Wallace Fard Muhammad

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Wallace Fard Muhammad
Wallace Fard Muhammad.jpg
Nation of Islam portrait
Leader of the Nation of Islam
In office
1930–1934
Succeeded by Elijah Muhammad
Personal details
Born 26 February, Birth Year Debated [a]
Died Unknown
Occupation Minister
Religion Nation of Islam
^ a. Birth dates attributed to Fard include 1891, 1893, and 1877. The Nation of Islam celebrates 26 February 1877.

Wallace Fard Muhammad /fɜrˈɑːd/ (26 February birth year debated[1] - ?) was the founder of the Nation of Islam. He arrived in Detroit in 1930 with an obscure background and several aliases, where he taught a distinctive form of Islam among the city's African-American population. He disappeared in 1934 after several disputes with local authorities.

Beynon's Account of Fard and His Followers[edit]

In 1938, an article by sociologist Erdmann Doane Beynon was published in the American Journal of Sociology, giving Beynon's first hand account of several interviews that he conducted with followers of Fard in Michigan.[2] From those interviews, Beynon wrote that Fard lived and taught in Detroit from 1930 to 1934.[3] He came to the homes of Black families who recently migrated to the area from the rural south.[4] He began by selling silks door to door, telling his listeners that the silks came from their home country.[5] At his suggestion, he came back to teach the residents, along with guests.[6]

In the early stage of his ministry, Fard “used the Bible as his textbook, since it was the only religious book with which the majority of his hearers were familiar. With growing prestige over a constantly increasing group, [Fard] became bolder in his denunciation of the Caucasians and began to attack the teachings of the Bible in such a way as to shock his hearers and bring them to an emotional crisis.”[7]

Those interviewed by Beynon told him that reports of Fard’s message spread through the Black community.[8] Attendance at the house meetings grew until the listeners were divided into groups and taught in shifts.[9] Finally, the community contributed money and rented a hall to serve as a Temple where meetings were conducted.[10]

The Quran was soon introduced as the most authoritative of all texts for the study of the faith according to those interviewed by Beynon.[11] Fard prepared texts himself, which served as authoritative manuals of the faith and were memorized verbatim by those who followed him.[12]

From his interviews, Beynon described disputes and tension that arose between the new community and the police surrounding the groups refusal to send their children to public schools, and members of the group who some alleged to have participated in "human sacrifice" in 1932 in an effort to obey lessons given to the community regarding the sacrifice of devils.[13]

Fard named his community the Nation of Islam.[14] Following the rapid increase in membership, Fard instituted a formal organizational structure.[15] He established the University of Islam, where school age children were taught, rather than in the public schools.[16] He established the Moslem Girls’ Training and General Civilization Class, where women were taught how to keep their houses, clean, and cook.[17] The men of the organization were drilled by captains and referred to as the Fruit of Islam. The entire movement was placed under a Minister of Islam.[18]

According to Beynon, Fard’s followers grew to approximately eight thousand.[19] “Within three years the prophet not only began the movement but organized it so well that he himself was able to recede into the background, appearing almost never to his followers during the final months of his residence in Detroit.”[20]

From interviews with approximately two hundred families who followed Fard, Beynon concluded: "Although the prophet lived in Detroit from July 4, 1930 until June 30, 1934, virtually nothing is known about him, save that he 'came from the East' and that he 'called' the Negroes of North America to enter the Nation of Islam. His very name is uncertain. He was known usually as Mr. Wali Farrad or Mr. W.D. Fard, though he used also the following names: Professor Ford, Mr. Farrad Mohammed, Mr. F. Mohammed Ali. One of the few survivors who heard his first addresses states that he himself said: 'My name is W.D. Fard and I came from the Holy City of Mecca. More about myself I will not tell you yet, for the time has not yet come. I am your brother. You have not yet seen me in my royal robes.' Legends soon sprang up about this mysterious personality..."[21]

Fard used the name W.F. Muhammad on several lessons written in 1933 and 1934.[22] In 1933, he began signing his name W.F. Muhammad, which stands for Wallace Fard Muhammad.[23]

Efforts to Trace Fard’s Biography[edit]

