400, Galaxy Fit, Y and Pocket, HTC Wildfire, Sony Ericsson Xperia X10 Mini and mini pro and Nintendo 3DS' bottom screen.
|x (px)||y (px)||x:y||x×y (Mpx)|
Since QVGA is 320 pixels wide and 240 pixels high (aspect ratio of 4:3), the resolution of a WQVGA screen might be 360x240 (3:2 aspect ratio), 384x240 (16:10 aspect ratio), 400x240 (5:3 – such as the Nintendo 3DS screen or the maximum resolution in YouTube at 240p), 428x240 or 432x240 (~16:9 ratio). As with WVGA, exact ratios of n:9 are not practical because of the way VGA controllers internally deal with pixels. For instance, when using graphical combinatorial operations on pixels, VGA controllers will use 1 bit per pixel. Since bits cannot be accessed individually but by chunks of 16 or an even higher power of 2, this limits the horizontal resolution to a 16-pixel granularity, i.e., the horizontal resolution must be divisible by 16. In the case of 16:9 ratio, with 240 pixels high, the horizontal resolution should be 240 / 9 x 16 = 426.6, the closest multiple of 16 is 432.
WQVGA has also been used to describe displays that are not 240 pixels high, for example Sixteenth HD1080 displays which are 480 pixels wide and 270 or 272 pixels high. This may be due to QVGA having the nearest screen height.
WQVGA resolutions are commonly used in touchscreen mobile phones, such as 400x240, 432x240, and 480x240. For example, the Sony Ericsson Aino and the Samsung Instinct both have WQVGA screen resolutions – 240x432. Other devices such as the Apple iPod Nano also use a WQVGA screen, 240x376 pixels.
|x (px)||y (px)||x:y||x×y (Mpx)|
HVGA (Half-size VGA) screens have 480x320 pixels (3:2 aspect ratio), 480x360 pixels (4:3 aspect ratio), 480x272 (~16:9 aspect ratio) or 640x240 pixels (8:3 aspect ratio). The former is used by a variety of PDA devices, starting with the Sony CLIÉ PEG-NR70 in 2002, and standalone PDAs by Palm. The latter was used by a variety of handheld PC devices. VGA resolution is 640x480.
Examples of devices that use HVGA include the Apple iPhone 2G–3GS, BlackBerry Bold 9000, HTC Dream, Hero, Wildfire S, LG GW620 Eve, MyTouch 3G Slide, Nokia 6260 Slide, Palm Pre, Samsung M900 Moment, Sony Ericsson Xperia X8, mini, mini pro, active and live.
HVGA was the only resolution supported in the first versions of Google Android, up to release 1.5. Other higher and lower resolutions are now available starting on release 1.6, like the popular WVGA resolution on the Motorola Droid or the QVGA resolution on the HTC Tattoo.
Three-dimensional computer graphics common on television throughout the 1980s were mostly rendered at this resolution, causing objects to have jagged edges on the top and bottom when edges were not anti-aliased.
Video Graphics Array (VGA) refers specifically to the display hardware first introduced with the IBM PS/2 line of computers in 1987, but through its widespread adoption has also come to mean either an analog computer display standard, the 15-pin D-subminiature VGA connector or the 640x480 resolution itself. While this resolution was superseded in the personal computer market in the 1990s, it became a popular resolution on mobile devices in the 2000s. VGA is still the universal fallback troubleshooting mode in the case of trouble with graphic device drivers in operating systems.
|x (px)||y (px)||x:y||x×y (Mpx)|
Wide VGA or WVGA, sometimes just WGA, an abbreviation for Wide Video Graphics Array is any display resolution with the same 480 pixel height as VGA but wider, such as 720x480 (3:2 aspect), 800x480 (aspect ratio 5:3), 848x480, 852x480, 853x480 or 854x480 (~16:9). It is a common resolution among LCD projectors and later portable and hand-held internet-enabled devices (such as MID and Netbooks) as it is capable of rendering web sites designed for an 800 wide window in full page-width. Examples of hand-held internet devices, without phone capability, with this resolution include: Spice stellar nhance mi-435, ASUS Eee PC 700 series, Dell XCD35, Nokia 770, N800, and N810.
Mobile phones with WVGA display resolution are also common. A list of mobile phones with WVGA display is available.
FWVGA is an abbreviation for Full Wide Video Graphics Array which refers to a display resolution of 854x480 pixels. 854x480 is approximately the 16:9 aspect ratio of anamorphically "un-squeezed" NTSC DVD widescreen video and considered a "safe" resolution that does not crop any of the image. It is called Full WVGA to distinguish it from other, narrower WVGA resolutions which require cropping 16:9 aspect ratio high-definition video (i.e. it is full width, albeit with considerable reduction in size).
The 854 pixel width is rounded up from 853.3. 480 x 16⁄9 = 7680⁄9 = 8531⁄3. Since a pixel must be a whole number, rounding up to 854 ensures inclusion of the entire image. Due to physical devices often being manufactured with pixel resolutions that are multiples of 16, the horizontal resolution of 854 may be implemented by the OS simply pretending the 10 edgemost columns, from a full physical width of 864, don't exist.
In 2010, mobile phones with FWVGA display resolution started to become more common. A list of mobile phones with FWVGA displays is available. In addition, the Wii U GamePad that comes with the Nintendo Wii U gaming console includes a 6.2 inch FWVGA display.
