Vlachs

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"Wallach" and "Oláh" redirect here. For other uses, see Wallach (disambiguation) and Oláh (disambiguation).
Map of Balkans with regions significantly inhabited by Vlachs/Romanians highlighted

Vlach (English pronunciation: /ˈvlɑːk/ or /ˈvlæk/) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinized population in the present-day territory of Romania and Moldova, as well as the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula and south and west of the Danube River.[1] The term Vlachos comes from the German word of Celtic origin Walh, which the ancient Germans used to call Romans and, more broadly, the peoples that had been administratively and culturally incorporated into the Roman world. The medieval Slavs ‘borrowed’ the word and thus it phonetically transformed into Vlah. In that form it developed into a term used to define populations in Southeast Europe that speak variations of the Balkan-Roman language, i.e. the Neo-Latin dialects of the Balkan region. English variations of the name include Wallachians, Walla, Wlachs, Wallachs, Vlahs, Olahs or Ulahs. Groups that have historically been called Vlachs include modern-day Romanians, Aromanians, Morlachs, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians. Since the creation of the Romanian state, the term in English has mostly been used for those living outside Romania.

The Vlachs did not become easily identifiable before the 11th century when they were described by George Kedrenos, and their prehistory during the Migration period is considered by some historians a matter of scholarly speculation.[2] According to some linguists and scholars, the existence of the present Eastern Romance languages proves the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the Lower Danube basin during the Age of Migrations,[3] while populations from the western Balkans historically referred to as "Vlachs" (e.g. speakers of the extinct Dalmatian language) could have also had Romanized Illyrian origins.[4]

Almost all modern nations in central and south-eastern Europe, e.g. Hungary, Ukraine, Serbia, Croatia, Macedonia, Albania, Greece and Bulgaria have native Vlach or Romanian minorities. In other countries, the native Vlach population has been more or less assimilated into the Slavic population. Only Romania and Moldova have Romanian ethnic majorities today.

Etymology[edit]

Further information: Walhaz

The word Vlach is ultimately of Germanic origin, from the word Walha, "foreigner", "stranger", a name used by ancient Germanic peoples to refer to Romance-speaking and (Romanized) Celtic neighbours. In turn, Walha may have been derived from the name of a Celtic tribe which was known to the Romans as Volcae in the writings of Julius Caesar and to the Greeks as Ouólkai in texts by Strabo and Ptolemy.[5] As such, the term Vlach shares its history with several European ethnic names, including the Welsh and Walloons.[6]

From the Germanic peoples, the term passed to the Slavs and from these in turn to other peoples, such as the Hungarians ("oláh", referring to Vlachs, more specifically Romanians, "olasz", referring to Italians) and Byzantines ("Βλάχοι", "Vláhi"), and was used for all Latin people of the Balkans.[7] The Polish word for "Italian", Włoch (plural Włosi), has the same origin, as does the Slovenian, vaguely derogatory word "lach", also for Italians. The Italian-speaking region lying south of South Tyrol, now part of Italy with the name "Trentino", was known as Welschtirol in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. "Vlah" is also a derogatory term used in Croatia when referring to inhabitants of Dalmatian hinterland and the Dinarides area, regardless of their religious affiliation, ("Vlaji") and in Bosnia referring to a person of Eastern Orthodox Church ("Vlasi").

Word usage[edit]

Γάλα Βλάχας (Gála Vláhas) – 'Shepherdess' Milk' – is a well-known brand in Greece

In some areas of the Balkans Vlach, or its variants, means generally orthodox Christian, regardless of language or ethnic origin.