A declassified FBI memorandum dated May 16, 1957 states: “From a review of instant file it does not appear that there has been a concerted effort to locate and fully identify W.D. Fard. Inasmuch as Elijah Muhammad recognizes W.D. Fard as being Allah (God) and claims that Fard is the source of all of his teachings, it is suggested that an exhaustive effort be made to fully identify and locate W.D. Fard and/or members of his family.”[24] The FBI took note of the article written by Erdmann Doane Beynon, and it conducted a search for Fard using various aliases included the name "Ford." [25]

The search produced two Fords of interest, one of which was a prominent movie actor. The other was Wallie D. Ford of California, arrested by Los Angeles police on November 17, 1918 on a charge of assault with a deadly weapon, by the Los Angeles police January 20, 1926 for violation of the California Wolverine Possession Act, and by the Los Angeles police February 15, 1926 for violation of the State Poison Act for which he was sentenced to six months to six years at San Quentin Penitentiary on June 12, 1926.[26]

On October 17, 1957, the FBI located and interviewed Hazel Barton-Ford, Wallie Ford’s common-law wife, with whom he had a son named Wallace Dodd Ford, born September 1, 1920.[27] Barton-Ford gave a description of Wallie Ford, and described him as a Caucasian New Zealander.[28] The FBI’s search for Fard was officially closed one-year later on April 15, 1958.[29]

On August 15, 1959, the FBI sent a story to the Chicago New Crusader newspaper stating that Fard was a “Turkish-born Nazi agent who worked for Hitler in World War II.”[30] According to the story from the FBI, Fard was a “Muslim from Turkey who had come to the United States in the early 1900s.[31] He had met Muhammad in prison… where the two men plotted a confidence game in which followers were charged a fee to become Muslims.”[32] After the story was published, Elijah Muhammad and Malcolm X were subsequently able to charge Black media outlets, who re-printed the accusation in large numbers, with running the story without requesting a response from the Nation of Islam.[33]

A February 19, 1963 FBI memorandum states: “In connection with efforts to disrupt and curb growth of the NOI, extensive research has been conducted into various files maintained by this office. Among the files reviewed was that of Wallace Dodd Ford.”[34] Five months later, in July 1963, the FBI told the Los Angeles Evening Herald-Examiner that Fard is actually Wallace Dodd Ford.[35] The paper published the story in an article titled: “Black Muslim Founder Exposed As White.”[36] An FBI memorandum dated the following month, August 1963, states that the FBI had not been able to verify his birth date or birth place, and "he was last heard from in 1934."[37]

Chroniclers' History of Ford From FBI File[edit]

Karl Evanzz of the Washington Post conducted a Freedom of Information Act request to the FBI in 1978 requesting its file on Fard.[38] Evanzz based his account of the life of Fard on the declassified portion of the FBI file that he received about a decade after his request.[39] Evanzz detailed the experience of several other authors who based their accounts of the life of Fard on the FBI file as well.[40]

From the FBI’s response to the Freedom of Information Act request, Karl Evanzz claimed that Fard, using the name Fred Dodd, married Pearl Allen in Multnomah County, Oregon on May 9, 1914 with their first child, a son, born the next year.[41][42]

Dodd left his family in 1916 and moved to Los Angeles using the name Wallie Dodd Ford. A World War I draft registration card for Wallace Dodd Ford, from 1917, indicated he was living in Los Angeles, California, unmarried, as a restaurant owner, and reported that he was born in Shinka, Afghanistan on February 26, 1893. He was described as being of medium height and build with brown eyes and black hair.[43]

As of 1920, he was still living in Los Angeles, as 26 year-old Wallie D. Ford, with his 25 year-old wife, Hazel. In the 1920 United States Census he reported his race as white, his occupation as a proprietor of a restaurant, and gave his place of birth as New Zealand. He provided no known place of birth for his parents, nor his date of immigration.[44]

On June 5, 1924, Wallie Dodd Ford was wed to Carmen Frevino (or Trevino) in Orange County, California. Ford reported he was a cook, age 26, born in Oregon, but living in Los Angeles. He reported he was of "Spanish" race. His parents names are given as Zaradodd Ford of "Madrad, Span" (presumably Madrid, Spain) and Babbjie.[45]

In 1926, Ford was arrested and imprisoned for bootlegging alcohol to an undercover police officer, serving three years in San Quentin State Prison. After he was released in 1929, he disappeared from the public record.