Super Video Graphics Array, abbreviated to Super VGA or SVGA, also known as Ultra Video Graphics Array, abbreviated to Ultra VGA or UVGA, is a broad term that covers a wide range of computer display standards.
Originally, it was an extension to the VGA standard first released by IBM in 1987. Unlike VGA – a purely IBM-defined standard – Super VGA was defined by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA), an open consortium set up to promote interoperability and define standards. When used as a resolution specification, in contrast to VGA or XGA for example, the term SVGA normally refers to a resolution of 800x600 pixels.
The marginally higher resolution 832x624 is the highest 4:3 resolution not greater than 219 pixels, with its horizontal dimension a multiple of 32 pixels. This enables it to fit within a framebuffer of 512 KB (512 × 210 bytes), and the common multiple of 32 pixels constraint is related to alignment. For these reasons this resolution was available on the Macintosh LC III and other systems.
DVGA (Double-size VGA) screens have 960x640 pixels (3:2 aspect ratio). Both dimensions are double that of HVGA, hence the pixel count is quadrupled.
The wide version of SVGA is known as WSVGA (Wide Super VGA), featured on Ultra-Mobile PCs, netbooks, and tablet computers. The resolution is either 1024x576 (aspect ratio 16:9) or 1024x600 (between 15:9 and 16:9) with screen sizes normally ranging from 7 to 10 inches.
Extended Graphics Array
|Name||x (px)||y (px)||x:y||x×y (Mpx)|
XGA, the Extended Graphics Array, is an IBM display standard introduced in 1990. Later it became the most common appellation of the 1024x768 pixels display resolution, but the official definition is broader than that. It was not a new and improved replacement for Super VGA, but rather became one particular subset of the broad range of capabilities covered under the "Super VGA" umbrella.
- 640x480 pixels in direct 16 bits-per-pixel (65,536 color) RGB hi-color (XGA only, with 1 MB video memory option) and 8 bpp (256 color) palette-indexed mode.
- 1024x768 pixels with a 16- or 256-color (4 or 8 bpp) palette, using a low frequency interlaced refresh rate (again, the higher 8 bpp mode required 1 MB VRAM).
Like the 8514, XGA offered fixed function hardware acceleration to offload processing of 2D drawing tasks. Both adaptors allowed offloading of line-draw, bitmap-copy (bitblt), and color-fill operations from the host CPU. XGA's acceleration was faster than 8514's, and more comprehensive, supporting more drawing primitives, the VGA-res hi-color mode, versatile "brush" and "mask" modes, system memory addressing functions, and a single simple hardware sprite typically used to providing a low CPU load mouse pointer. It was also capable of wholly independent function, as it incorporated support for all existing VGA functions and modes – the 8514 itself was a simpler add-on adaptor that required a separate VGA to be present. It should be noted that, as they were designed for use with IBM's own range of fixed-frequency monitors, neither adaptor offered support for 800x600 SVGA modes.
XGA-2 added a 24-bit DAC, but this was used only to extend the available master palette in 256-color mode, e.g. to allow true 256-greyscale output instead of the 64 grey levels previously available; there was still no direct Truecolor mode despite the adaptor featuring enough default onboard VRAM (1 MB) to support it. Other improvements included provision of the previously missing 800x600 resolution (using an SVGA or multisync monitor) in up to 65,536 colors, faster screen refresh rates in all modes (including non-interlace, flicker-free output for 1024x768), and improved accelerator performance and versatility.
IBM licensed the XGA technology and architecture to certain third party hardware developers, and its characteristic modes (although not necessarily the accelerator functions, nor the MCA data-bus interface) were aped by many others. These accelerators typically did not suffer from the same limitations on available resolutions and refresh rate, and featured other now-standard modes like 800x600 (and 1280x1024) at various color depths (up to 24 bpp Truecolor) and interlaced, non-interlaced and flicker-free refresh rates even before the release of the XGA-2.
XGA should not be confused with EVGA (Extended Video Graphics Array), a contemporaneous VESA standard that also has 1024x768 pixels. It should also not be confused with the Expanded Graphics Adapter, a peripheral for the IBM 3270 PC which can also be referred to as XGA.
WXGA (1366x768 and similar)
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Wide Extended Graphics Array (Wide XGA or WXGA) is a set of non standard resolutions derived from the XGA display standard by widening it to a wide screen aspect ratio. WXGA is commonly used for low-end LCD TVs and LCD computer monitors for widescreen presentation. The exact resolution offered by a device described as "WXGA" can be somewhat variable owing to a proliferation of several closely related standards optimised for different uses and derived from different bases.
1366x768 (Also known as FWXGA)
When referring to televisions and other monitors intended for consumer entertainment use, WXGA is generally understood to refer to a resolution of 1366x768, with an aspect ratio of very nearly 16:9. The basis for this otherwise odd seeming resolution is similar to that of other "wide" standards – the line scan (refresh) rate of the well-established "XGA" standard (1024x768 pixels, 4:3 aspect) extended to give square pixels on the increasingly popular 16:9 widescreen display ratio without having to effect major signalling changes other than a faster pixel clock, or manufacturing changes other than extending panel width by 1/3rd. As 768 does not divide exactly into 9, the aspect ratio is not quite 16:9 – this would require a horizontal width of 1365.33 pixels. However, at only 0.05%, the resulting error is insignificant.