In Greece the term Vlachos is used metaphorically for someone uneducated or speaking with rustic accent, this coming from historical prejudice against nomadic Aromanian shepherds.[8]

Language Form Meaning
Albanian Vllah (Vllah/Vllehët) Vlach
Albanian Coban (Choban/Choban) Shepherd
Arabic الأولاق/ (al-Awlâq/al-Awlâk) Direct Arabisation of Vlach sing. Al-Awlaqi
Greek Βλάχοι (Vlákhi/Vláhi) Shepherd (occasionally pejorative with the sense rustic, red-neck)/Romanian/Vlach[8]
Bulgarian влах Romanian/Vlach
Bulgarian влах man from Wallachia
Czech Valach man from Wallachia
Czech Valach man from Valašsko (in Moravia)
Czech valach shepherd
Czech valach gelding (horse)
Czech valach lazy man
Czech Vlach Italian
Hungarian vlach/blach Vlach/Blach
Hungarian oláh Romanian/Vlach
Hungarian olasz Italian
Macedonian влав cattle breeder, shepherd
Polish Włoch Italian
Polish Włochy Italy
Polish Wołoch Romanian / Vlach
Polish wałach, wałaszyć gelding (horse), to geld
Old Russian волохъ man speaking a Romance language
Russian валах Vlach
Serbian влав, Влах, Vlah Vlach
Serbian Влах, Vlah man from Wallachia
Serbian (Užice dialect) Вла(х), Старовла(х) medieval nomadic people from Stari Vlah and Mala Vlaška
Croatian Vlah Istro-Romanian
Croatian (Dubrovnik dialect) Vlah man from Herzegovina (pejorative)
Croatian (western dialects) Vlah Italian (pejorative)
Croatian влах, vlah medieval nomadic cattle breeder
Croatian (dialects of Istria) vlah new settler (pejorative)
Croatian (Dalmatian dialects) vlah (vlaj) plebeian (pejorative)[citation needed]
Croatian (Dalmatian insular dialects) vlah man from the mainland (pejorative)[citation needed]
Croatian (western and northern dialects) vlah (vlaj) Orthodox Christian, usually Serb (pejorative)[9]
Bosnian vlah, влах non-Muslim living in Bosnia, usually Serb (pejorative)[citation needed]
Bosnian vlah Catholic (pejorative)[citation needed]
Slovak Valach man from Wallachia
Slovak Valach man from Valašsko (in Moravia)
Slovak valach shepherd
Slovak valach gelding (horse)
Slovak Vlach Italian
Slovene Lah Italian (pejorative)[citation needed]
Turkish Ulah Vlach
Western Slovenian dialects Lah Friulian
Ukrainian волох Romanian / Vlach, in Roman period local Ostrogoths denoted Celts by this name

History[edit]

Writ issued on 14 October 1465 by the Wallachian voivode Radu cel Frumos, from his residence in Bucharest.
The Jireček line between Latin- and Greek-language Roman inscriptions

The first record of a medieval Romance language in the Balkans dates to the early Byzantine period in which Procopius' (500–565) mention forts with names such as Skeptekasas (Seven Houses), Burgulatu (Broad City), Loupofantana (Wolf's Well) and Gemellomountes (Twin Mountains).[citation needed] A Byzantine chronicle of 586 about an incursion against the Avars in the eastern Balkans may contain one of the earliest references to Vlachs. The account states that when the baggage carried by a mule slipped, the muleteer shouted, "Torna, torna, fratre!" ("Return, return, brother!").[citation needed]

Byzantine historians used the German origin name Vlachs for Latin speakers and especially for Romanians.[10][page needed][better source needed]

The name Blökumenn is mentioned in a Nordic Saga, in the context of some events taking place in 1018 or 1019, believed to be related to the Vlachs.[11][12]

Traveler Benjamin of Tudela (1130–1173), of the Kingdom of Navarre, was one of the first writers using the word Vlachs for a Romance-speaking population.[10][page needed]

Arab chronicler Mutahhar al-Maqdisi stated: "they say that in the Turkic neighbourhood there are the Khazars, Russians, Slavs, "Waladj", Alans, Greeks and many other peoples."[13]

According to a late Russian chronicle, the Pechenegs invaded Transylvania in 1059.[14][15][16][importance?]