Moorish Science Temple of America[edit]

In addition to claiming that Fard is Ford, Evanzz also claimed that Fard was once a member of the Moorish Science Temple of America.[46] Authors, such as Evanzz, who claim that Fard is linked to the Moorish Science Temple of America, have cited as a primary source the 1945 publication by Arna Bontemps and Jack Conroy titled “They Seek A City.”[47] Authors have also cited E.U. Essien-Udom for this proposition as well.[48] In his 1962 book titled Black Nationalism: The Search for an Identity, E.U. Essien-Udom included the following passage:

“[Noble Drew Ali] was shot and stabbed in his offices at the Unity Club in Chicago on the night of March 15, 1929… He was eventually released on bond, but a few weeks later, he died under mysterious circumstances. Some people claim that he died from injuries inflicted by the police while he was in jail. Others, however, suggest that he was killed by [Sheik Claude] Greene’s partisans. For some time, one W.D. Fard assumed leadership of the Moorish movement. According to Bontemps and Conroy, Fard claimed that he was the reincarnation of Noble Drew Ali. By 1930 a permanent split developed in the movement. One faction, the Moors, remains faithful to Noble Drew Ali, and the other, which is now led by Elijah Muhammad, remains faithful to Prophet Fard (Master Wallace Fard Muhammad). However, Minister Malcolm X and other leaders of the Nation of Islam have emphatically denied any past connection whatsoever of Elijah Muhammad, Master Wallace Fard Muhammad, or their movement with Nobel Drew Ali’s Moorish American Science Temple.”[49]

On the question of a connection between the Nation of Islam and the Moorish Science Temple of America, Beynon wrote the following from his interviews with Fard's followers: "Awakened already to a consciousness of race discrimination, these migrants from the South came into contact with militant movements among northern Negroes. Practically none of them had been in the North prior to the collapse of the Marcus Garvey movement. A few of them had come under the influence of the Moorish-American cult which succeeded it. The effect of both these movements upon the future members of the Nation of Islam was largely indirect. Garvey taught the Negroes that their homeland was Ethiopia. The Noble Drew Ali, the prophet of the Moorish-Americans, proclaimed that these people were 'descendants of Morrocans.'”[50] Beynon also noted: “biblical prophecies and the teaching of Marcus Garvey and Noble Drew Ali were cited [by the Nation of Islam] as foretelling the coming of the new prophet.”[51]

Relationship With Elijah Muhammad[edit]

With regard to Elijah Muhammad, Beynon’s article stated: “From among the larger group of Moslems there has sprung recently an even more militant branch than the Nation of Islam itself. This new movement, known as the Temple People, identifies the prophet, Mr. W.D. Fard, with the god Allah. To Mr. Fard alone do they offer prayer and sacrifice. Since Mr. Fard has been deified, the Temple People raise to the rank of prophet the former Minister of Islam, Elijah Mohammed, now a resident of Chicago. He is always referred to reverently as the ‘Prophet Elijah in Chicago.’”[52]

Elijah Muhammad, who led the Nation of Islam from 1934 to 1975, heard Fard teach for the first time in 1931.[53] Elijah Muhammad stated that he and Fard became inseparable between 1931 and 1934, where he felt “jailed almost” due to the amount of time that they spent together with Fard teaching him day and night.[54]

A hand-written lesson written by Fard states:

“Twelve Leaders of Islam from all over the Planet have conferred in the Root of Civilization concerning the Lost-Found Nation of Islam -- must return to their original Land. One of the Conference Members by the name of Mr. Osman Sharrieff said to the Eleven Members of the Conference: ‘The Lost-Found Nation of Islam will not return to their original Land unless they, first, have a thorough Knowledge of their own.’ So they sent a Messenger to them of their own. Now, the Messenger and his Laborers worked day and night for the last three and one-half years, and their accomplishments are approximately twenty-five thousand…”[55]

In this lesson, Fard places the number of converts obtained in Detroit at twenty-five thousand, and he describes a “Messenger” sent to the “Lost-Found Nation of Islam” who is “of their own.”[56] Nation of Islam theology states that this "Messenger" is Elijah Muhammad.[57]

Fard wrote, in his instructions to the leaders of his community, that they should “copy the Answers of Lesson of Minister Elijah Muhammad.”[58] He went on to state: “Why is Stress made to the Muslims to Copy, the Minister, Elijah Muhammad's Answers? The past History shows that the ALMIGHTY ALLAH sends Prophets and Apostles for the people's Guide and Example, and through them HIS Mystery was Revealed. And those who follow the Apostle would see the Light.”[59]