In 2006, 1366x768 was the most popular resolution for liquid crystal display televisions (versus XGA for Plasma TVs flat panel displays); by 2013, even this was relegated to only being used in smaller or cheaper displays (e.g. "bedroom" LCD TVs, or low-cost, large-format plasmas), cheaper laptop and mobile tablet computers, and midrange home cinema projectors, having otherwise been overtaken by higher "full HD" resolutions such as 1920x1080.
A common variant on this resolution is 1360x768, which confers several technical benefits, most significantly a reduction in memory requirements from just over to just under 1 MB per 8-bit channel (1366x768 needs 1024.5 KB per channel; 1360x768 needs 1020 KB; 1 MB is equal to 1024 KB), which simplifies architecture and can significantly reduce the amount – and speed – of VRAM required with only a very minor change in available resolution, as memory chips are usually only available in fixed megabyte capacities. For example, at 32-bit color, a 1360x768 framebuffer would require only 4 MB, whilst a 1366x768 one may need 5, 6 or even 8 MB depending on the exact display circuitry architecture and available chip capacities. The 6-pixel reduction also means each line's width is divisible by 8 pixels, simplifying numerous routines used in both computer and broadcast/theatrical video processing, which operate on 8-pixel blocks. Historically, many video cards also mandated screen widths divisible by 8 for their lower-color, planar modes to accelerate memory accesses and simplify pixel position calculations (e.g. fetching 4-bit pixels from 32-bit memory is much faster when performed 8 pixels at a time, and calculating exactly where a particular pixel is within a memory block is much easier when lines don't end partway through a memory word), and this convention still persisted in low-end hardware even into the early days of widescreen, LCD HDTVs; thus, most 1366-width displays also quietly support display of 1360-width material, with a thin border of unused pixel columns at each side. This narrower mode is of course even further removed from the 16:9 ideal, but the error is still less than 0.5% (technically, the mode is either 15.94:9.00 or 16.00:9.04) and should be imperceptible.
When referring to laptop displays or independent displays and projectors intended primarily for use with computers, WXGA is also used to describe a resolution of 1280x800 pixels, with an aspect ratio of 16:10. This was once particularly popular for laptop screens, usually with a diagonal screen size of between 12 and 15 inches, as it provided a useful compromise between 4:3 XGA and 16:9 WXGA, with improved resolution in both dimensions vs. the old standard (especially useful in portrait mode, or for displaying two standard pages of text side-by-side), a perceptibly "wider" appearance and the ability to display 720p HD video "native" with only very thin letterbox borders (usable for on-screen playback controls) and no stretching. Additionally, like 1360x768, it required only 1000 KB (just under 1 MB) of memory per 8-bit channel; thus, a typical double-buffered 32-bit colour screen could fit within 8 MB, limiting everyday demands on the complexity (and cost, energy use) of integrated graphics chipsets and their shared use of typically sparse system memory (generally allocated to the video system in relatively large blocks), at least when only the internal display was in use (external monitors generally being supported in "extended desktop" mode to at least 1600x1200 resolution). 16:10 (or 8:5) is itself a rather "classic" computer aspect ratio, harking back all the way to early 320x200 modes (and their derivatives) as seen in the Commodore 64, IBM CGA card and others. However, as of mid 2013, this standard is becoming increasingly rare, crowded out by the more standardised and thus more economical-to-produce 1366x768 panels, as its previously beneficial features become less important with improvements to hardware, gradual loss of general backwards software compatibility, and changes in interface layout. As of August 2013, the market availability of panels with 1280x800 native resolution had been generally relegated to data projectors or niche products such as convertible tablet PCs and LCD-based eBook readers.[original research?]
Additionally, two other resolutions are sometimes labelled as WXGA:
- First, the HDTV-standard 1280x720 (otherwise commonly described as "720p"), which offers an exact 16:9 aspect with square pixels; naturally, it displays standard 720p HD video material without stretching or letterboxing and 1080i/1080p with a simple 2:3 downscale. This resolution has found some use in tablets and modern, high-pixel-density mobile phones, as well as small-format "netbook" or "ultralight" (not "Ultrabook") laptop computers. However, its use is uncommon in larger, mainstream devices as it has insufficient vertical resolution for the proper use of modern operating systems such as Windows 7 whose UI design assumes a minimum of 768 lines. For certain uses such as word processing, it can even be considered a slight downgrade (reducing number of simultaneously visible lines of text without granting any significant benefit as even 640 pixels is sufficient horizontal resolution to legibly render a full page width, especially with the addition of subpixel anti-aliasing).
- The second variant, 1280x768, can be seen as a compromise resolution that addressed this problem, as well as a halfway house between the older 1024x768 and 1280x1024 resolutions, and a stepping stone to 1366x768 (being one-quarter wider than 1024, not one-third) and 1280x800, that never quite caught on in the same way as either of its arguably derivative successors. Its square-pixel aspect ratio is 15:9, in contrast to HDTV's 16:9 and 1280x800's 16:10. It is also the lowest resolution that might be found in an "Ultrabook" standard laptop, as it satisfies the minimum horizontal and vertical pixel resolutions required to officially qualify for the designation.