Byzantine writer Kekaumenos, the author of the Strategikon (1078), described a Roman (Vlach) revolt in Northern Greece in 1066.[17]

In the late 9th century, the Hungarians invaded the Pannonian basin, where, according to the Gesta Hungarorum written around 1200 by the anonymous chancellor of King Bela III of Hungary, the province of Pannonia was inhabited by Slavs, Bulgars, Vlachs, and pastores Romanorum (shepherds of the Romans) (in original: sclauij, Bulgarij et Blachij, ac pastores romanorum). Between the 12th and 14th centuries they came under the Kingdom of Hungary, the Byzantine Empire and the Golden Horde.[18]

Anna Comnen in Alexiade (Chapter XIV) identifies the Vlachs from Balkans with Dacians, describing their places around Haemus mountains: "...on either side of its slopes dwell many very wealthy tribes, the Dacians and the Thracians on the northern side, and on the southern, more Thracians and the Macedonians". Byzantine historian John Kinnamos described Leon Vatatzes' military expedition in Northern Danube in which he mentioned the participation of Vlachs in battles against Magyars in 1166.[19][20]

In 1213, a joint army composed by Romans (Vlachs), Saxons and Pechenegs led by Ioachim from Sibiu, attacked the Bulgars and Cumans from Vidin. From this date, all battles of Hungarian kingdom in Carpathian area were supported by Romance people from Transylvania.[21]

Simon de Keza wrote at the end of the 13th century (during Ladislaus the Cuman) about the Roman origin of "blacki" and placed their presence in Pannonia starting with the Hun Empire.[22][23]

Archaeological discoveries in Transylvania show that Transylvania was gradually occupied by Magyars and the last standing region defended by Vlachs and Pechenegs (until 1200) was between Olt river and Carpathians[24][25] Shortly after the fall of Olt, a Catholic church started to be constructed at Cârța and catholic emigrants (Saxons) were brought to balance the local Orthodox population.[26] Diploma Andreanum issued by Andrew II of Hungary in 1224 shows that "silva blacorum et bissenorum" was granted to emigrants.[27]

Vlachs (Wołosi in Polish) have spread along Carpathian ridge to former Poland, Slovakia and even as far as to Moravia. Vlachs were granted with autonomy under the Ius Vlachonicum (Walachian Law, Prawo Wołoskie)and professed Orthodox faith[28]

In 1285, Ladislaus the Cuman battled with Tatars and Cumans and arrived with his troops (made of orthodox Vlachs from Transylvania)[dubious ] until Moldova river. Shortly after this, a town named Baia was constructed (attested in 1300) by emigrant Saxons near Moldova river. This starting date for Moldova state was correctly interpreted by a lot of historians [29][30]

In 1290, Ladislaus the Cuman who protected the Cumans, Pechenegs and Orthodox believers was assassinated and a new Magyar king with other preferencies forced some leaders (including Negru Vodă) from the space between Olt and Carpathes to move over Carpathes and to contribute to the formation of Valachia[31]

People[edit]

Branches of Vlachs/Romanians and their territories

The Eastern Romance languages, sometimes known as the Vlach languages, are a group of Romance languages that developed in south-eastern Europe from the local eastern variant of Vulgar Latin. There is no official data from Balkan countries such as Greece, Bulgaria, Albania and Serbia.[citation needed]

  • Daco-Romanians (Romanians proper) about 23,623,890,[32] speaking the Romanian language (Daco-Romanian), known by that name due to their location in the territory of ancient Dacia, who live in:
    • Romania – 16,869,816 (2011 Census)
    • Moldova – 2,815,000 (2004 Census)
    • Ukraine – 409,600; in southern Bessarabia northern Bukovina and between Dniester and Bug rivers (2001 Census)
    • Serbia – 35,330 (2011 census)[33]
    • Hungary – 7,995 (2001 Census)
    • Bulgaria – 3,584 persons counted as Vlachs (may include Aromanians) and 891 as Romanians in 2011.[34]
  • Aromanians up to 500,000 (about 250,000 speakers of Aromanian)[35] live in:
    • Greece – 50,000,[36] mainly in the Pindus Mountains (Greece, like France, does not recognise any ethnic divisions, so there are no statistics kept and the Aromanians of Greece self-identify as Greeks and are accepted as such by the other Greeks. See Demographics of Greece)
    • Albania – 100,000-to-200,000 [37][38]
    • Romania – 26,500 [39]
    • Macedonia – 9 695 (Macedonian census 2002)[40]

Territories with Vlach population[edit]

The evolution of the Eastern Romance languages through the ages.
The territories of the Bolohoveni.
The territories of the Bolohoveni according to V.A. Boldur.