Fard wrote several lessons which are read and committed to memory by members of the Nation of Islam.[60] Some of the lessons are in the form of questions asked by Fard to Elijah Muhammad.[61] One such lesson concludes with the text: “This Lesson No. 2 was given by our Prophet, W.D. Fard, which contains 40 questions answered by Elijah Muhammad, one of the lost found in the wilderness of North America February 20th, 1934.”[62]

Ideology[edit]

Beynon described the substance of Fard’s teaching as follows:

“The black men in North America are not Negroes, but members of the lost tribe of Shabazz, stolen by traders from the Holy City of Mecca 379 years ago. The prophet came to America to find and to bring back to life his long lost brethren, from whom the Caucasians had taken away their language, their nation and their religion. Here in America they were living other than themselves. They must learn that they are the original people, noblest of the nations of the earth. The Caucasians are the colored people, since they have lost their original color. The original people must regain their religion, which is Islam, their language, which is Arabic, and their culture, which is astronomy and higher mathematics, especially calculus. They must live according to the law of Allah, avoiding all meat of ‘poison animals,’ hogs, ducks, geese, possums and catfish. They must give up completely the use of stimulants, especially liquor. They must clean themselves up – both their bodies and their houses. If in this way they obeyed Allah, he would take them back to the Paradise from which they had been stolen – the Holy City of Mecca.”[63] Fard's lessons actually state that the "trader" referenced by Beynon, came to Africa, not Mecca.[64]

Modern Nation of Islam theology is based upon the belief that Fard’s teaching of Elijah Muhammad was fulfillment of scripture regarding God’s teaching of an Apostle, where Fard is described as “God in Person,” the “Messiah,” and the “Mahdi.”[65] Fard wrote the following for his followers:

“[T]he LESSONS that OUR SAVIOUR (ALLAH) gave us to Study and Learn is the Fulfillment of the Prophecies of All the Former Prophets concerning the Beginning of the Devils, and the Ending of the Civilization, and of our Enslavement by the Devils, and Present Time of our Delivery from the Devils by OUR SAVIOUR (ALLAH). PRAISE HIS HOLY NAME! There is No God but ALLAH. How that ALLAH would separate us from the Devils and, then destroy them; and Change us into a New and Perfect People; and Fill the Earth with FREEDOM, JUSTICE and EQUALITY as it was filled with wickedness; and Making we, the Poor Lost-Founds, the Perfect RULERS”[66]

In his 1965 book, Message to the Blackman in America, which is a compilation of articles written by Elijah Muhammad for various newspapers throughout the early part of his Ministry, he summarized what Fard taught him as follows:

“He began teaching us the knowledge of ourselves, of God and the devil, of the measurement of the earth, of other planets, and of the civilization of some of the planets other than earth.

“He measured and weighed the earth and its water; the history of the moon; the history of the two nations, black and white, that dominate the earth. He gave the exact birth of the white race; the name of their God who made them and how; and the end of their time, the judgment, how it will begin and end.

“He taught us the truth of how we were made ‘slaves’ and how we are kept in slavery by the ‘slave-masters’ children. He declared the doom of America, for her evils to us was past due. And that she is number one to be destroyed. Her judgment could not take place until we hear the truth.

“He declared that we were without the knowledge of self or anyone else. How we had been made blind, deaf and dumb by this white race of people and how we must return to our people, our God and His religion of peace (Islam), the religion of the prophets. We must give up the slave names of our slave-masters and accept the name of Allah (God) or one of His divine attributes. He also taught us to give up all evil doings and practices and do righteousness or be destroyed from the face of the earth. He taught us that the slave-masters had taught us to eat the wrong food and that this wrong food is the cause of our sickness and short span of life. He declared that he would heal us and set us in heaven at once, if we would submit to Him. Otherwise he would chastise us with a severe chastisement until we did submit. And that He was able to force the whole world into submission to his will. He said that he loved us (the so-called Negroes), his lost and found, so well that he would eat rattlesnakes to free us if necessary, for he has power over all things.”[67]

In culture[edit]