Recent widespread availability of 1280x800 and 1366x768 pixel resolution LCDs for laptop monitors can be considered an OS-driven evolution from the formerly popular 1024x768 screen size, which has itself since seen UI design feedback in response to what could be considered disadvantages of the widescreen format when used with programs designed for "traditional" screens. In Microsoft Windows operating system specifically, the larger task bar of Windows Vista and 7 occupies an additional 16 pixel lines by default, which may compromise the usability of programs that already demanded a full 1024x768 (instead of, e.g. 800x600) unless it is specifically set to use small icons; an "oddball" 784-line resolution would compensate for this, but 1280x800 has a simpler aspect and also gives the slight bonus of 16 more usable lines. Also, the Windows Sidebar in Windows Vista and 7 can use the additional 256 or 336 horizontal pixels to display informational "widgets" without compromising the display width of other programs, and Windows 8 is specifically designed around a "two pane" concept where the full 16:9 or 16:10 screen is not required. Typically, this consists of a 4:3 main program area (typically 1024x768, 1000x800 or 1440x1080) plus a narrow sidebar running a second program, showing a toolbox for the main program or a pop-out OS shortcut panel taking up the remainder.
Some 1440x900 resolution displays have also been found labeled as WXGA; however, the correct label is actually WSXGA or WXGA+.
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XGA+ stands for Extended Graphics Array Plus and is a computer display standard, usually understood to refer to the 1152x864 resolution with an aspect ratio of 4:3. Until the advent of widescreen LCDs, XGA+ was often used on 17 inch desktop CRT monitors. It is the highest 4:3 resolution not greater than 220 pixels (~1.05 megapixels), with its horizontal dimension a multiple of 32 pixels. This enables it to fit closely into a video memory or framebuffer of 1 MB (1 × 220 bytes), assuming the use of one byte per pixel. The common multiple of 32 pixels constraint is related to alignment.
Historically, the resolution also relates to the earlier standard of 1152x900 pixels, which was adopted by Sun Microsystems for the Sun-2 workstation in the early 1980s. A decade later, Apple Computer selected the resolution of 1152x870 for their 21-inch CRT monitors, intended for use as two-page displays on the Macintosh II computer. These resolutions are even closer to the limit of a 1 MB framebuffer, but their aspect ratios differ slightly from the common 4:3.
WXGA+ and WSXGA are non-standard terms referring to computer display resolutions. Usually they refer to a resolution of 1440x900, but occasionally manufacturers use other terms to refer to this resolution. The Standard Panels Working Group refers to the 1440x900 resolution as WXGA(II).
WXGA+ (1440x900) resolution is common in 19" widescreen desktop monitors (a very small number of such monitors use WSXGA+), and is also optional, although less common, in laptop LCDs, in sizes ranging from 12.1" to 17". It is also used in the 13 inch MacBook Air. With a 13.3 in screen this is 128 ppi.
The other one is 1440x960, which is 15:10 (widescreen).
SXGA is an abbreviation for Super Extended Graphics Array referring to a standard monitor resolution of 1280x1024 pixels. This display resolution is the "next step" above the XGA resolution that IBM developed in 1990.
The 1280x1024 resolution is not the standard 4:3 aspect ratio, but 5:4 (1.25:1 instead of 1.333:1). A standard 4:3 monitor using this resolution will have rectangular rather than square pixels, meaning that unless the software compensates for this the picture will be distorted, causing circles to appear elliptical.
There is a less common 1280x960 resolution that preserves the common 4:3 aspect ratio. It is sometimes unofficially called SXGA− to avoid confusion with the "standard" SXGA. Elsewhere this 4:3 resolution was also called UVGA (Ultra VGA): Since both sides are doubled from VGA the term Quad VGA would be a systematic one, but it is hardly ever used, because its initialism QVGA is strongly associated with the alternate meaning Quarter VGA (320x240).
SXGA is also a popular resolution for cell phone cameras, such as the Motorola Razr and most Samsung and LG phones. Although being taken over by newer UXGA (2.0-megapixel) cameras, the 1.3-megapixel was the most common around 2007.
Any CRT that can run 1280x1024 can also run 1280x960, which has the standard 4:3 ratio. Displaying any 4:3 resolution on a 5:4 monitor, like a TFT with a native resolution of 1280x1024, will look stretched. But on a TFT, displaying any other resolution than the native one is not a good idea anyway, as the image needs to be interpolated to fit in the fixed grid display (and some TFT displays do not allow a user to disable this and use a letterbox format).
The 1280x1024 resolution became popular because at 24-bit color it fit well into 4 megabytes of video RAM. At the time, memory was extremely expensive. Using 1280x1024 at 24-bit color depth allowed using 3.75 MiB of video RAM, fitting nicely with VRAM chip sizes which were available at the time (4 MiB).
- (1280 x 1024) px x 8 bit/px ÷ 8 bit/byte ÷ 220 byte/MiB = 1.25 MiB
- (1280 x 1024) px x 24 bit/px ÷ 8 bit/byte ÷ 220 byte/MiB = 3.75 MiB
SXGA+ stands for Super Extended Graphics Array Plus and is a computer display standard. An SXGA+ display is commonly used on 14-inch or 15-inch laptop LCD screens with a resolution of 1400x1050 pixels. An SXGA+ display is used on a few 12-inch laptop screens such as the ThinkPad X60 and X61 (both only as tablet) as well as the Toshiba Portégé M200 and M400, but those are far less common. At 14.1 inches, Dell offered SXGA+ on many of the Dell Latitude "C" series laptops, such as the C640 and the C810, and Lenovo on the ThinkPad T61 and T61p. Sony also used SXGA+ in their Z1 series, but no longer produce them as widescreen has become more predominant.
There is a widescreen version of SXGA+ called WSXGA+ with a resolution of 1680x1050. This is a common native resolution of 19–22-inch wide-aspect LCD monitors, and is also available on many laptops.