Besides the separation of some groups of Aromanians and Megleno-Romanians during the Age of Migration, many other Vlachs could be found all over the Balkans, as far north as Poland and as far west as Moravia (part of the modern Czech Republic), and the present-day Croatia where the Morlachs gradually disappeared, while the Catholic and Orthodox Vlachs took Croat and Serb national identity.[42] They reached these regions in search of better pastures, and were called "Wallachians" ("Vlasi; Valaši") by the Slavic peoples.

Statal Entities mentioned in Middle Ages chronicles :

  • Wallachia – between the Southern Carpathians and the Danube ("Ţara Românească" in Romanian Language ; "Bassarab-Wallachia": "Bassarab's Wallachia" and "Ungro-Wallachia" or "Wallachia Transalpina" in administrative sources ; "Istro-Vlachia": "Danubian Wallachia" in Byzantine sources ; "Velacia secunda" in Spanish maps) ;
  • Moldavia – between the Carpathians and the Dniester river ("Bogdano-Wallachia" - Bogdan's Wallachia, "Moldo-Wallachia", "Maurovlachia", "Black Wallachia", "Moldovlachia" or "Rousso-Vlachia" in Byzantine sources, "Bogdan Iflak" or even "Wallachia" in Polish sources, "L'otra Wallachia" – the "other Wallachia]" – in Genovese sources and "Velacia tertia" in Spanish maps) ;
  • Transylvania (or "Ardeal", "Transylvanian vlachs"[43] – between the Carpathians and the Hungarian plain, also "Wallachia interior" in administrative sources and "Velacia prima" in Spanish maps) ;
  • Bulgarian-Wallachian Empire between the Carpathians and the Balkan mountains ("Regnum Blachorum et Bulgarorum" in the documents and letters of Pope Innocent III).
  • Terra Prodnicorum or Terra Brodnici, mentioned by Pope Honorius III in 1222.They participated in 1223 at the Kalka battle, led by Ploskanea and supporting the Tatars. It was a Wallachian land near Galicia in the west, Volania in the north, Moldova in the south and Bolohoveni lands in the east. It was conquered by the Galician state.[44]
  • Bolokhoveni is an old Wallachian population spread between Kiev and Dniester river, in the Ukraine. Toponymy: Olohovets, Olshani, Voloschi, Vlodava. They were mentioned in the 11th to 13th centuries in the Slavonic chronicles. It was conquered by the Galician state [45]

Regions, places:

Genetics[edit]

In 2006, Bosch et al. attempted to analyze whether Vlachs are the descendants of Latinised Dacians, Illyrians, Thracians, Greeks, or a combination of these. No hypothesis could be proven because of the high degree of underlying genetic similarity of all the tested Balkan groups. The linguistic and cultural differences among various Balkan groups were thus deemed too weak to prevent significant gene flow among the above groups.[50]

Occupations[edit]

Moravian "Valach" (in the meaning of a sheepherder) from Brumov, 1787

Due to the Vlachs’ extensive occupation with sheepherding, their ethnonym has come, since the Middle Ages, to be identified with the profession of the sheepherder (regardless of his language or a real ethnicity) in many Balkan and Central European languages.