From those in the music industry influenced by the Nation of Islam and the Five Percent Nation, has come a number of references to Fard's teaching in popular music, particularly hip-hop. Artists have made references within their music like: Jay Z - "I'm going to chase the Yacub back in the cave,"[68] Jay Electronica - "God tribe of Shabazz stylin' on the record," "The son of W.D., who hung around in the D, Who ran around in the three, The trap gods raised me, Face all on the Sphinx, Story all in the wall of the pyramids, Niggas know the Black God saved me,"[69] Brand Nubian - "This asiatic black man is a dog spelled backwards, The maker, the owner, the cream of the planet earth, Father of civilization, God of the universe, Manifestin thought with my infinite styles Making sure this travels, twenty-three million miles, The other six I set the crucifix, Because the heart of the problem is this..."[70] Similar quotes are contained within music from artists like Wu Tang Clan, Poor Righteous Teachers, A Tribe Called Quest, Ice Cube, and Rakim to name a few.[71]

A reinterpretation of the historical mantle exists in Jeffrey Eugenides’s novel Middlesex, which won the 2003 Pulitzer Prize for fiction. In the story, Fard's real name is Jimmy Zizmo, and he is a small time bootlegger of rumored Greek-Turkish-Pontian descent who fakes his death upon suspecting that his wife is having an affair and that he is not the father to their daughter.

Having convinced everyone that he is dead, he assumes the Fard identity, apparently out of a desire to reaffirm his Turkish roots. The Fard-Zizmo character disappears after the ritual murder scandal.

References[edit]