It is the next common step in resolution after SXGA, although it is not approved by any organization. The most common resolution immediately above is called UXGA (sometimes also known as UGA), which has 1600x1200 pixels.
In desktop LCDs, SXGA+ is used on some low-end 20-inch monitors, whereas most of the 20-inch LCDs use UXGA (standard screen ratio), or WSXGA+ (widescreen ratio).
WSXGA+ stands for Widescreen Super Extended Graphics Array Plus and is a computer display standard. A WSXGA+ display is commonly used on Widescreen 20", 21", and popular 22" LCD monitors from numerous manufacturers (and a very small number of 19" widescreen monitors), as well as widescreen 15.4" and 17" laptop LCD screens like the Thinkpad T61 and the Apple 15" MacBook Pro. The resolution is 1680x1050 pixels (1,764,000 pixels) and has a 16:10 aspect ratio.
UXGA or UGA is an abbreviation for Ultra Extended Graphics Array referring to a standard monitor resolution of 1600x1200 pixels (totaling 1,920,000 pixels), which is exactly four times the default resolution of SVGA (800x600) (totaling 480,000 pixels). Dell Inc. refers to the same resolution of 1,920,000 pixels as UGA. It is generally considered to be the next step above SXGA (1280x960 or 1280x1024), but some resolutions (such as the unnamed 1366x1024 and SXGA+ at 1400x1050) fit between the two.
UXGA has been the native resolution of many fullscreen monitors of 15" or more, including laptop LCDs such as the ones in ThinkPad A21p, A30p, A31p, T42p, T43p and T60p; Dell Inspiron 8000/8100/8200; Panasonic Toughbook CF-51; and the original Alienware Area 51m. However, in more recent times, UXGA is not used in laptops at all but rather in desktop UXGA monitors that have been made in sizes of 20" and 21.3". Some 14" laptop LCDs with UXGA have also existed, but these were very rare.
WUXGA stands for Widescreen Ultra Extended Graphics Array and is a display resolution of 1920x1200 pixels (2,304,000 pixels) with a 16:10 screen aspect ratio. It is a wide version of UXGA, and can be used for viewing high-definition television (HDTV) content, which uses a 16:9 aspect ratio and a 1920x1080 resolution.
The 16:10 aspect ratio (as opposed to the 16:9 used in widescreen televisions) was chosen because this aspect ratio is appropriate for displaying two full pages of text side by side.
WUXGA resolution is 2.304 megapixels. An uncompressed 8-bit RGB WUXGA image has a size of ~6.6 MB (6750 × 210 bytes). As of 2014, this resolution is available in a few high-end LCD televisions and computer monitors (e.g. Dell Ultrasharp U2413, Lenovo L220x, Samsung T220P, ViewSonic SD-Z225), although in the past it was used in a wider variety of displays, including 17" laptops. WUXGA use predates the introduction of LCDs of that resolution. Most QXGA displays support 1920x1200 and widescreen CRTs such as the Sony GDM-FW900 and Hewlett Packard A7217A do as well.
The next lower resolution (for widescreen) before it is WSXGA+, which is 1680x1050 pixels (1,764,000 pixels, or 30.61% fewer than the WUXGA); the next higher resolution widescreen is an unnamed 2304x1440 resolution (supported by the above GDM-FW900 & A7217A) and then the more common WQXGA, which has 2560x1600 pixels (4,096,000 pixels, or 77.78% more than WUXGA).
There are two wider formats called UWXGA 1600x768 (25:12) and UW-UXGA that has 2560x1080 pixels, a 2.37:1 or 21⅓:9 or 64:27 aspect ratio, sometimes erroneously labeled 21:9.
|Percentage of difference in pixels||Typical
|WSXGA / WXGA+||1440||900||1.296||1.6||+27%||−27%||−44%||−65%||−68%||15"–19"||XGA+|
|WUXGA||1920||1200||2.304||1.6||+125%||+78%||+31%||−38%||−44%||23"–28"||UXGA||Displays 1920x1080 video with slight letterbox|
|WQXGA||2560||1600||4.096||1.6||+300%||+216%||+132%||+78%||+11%||30"+||QXGA||Complements portrait UXGA|
Quad Extended Graphics Array
|Name||x (px)||y (px)||x:y||x×y (Mpx)|
The QXGA, or Quad Extended Graphics Array, display standard is a resolution standard in display technology. Some examples of LCD monitors that have pixel counts at these levels are the Dell 3008WFP, the Apple Cinema Display, the Apple iMac (27" 2009–present), the iPad (3rd generation), and the MacBook Pro (3rd generation). Many standard 21"/22" CRT monitors and some of the highest-end 19" CRTs also support this resolution.
Not to be confused with WQXGA.
QWXGA (Quad Wide Extended Graphics Array) is a display resolution of 2048x1152 pixels with a 16:9 aspect ratio. A few LCD QWXGA monitors were available in 2009 with 23- and 27-inch displays, such as the Acer B233HU (23-inch) and B273HU (27-inch), the Dell SP2309W, and the Samsung 2343BWX. As of 2011, most 2048x1152 monitors have been discontinued, and as of 2013 no major manufacturer produces monitors with this resolution.