Culture[edit]

Many Vlachs in mediaeval times were shepherds who drove their sheep through the mountains of south-eastern Europe. The Vlach shepherds reached as far as southern Poland and Moravia in the north by following the Carpathian range, the Dinaric Alps in the west, the Pindus mountains in the south, and the Caucasus Mountains in the east.[51] Vlachs have been referred to as "the perfect Balkan citizens" because they are "able to preserve their culture without resorting to war or politics, violence or dishonesty."[52]

Language[edit]

The Vlachs in the Southern Balkan peninsula are self-defined as Αrmɨɲi [53] or Remeɲi, terms deriving from the Latin word Romani (Romans). This is where the neologism Aromanians, that is used in scientific/academic bibliography, comes from. The majority of the Vlachs live in Greece, Albania, Macedonia and Romania. The greater region of the Pindos mountain range is considered to be their historic cradle. The Vlach language was used mostly in oral speech while for written speech the Vlachs used primarily the Greek language.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Vlach". 
  2. ^ Schramm 1997, pp. 336-337.
  3. ^ According to Cornelia Bodea, Ştefan Pascu, Liviu Constantinescu : "România : Atlas Istorico-geografic", Academia Română 1996, ISBN 973-27-0500-0, chap. II, "Historical landmarks", p. 50 (english text), the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the low-Danube basin during the Migration period is an obvious fact : Thraco-Romans aren't vanished in the soil & Vlachs aren't appeared after 1000 years by spontaneous generation.
  4. ^ Badlands-Borderland : A History of Southern Albania/Northern Epirus [ILLUSTRATED] (Hardcover) by T.J. Winnifruth, ISBN 0-7156-3201-9, 2003, page 44 : "Romanized Illyrians, the ancestors of the modern Vlachs".
  5. ^ Ringe, Don. "Inheritance versus lexical borrowing: a case with decisive sound-change evidence." Language Log, January 2009.
  6. ^ "The name 'Vlach' or 'Wallach' applied to them by their neighbours is identical with the English Wealh or Welsh and means "stranger", but the Vlachs call themselves Aromani, or "Romans" (H.C. Darby, "The face of Europe on the eve of the great discoveries', in The New Cambridge Modern Hiostory, vol. 1, 1957:34).
  7. ^ Kelley L. Ross (2003). "Decadence, Rome and Romania, the Emperors Who Weren't, and Other Reflections on Roman History". The Proceedings of the Friesian School. Retrieved 2008-01-13. "Note: The Vlach Connection" 
  8. ^ a b Vláchos in Greek-English dictionary
  9. ^ Banac 1988, p. 257

    "Despite the apparent hostility toward the royal house, overt anti-Serb sentiment was rarely displayed and then mainly in Hrvatsko Zagorje where slogans against the "Vlachs" (derogatory term for Serbs) were raised."