  1. ^ The years 1891 and 1893 have both been cited by sources relying upon FBI records primarily. The FBI file on Fard provides both dates, and states: "Our investigation of the NOI and Ford failed to establish his birth date and birth place." FBI File SAC (25-330971-26) In addition, Fard claimed that he was born in 1877.
  2. ^ Beynon, Erdmann Doane, "The Voodoo Cult Among Negro Migrants in Detroit", The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 43, No. 6, May 1938, pgs. 893-907
  3. ^ Ibid., 896
  4. ^ Ibid., 894-895
  5. ^ Ibid., 895
  6. ^ Ibid.
  7. ^ Ibid.
  8. ^ Ibid., 896
  9. ^ Ibid.
  10. ^ Ibid.
  11. ^ Ibid., 900
  12. ^ Ibid.
  13. ^ Ibid., 903-904. Beynon stated that Fard's position on human sacrifice "was never made clear."
  14. ^ Ibid., 897
  15. ^ Ibid., 902
  16. ^ Ibid.
  17. ^ Ibid.
  18. ^ Ibid.
  19. ^ Ibid., 897
  20. ^ Ibid., 902
  21. ^ Ibid., 896.
  22. ^ Muhammad, Fard (1993), The Supreme Wisdom, The Final Call
  23. ^ Muhammad, Elijah (1965) Message to the Blackman in America, Muhammad's Temple No 2, ISBN 978-1-929594-01-6, p. 16-17.
  24. ^ FBI File SAC (25-20607) at 476
  25. ^ FBI File SAC (100-26356) at 451-473, SAC Chicago (100-33683)
  26. ^ FBI File SAC (100-43165-16)
  27. ^ FBI File SAC LA (105-4805) at 135
  28. ^ Ibid.
  29. ^ FBI File Director FBI (105-63642) at 248, SAC Chicago (100-33683)
  30. ^ Evanzz, Karl (2001) The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad, Random House/Vintage, ISBN 978-0-679-77406-8, p. 204-205
  31. ^ Ibid.
  32. ^ Ibid.
  33. ^ Ibid.
  34. ^ FBI File Director, FBI (25-330971) at 258, SAC Chicago (100-35635)
  35. ^ Evanzz, Karl (2001) The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad, Random House/Vintage, ISBN 978-0-679-77406-8, p. 264
  36. ^ "Black Muslim Founder Exposed As White," Los Angeles Evening Herald-Examiner, July 28, 1963
  37. ^ FBI File SAC (25-330971-26)
  38. ^ Evanzz, Karl (2001) The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad, Random House/Vintage, ISBN 978-0-679-77406-8, p. xvii
  39. ^ Ibid.
  40. ^ Ibid., xvi-xvii
  41. ^ Evanzz, Karl (2001) The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad, Random House/Vintage, ISBN 978-0-679-77406-8, p. 399.
  42. ^ Gibson, Dawn-Marie (2012) A History of the Nation of Islam: Race, Islam, and the Quest for Freedom, Praeger, ISBN 978-0-313-39807-0, p. 24-25.
  43. ^ Ancestry.com database, Registration Location: Los Angeles County, California; Roll: 1530899; Draft Board: 17
  44. ^ 1920 Federal U.S. Census, Los Angeles City, Enumeration District 206, Sheet 10B
  45. ^ California State Board of Health, County of Orange, Certificate of Marriage, Local Registered No. 1768, as located in "California, County Marriages, 1850-1952," index and images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/pal:/MM9.1.1/K8FM-5FP : accessed 05 Jan 2013), Wallie Dodd Ford and Carmen Frevino, 1924.
  46. ^ Evanzz, Karl (2001) The Messenger: The Rise and Fall of Elijah Muhammad, Random House/Vintage, ISBN 978-0-679-77406-8, p. 69
  47. ^ Bontemps, Arna and Conroy, Jack (1945) They Seek A City, Doubleday, Doran and Company, Inc., ASIN B0007E2JSU
  48. ^ E. U. Essien-Udom, Black Nationalism: The Search for an Identity, University of Chicago Press, 1995, p.35.
  49. ^ Ibid., 35-36
  50. ^ Beynon, Erdmann Doane, "The Voodoo Cult Among Negro Migrants in Detroit", The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 43, No. 6, May 1938, pg. 898
  51. ^ Ibid., 900
  52. ^ Beynon, Erdmann Doane, "The Voodoo Cult Among Negro Migrants in Detroit", The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 43, No. 6, May 1938, pgs. 906-907
  53. ^ Muhammad, Elijah (1964), Historic 1964 Buzz Anderson Interview, The Final Call
  54. ^ Ibid.
  55. ^ Muhammad, Fard (1993), The Supreme Wisdom, The Problem Book, #32, The Final Call
  56. ^ Ibid.
  57. ^ Muhammad, Jabril (1993) This is The One The Most Honored Elijah Muhammad We Need Not Look For Another, Vol. 1
  58. ^ Muhammad, Fard (1993), The Supreme Wisdom, Instructions to the Laborers, The Final Call
  59. ^ Ibid.
  60. ^ Muhammad, Fard (1993), The Supreme Wisdom, The Final Call. Beynon refers to some of the lessons by Fard as an "oral tradition" that was recorded at the University of Islam as the "Secret Ritual of the Nation of Islam." See Beynon, supra at 898. Authors have subsequently attributed a text of this title to Fard. See Evanzz, supra at 81. However, Fard's lessons were individually written lessons later compiled in a single publication. See Muhammad, Fard (1993), The Supreme Wisdom, Lost-Found Muslim, Lesson #2, The Final Call. Language attributed to Fard by author Karl Evanzz does not appear in any of the individually written lessons.
  61. ^ Muhammad, Fard (1993), The Supreme Wisdom, The Final Call.
  62. ^ Muhammad, Fard (1993), The Problem Book, #32, The Supreme Wisdom, Lost-Found Muslim, Lesson #2, The Final Call
  63. ^ Beynon, Erdmann Doane, "The Voodoo Cult Among Negro Migrants in Detroit", The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 43, No. 6, May 1938, pg. 900-901
  64. ^ Muhammad, Fard (1993) The Supreme Wisdom Lessons, The Final Call, p. 12
  65. ^ Muhammad, Elijah (1965) Message to the Blackman in America, Muhammad's Temple No 2, ISBN 978-1-929594-01-6, p. 164; Muhammad, Fard (1993) The Supreme Wisdom Lessons, Instructions to the Laborers, The Final Call, p. 3
  66. ^ Muhammad, Fard (1993), The Supreme Wisdom, Instructions to the Laborers, The Final Call
  67. ^ Muhammad, Elijah (1965) Message to the Blackman in America, Muhammad's Temple No 2, ISBN 978-1-929594-01-6, p. 16-17.
  68. ^ Jay Z & Jay Electronica, “We Made It”
  69. ^ Ibid.
  70. ^ Brand Nubian, “Wake Up”
  71. ^ Poor Righteous Teachers, “Holy Intellect,” Ice Cube, “Horny Lil Devil,” Rakim, “Mystery (Who Is God?)”

External links[edit]