QXGA (Quad Extended Graphics Array) is a display resolution of 2048x1536 pixels with a 4:3 aspect ratio. The name comes from it having four times as many pixels as an XGA display. Examples of LCDs with this resolution are the IBM T210 and the Eizo G33 and R31 screens, but in CRT monitors this resolution is much more common; some examples include the Sony F520, ViewSonic G225fB, NEC FP2141SB or Mitsubishi DP2070SB, Iiyama Vision Master Pro 514, and Dell and HP P1230. Of these monitors, none are still in production. A related display size is WQXGA, which is a wide screen version. CRTs offer a way to achieve QXGA cheaply. Models like the Mitsubishi Diamond Pro 2045U and IBM ThinkVision C220P retailed for around 200 USD, and even higher performance ones like the ViewSonic PerfectFlat P220fB remained under 500 USD. At one time, many off-lease P1230s could be found on eBay for under 150 USD. The LCDs with WQXGA or QXGA resolution typically cost 4 to 5 times more for the same resolution. IDTech manufactured a 15" QXGA IPS panel. NEC sold laptops with QXGA screens in 2002–05 for the Japanese market. The iPad (3rd, 4th and 5th generation) also has a QXGA display.
Not to be confused with QWXGA.
WQXGA (Wide Quad Extended Graphics Array) is a display resolution of 2560x1600 pixels with a 16:10 aspect ratio. The name comes from it being a wide version of QXGA and having four times as many pixels as an WXGA (1280x800) display.
To obtain a vertical refresh rate higher than 40 Hz, this resolution requires more bandwidth than a single link DVI supports and requires dual-link capable cables and devices. To avoid cable problems monitors are sometimes shipped with an appropriate dual link cable already plugged in. Many video cards support this resolution. One feature that is currently unique to the 30" WQXGA monitors is the ability to function as the centerpiece and main display of a three-monitor array of complementary aspect ratios, with two UXGA (1600x1200) 20" monitors turned vertically on either side. The resolutions are equal, and the size of the 1600 resolution edges (if the manufacturer is honest) is within a tenth of an inch (16" vs. 15.89999"), presenting a "picture window view" without the extreme lateral dimensions, small central panel, asymmetry, resolution differences, or dimensional difference of other three-monitor combinations. The resulting 4960x1600 composite image has a 3.1:1 aspect ratio. This also means one UXGA 20" monitor in portrait orientation can also be flanked by two 30" WQXGA monitors for a 6320x1600 composite image with an 11.85:3 (79:20, 3.95:1) aspect ratio. Some WQXGA medical displays (such as the Barco Coronis 4 MP) can also be configured as two virtual 1200x1600 or 1280x1600 seamless displays by using both DVI ports at the same time.
In 2010, WQXGA made its debut in a handful of home theater projectors targeted at the Constant Height Screen application market. Both Digital Projection Inc and projectiondesign released models based on a Texas Instrument DLP chip with a native WQXGA resolution, alleviating the need for an anamorphic lens to achieve 1:2.35 image projection. Many manufacturers have 27"–30" models that are capable of WQXGA, albeit at a much higher price than lower resolution monitors of the same size. Several mainstream WQXGA monitors are available with 30-inch displays, such as the Dell UltraSharp 3007WFP-HC, Dell UltraSharp 3008WFP, U3011 and 3014, the Hewlett-Packard LP3065, the Gateway XHD3000, LG W3000H, and the Samsung 305T. Specialist manufacturers like Eizo, Planar Systems, Barco (LC-3001), and possibly others offer similar models.
Released in November 2012, Google's Nexus 10 is the first consumer tablet to feature WQXGA resolution. Before its release, the highest resolution available on a tablet was QXGA (2048x1536), available on the Apple iPad 3rd and 4th generations devices. The Samsung Galaxy Note 10.1 (2014 Edition) and NotePRO 8.4, 10.1 and 12.2 tablets also feature a WQXGA resolution display.
QSXGA (Quad Super Extended Graphics Array) is a display resolution of 2560x2048 pixels with a 5:4 aspect ratio. Grayscale monitors with a 2560x2048 resolution, primarily for medical use, are available from Planar Systems (Dome E5), Eizo (Radiforce G51), Barco (Nio 5, MP), WIDE (IF2105MP), IDTech (IAQS80F), and possibly others.
Recent medical displays such as Barco Coronis Fusion 10 MP or NDS Dome S10 have native panel resolution of 4096x2560. These are driven by two dual-link DVI or DisplayPort outputs. They can be considered to be two seamless virtual QSXGA displays as they have to be driven simultaneously by both dual link DVI or DisplayPort since one dual link DVI or DisplayPort cannot single-handedly display 10 megapixels. A similar resolution of 2560x1920 (4:3) was supported by a small number of CRT displays via VGA such as the Viewsonic P225f when paired with the right graphics card.
WQSXGA (Wide Quad Super Extended Graphics Array) describes a display standard that can support a resolution up to 3200x2048 pixels, assuming a 1.56:1 (25:16) aspect ratio. The Coronis Fusion 6 MP DL by Barco supports 3280x2048 (approx. 16:10).
QUXGA (Quad Ultra Extended Graphics Array) describes a display standard that can support a resolution up to 3200x2400 pixels, assuming a 4:3 aspect ratio.
WQUXGA (Wide Quad Ultra Extended Graphics Array) describes a display standard that supports a resolution of 3840x2400 pixels, which provides a 16:10 aspect ratio. This resolution is exactly four times 1920x1200 (in pixels).