  10. ^ a b A. ARMBRUSTER, ROMANITATEA ROMÂNILOR ISTORIA UNEI IDEI, Editura Enciclopedica,1993
  11. ^ Egils saga einhenda ok Ásmundar berserkjabana, in Drei lygisogur, ed. Å. Lagerholm (Halle/Saale, 1927), p. 29
  12. ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkik nomads North of The Danube Delta from the Tenth to Mid Thirteen Century, Brill, 2009, p. 106
  13. ^ A. Decei, V. Ciocîltan, “La mention des Roumains (Walah) chez Al-Maqdisi,”in Romano-arabica I, Bucharest, 1974, pp. 49–54
  14. ^ SZILÁGYI: A Magyar Nemzet törtenete. History of hungarian nation
  15. ^ Русскій хронографъ, 2,Хронографъ Западно-Русской редакціи,in PSRL, XXII,2, Petrograd, 1914, p.211
  16. ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkik nomads North of The Danube Delta from the Tenth to Mid-Thirteen Century, Brill, 2009, p.118
  17. ^ G. Murnu, Când si unde se ivesc românii întâia dată în istorie, în „Convorbiri Literare”, XXX, pp. 97-112
  18. ^ Mircea Muşat, Ion Ardeleanu-From ancient Dacia to modern Romania, p. 114
  19. ^ A. Decei, op. cit., p. 25.
  20. ^ V. Spinei, The Romanians and the Turkik nomads North of The Danube Delta from the Tenth to Mid-Thirteen Century, Brill, 2009, p.132
  21. ^ Ş. Papacostea, Românii în secolul al XIII-lea între cruciată şi imperiul mongol, Bucureşti, 1993, 36; A. Lukács, Ţara Făgăraşului, 156; T. Sălăgean, Transilvania în a doua jumătate a secolului al XIII-lea. Afirmarea regimului congregaţional, Cluj-Napoca, 2003, 26-27
  22. ^ Simon de Kéza, Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, IV,
  23. ^ G. Popa-Lisseanu,Izvoarele istoriei Românilor, IV, Bucuresti, 1935, p. .32
  24. ^ K. HOREDT, Contribuţii la istoria Transilvaniei în secolele IV-XIII, Bucureşti, 1958, p.109-131. IDEM, Siebenburgen im Fruhmittelalter, Bonn, 1986, p.111 sqq.
  25. ^ I.M.Tiplic, CONSIDERAŢII CU PRIVIRE LA LINIILE ÎNTĂRITE DE TIPUL PRISĂCILOR DIN TRANSILVANIA (sec. IX-XIII)*ACTA TERRAE SEPTEMCASTRENSIS I, pp 147-164
  26. ^ A. IONIŢĂ, Date noi privind colonizarea germană în Ţara Bârsei şi graniţa de est a regatului maghiar în cea de a doua jumătate a secolului al XII-lea, în RI, 5, 1994, 3-4.
  27. ^ J. DEER, Der Weg zur Goldenen Bulle Andreas II. Von 1222, în Schweizer Beitrage zur Allgemeinen Geschichte, 10, 1952, pp. 104-138
  28. ^ Stefan Pascu: A History of Transylvania, Wayne State Univ Pr, 1983, p. 57
  29. ^ Pavel Parasca, Cine a fost "Laslău craiul unguresc" din tradiţia medievală despre întemeierea Ţării Moldovei [=Who was "Laslău, Hungarian king" of the medieval tradition on the foundation of Moldavia]. In: Revista de istorie şi politică, An IV, Nr. 1.; ULIM;2011 ISSN: 1857-4076
  30. ^ O. Pecican, Dragoș-vodă - originea ciclului legendar despre întemeierea Moldovei. În „Anuarul Institutului de Istorie și Arheologie Cluj”. T. XXXIII. Cluj-Napoca, 1994, pp. 221-232
  31. ^ D. CĂPRĂROIU,ON THE BEGINNINGS OF THE TOWN OF CÂMPULUNG, ″Historia Urbana″, t. XVI, nr. 1-2/2008, pp. 37-64
  32. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: ron". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  33. ^ http://media.popis2011.stat.rs/2011/prvi_rezultati.pdf Serbian Preliminary 2011 Census Results
  34. ^ http://www.nsi.bg/census2011/pageen2.php?p2=179
  35. ^ "Council of Europe Parliamentary Recommendation 1333 (1997)". Assembly.coe.int. 1997-06-24. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  36. ^ "Ethnologue report for language code: rup". Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  37. ^ According to INTEREG - quoted by Eurominority: Aromanians in Albania, Albania's Aromanians; Reemerging into History
  38. ^ Arno Tanner. The forgotten minorities of Eastern Europe: the history and today of selected ethnic groups in five countries. East-West Books, 2004 ISBN 978-952-91-6808-8, p. 218: "In Albania, Vlachs are estimated to number as many as 200,000"
  39. ^ "Aromânii vor statut minoritar", in Cotidianul, 9 December 2006
  40. ^ Macedonian census 2002
  41. ^ "Ethnologue Estimate in Greece and all countries". Ethnologue.org. Retrieved 2013-02-08. 
  42. ^ Hammel, E. A. and Kenneth W. Wachter. "The Slavonian Census of 1698. Part I: Structure and Meaning, European Journal of Population". University of California. 
  43. ^ Peoples of Europe. Marshall Cavendish Corporation, 2002 ISBN 0-7614-7378-5, ISBN 978-0-7614-7378-7. 
  44. ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992, pp 98-106
  45. ^ A. Boldur, Istoria Basarabiei, Editura Victor Frunza, Bucuresti 1992
  46. ^ a b c d Since Theophanes Confessor and Kedrenos, in : A.D. Xenopol, Istoria Românilor din Dacia Traiană, Nicolae Iorga, Teodor Capidan, C. Giurescu : Istoria Românilor, Petre Ș. Năsturel Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medie, vol. XVI, 1998
  47. ^ Map of Yugoslavia, file East, sq. C-E/f, Istituto Geografico de Agostini, Novara, in : Le Million, encyclopédie de tous les pays du monde, vol.IV, ed. Kister, Geneve, Switzerland, 1970, pp. 290-291, and some other old atlases - these names disappear after 1980.
  48. ^ Map of Yugoslavia, file East, sq. B/f, Istituto Geografico de Agostini, Novara, in : Le Million, encyclopédie de tous les pays du monde, vol.IV, ed. Kister, Geneve, Switzerland, 1970, pp. 290-291, and many other maps & old atlases - these names disappear after 1980.
  49. ^ Z. Konecny, F. Mainus, Stopami Minulosti: Kapitol z Dejin Moravy a Slezka/Traces of the Past: Chapters from the History of Moravia and Silezia, Brno:Blok,1979
  50. ^ E Bosch et al. Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, Volume 70, Issue 4 (p 459-487)
  51. ^ Silviu Dragomir: "Vlahii din nordul peninsulei Balcanice în evul mediu"; 1959, p. 172;
  52. ^ Winnifrith, Tom. "Vlachs". Retrieved 13 January 2014. 
  53. ^ Template:Phonetic rendering of the Vlach words according to the international phonetic alphabet.