WQUXGA is the maximum resolution supported by DisplayPort 1.2, though actually displaying such a resolution on a device with DisplayPort 1.2 is dependent on the graphics system in much the same way devices with VGA connectors do not necessarily maximize that standard's highest possible resolution. Most display cards with a DVI connector are capable of supporting the 3840x2400 resolution. However, the maximum refresh rate will be limited by the number of DVI links which are connected to the monitor. 1, 2, or 4 DVI connectors are used to drive the monitor using various tile configurations. Only the IBM T221-DG5 and IDTech MD22292B5 support the use of dual-link DVI ports through an external converter box. Many systems using these monitors use at least 2 DVI connectors to send video to the monitor. These DVI connectors can be from the same graphics card, different graphics cards, or even different computers. Motion across the tile boundary(ies) can show tearing if the DVI links are not synchronized. The display panel can be updated at a speed between 0 Hz and 41 Hz (48 Hz for the IBM T221-DG5, -DGP, and IDTech MD22292B5). The refresh rate of the video signal can be higher than 41 Hz (or 48 Hz) but the monitor will not update the display any faster even if graphics card(s) do so.
In June 2001, WQUXGA was introduced in the IBM T220 LCD monitor using a LCD panel built by IDTech. LCD displays that support WQUXGA resolution include: IBM T220, IBM T221, Iiyama AQU5611DTBK, ViewSonic VP2290, ADTX MD22292B, and IDTech MD22292 (models B0, B1, B2, B5, C0, C2). IDTech was the original equipment manufacturer which sold these monitors to ADTX, IBM, Iiyama, and ViewSonic. However, none of the WQUXGA monitors (IBM, ViewSonic, Iiyama, ADTX) are in production anymore: they had prices that were well above even the higher end displays used by graphic professionals, and the lower refresh rates, 41 Hz and 48 Hz, made them less attractive for many applications.
Hyper Extended Graphics Array
|Name||x (px)||y (px)||x:y||x×y (Mpx)|
The HXGA display standard and its derivatives are a standard in display technology. As of 2012, there is no monitor that displays at these levels but several digital cameras can record such images.
HXGA an abbreviation for Hex[adecatuple] Extended Graphics Array is a display standard that can support a resolution of 4096x3072 pixels (or 3200 pixels) with a 4:3 aspect ratio. The name comes from it having sixteen (hexadecatuple) times as many pixels as an XGA display.
WHXGA an abbreviation for Wide Hex[adecatuple] Extended Graphics Array is a display standard that can support a resolution of roughly 5120x3200 pixels with a 16:10 aspect ratio. The name comes from it being a wide version of HXGA, which has sixteen (hexadecatuple) times as many pixels as an XGA display.
HSXGA, an abbreviation for Hex[adecatuple] Super Extended Graphics Array, is a display standard that can support a resolution of roughly 5120x4096 pixels with a 5:4 aspect ratio. The name comes from it having sixteen (hexadecatuple) times as many pixels as an SXGA display.
WHSXGA, an abbreviation for Wide Hex[adecatuple] Super Extended Graphics Array, is a display standard that can support a resolution up to 6400x4096 pixels, assuming a 1.56:1 (25:16) aspect ratio. The name comes from it having sixteen (hexadecatuple) times as many pixels as an WSXGA display.
HUXGA, an abbreviation for Hex[adecatuple] Ultra Extended Graphics Array, is a display standard that can support a resolution of roughly 6400x4800 pixels with a 4:3 aspect ratio. The name comes from it having sixteen (hexadecatuple) times as many pixels as an UXGA display.
WHUXGA an abbreviation for Wide Hex[adecatuple] Ultra Extended Graphics Array, is a display standard that can support a resolution up to 7680x4800 pixels, assuming a 16:10 (8:5) aspect ratio. The name comes from it having sixteen (hexadecatuple) times as many pixels as a WUXGA display.
|Name||x (px)||y (px)||x:y||x×y (Mpx)|
nHD is a display resolution of 640x360 pixels, which is exactly one ninth of a Full HD (1080p) frame and one quarter of a HD (720p) frame. Pixel doubling (vertically and horizontally) nHD frames will form one 720p frame and pixel tripling nHD frames will form one 1080p frame.
One drawback of this resolution is that the vertical resolution is not an even multiple of 16, which is a common macroblock size for video codecs. Video frames encoded with 16x16 pixel macroblocks would be padded to 640x368 and the added pixels would be cropped away at playback. H.264 codecs have this padding and cropping ability built-in as standard. The same is true for qHD and 1080p but the relative amount of padding is more for lower resolutions such as nHD.
To avoid storing the eight lines of padded pixels, some people prefer to encode video at 624x352, which only has one stored padded line. When such video streams are either encoded from HD frames or played back on HD displays in full screen mode (either 720p or 1080p) they are scaled by non-integer scale factors. True nHD frames on the other hand has integer scale factors, for example Nokia 808 PureView with nHD display.
Similar to DVGA, this resolution became popular for high-end smartphone displays in early 2011. Mobile phones including the Sony Xperia C, Sony Xperia P, HTC Amaze 4G, HTC Sensation, HTC Evo 3D, HTC Desire 600, Motorola Droid RAZR, Motorola Droid Bionic 4G LTE, Q-Mobile Noir A9, Motorola Atrix 4G, Moto E, LG Optimus L9, LG Optimus F5, Fly F53s and Samsung Galaxy S4 Mini have displays with the qHD resolution, as does the PlayStation Vita portable game system.
The HD resolution of 1280x720 pixels stems from high-definition television (HDTV), where it originally used 60 frames per second. With its 16:9 aspect ratio it is exactly 2 times the width and 1 1⁄2 times the height of 4:3 VGA, which shares its aspect ratio and 480 line count with NTSC. HD therefore has exactly 3 times as many pixels as VGA.
This resolution is sometimes referred to as 720p, although the p (which stands for progressive scan and is important for transmission formats) is irrelevant for labeling digital display resolutions.
Few screens have been built that actually use this resolution natively, most employ 16:9 panels with 768 lines instead (WXGA), which resulted in odd numbers of pixels per line, i.e. 1365 1⁄3 are rounded to 1360, 1364, 1366 or even 1376, the next multiple of 16. All of these resolutions are in scope of the "HD ready" label.
The FHD or Full HD resolution of 1920x1080 pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio was developed as an HDTV transmission and storage format. Using interlacing, the bandwidth requirements are very similar to those of 720p – their pixel counts are roughly in a 2:1 ratio, 9:4 exactly. FHD is 3 times the width and 2 1⁄4 times the height of 4:3 VGA.
Due to its origins, this resolution is sometimes referred to as 1080i wherein the i stands for "interlaced". Since there are also progressive signals with the same frame rate (but half the effective field rate) those signals are more commonly called 1080p.
Since most video codecs use 16x16 pixel macro blocks there is often an excess 8 lines encoded, for 16 times 68 equals 1088.
QHD (Quad HD), also sometimes advertised as WQHD due to its widescreen shape, or 1440p, is a display resolution of 2560x1440 pixels in a 16:9 aspect ratio. It has four times as many pixels as the 720p HDTV video standard, hence the name.
This resolution was under consideration by the ATSC in the late 1980s to become the standard HDTV format, because it is exactly 4 times the width and 3 times the height of VGA, which has the same number of lines as NTSC signals at the SDTV 4:3 aspect ratio. Pragmatic technical constraints made them choose the now well-known 16:9 formats with twice (HD) and thrice (FHD) the VGA width instead.
In autumn 2006, Chi Mei Optoelectronics (CMO) announced a 47" 1440 LCD panel to be released in Q2 2007; the panel was planned to finally debut at FPD International 2008 in a form of autostereoscopic 3D display.
In 2009, Apple computer began offering iMacs with 27" 2560x1440 resolution screens.
As of the end of 2013, monitors that have a QHD display are becoming more common. A list of monitors with QHD display is available.
In autumn 2012 Samsung announced the Series 9 WQHD laptop with a 13" 2560x1440 display.
WQXGA+ (Wide Quad Extended Graphics Array Plus), also referred to as QHD and QHD+ is a resolution of 3200x1800 in a 16:9 aspect ratio. It has four times as many pixels as the 1600x900 HD+ resolution.
UHD (Ultra HD) is a display resolution of 3840x2160 pixels (four times as many pixels as FHD) in the same 16:9 aspect ratio. This resolution is part of the UHDTV standard and is advocated by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories.
In early 2008, Samsung revealed a proof-of-concept 82-inch LCD TV set capable of this resolution and LG has demonstrated an 84-inch display. In November 2010, CMI launched a 27.84" 158 PPI 4K IPS panel for medical purposes. Optik View has two versions of 56" 4K monitors. DC801 has two Dual Link DVI inputs; DC802 has four different versions: four single link DVI, four HDMI, four DisplayPort and/or four 3G-SDI inputs. All versions can deliver a resolution of 3840x2160. Eyevis produces a 56" LCD named EYELCD 56 QHD HD while Toshiba makes the P56QHD and in October 2011 released the REGZA 55x3, which is claimed to be the First 4K glasses-free 3D TV, Mitsubishi Electric the 56P-QF60LCU, and Sony the SRM-L560, all which can deliver a resolution of 3840x2160. Landmark has also produced a 56" 4K monitor, the M5600. Both HDMI 1.4 and DisplayPort 1.2 support 4K, at up to 30 Hz using a single cable. DisplayPort 1.2 can also achieve 60 Hz at this resolution with a single cable, however early monitors achieve this with a tiled approach where the graphics adapter multiplexes two signals via Multi-Stream Transport (MST). The two signals (tiles) are reconstructed as a single image on the monitor. Newer monitors such as the Asus PB287Q do not rely on tiling or MST to achieve 60Hz.  HDMI 1.4 has no such option but HDMI 2.0 can also achieve 60 Hz.
Digital Cinema Initiatives 4K (4096 x 2160)
Standard established by the Digital Cinema Initiatives consortium consisting of 4096 pixels × 2160 lines (8.8 megapixels, aspect ratio ~17:9) for 4K film projection. This is the native resolution for DCI-compliant 4K digital projectors and monitors.
FUHD (Full Ultra HD) is a display resolution of 7680x4320 pixels (four times as many pixels as UHD, or sixteen times as many pixels as FHD) in the same 16:9 aspect ratio. This resolution is part of the UHDTV standard and is advocated by NHK Science & Technology Research Laboratories and the BBC.
UHD 5K (5120x2880)
|This section requires expansion. (September 2014)|
QUHD (Quad Ultra HD) is a display resolution of 15360x8640 pixels (four times as many pixels as FUHD (8K, see above), or sixteen times as many as UHD) in the same 16:9 aspect ratio.
- Display resolution
- List of mobile phones with HD display
- Mode 13h and Mode X, video modes in VGA (including VGA-compatible and successors to VGA, such as VESA) hardware with a resolution profile similar to QVGA
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