References[edit]

  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, Aromanian dialect, Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)[1]
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • G. Weigand, Die Aromunen, Bd.Α΄-B΄,J. A. Barth (A.Meiner), Leipzig 1895-1894.
  • A. Keramopoulos, Ti einai oi koutsovlachoi [What are the Koutsovlachs?], publ 2 University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 2000.
  • A.Hâciu, Aromânii, Comerţ. Industrie.Arte.Expasiune.Civiliytie, tip. Cartea Putnei, Focşani 1936.
  • Τ. Winnifrith, Τhe Vlachs.Τhe History of a Balkan People, Duckworth 1987
  • A. Koukoudis, Oi mitropoleis kai i diaspora ton Vlachon [Major Cities and Diaspora of the Vlachs], publ. University Studio Press, Thessaloniki 1999.
  • Th Capidan, Aromânii, Dialectul Aromân, ed2 Εditură Fundaţiei Culturale Aromâne, Bucureşti 2005

Further reading[edit]

  • Theodor Capidan, Aromânii, dialectul aromân. Studiul lingvistic ("Aromanians, Aromanian dialect, Linguistic Study"), Bucharest, 1932
  • Victor A. Friedman, "The Vlah Minority in Macedonia: Language, Identity, Dialectology, and Standardization" in Selected Papers in Slavic, Balkan, and Balkan Studies, ed. Juhani Nuoluoto, et al. Slavica Helsingiensa:21, Helsinki: University of Helsinki. 2001. 26-50. full text Though focussed on the Vlachs of Macedonia, has in-depth discussion of many topics, including the origins of the Vlachs, their status as a minority in various countries, their political use in various contexts, and so on.
  • Asterios I. Koukoudis, The Vlachs: Metropolis and Diaspora, 2003, ISBN 960-7760-86-7
  • George Murnu, Istoria românilor din Pind, Vlahia Mare 980–1259 ("History of the Romanians of the Pindus, Greater Vlachia, 980–1259"), Bucharest, 1913
  • Nikola Trifon, Les Aroumains, un peuple qui s'en va (Paris, 2005) ; Cincari, narod koji nestaje (Beograd, 2010)[2]
  • Steriu T. Hagigogu, "Romanus şi valachus sau Ce este romanus, roman, român, aromân, valah şi vlah", Bucharest, 1939
  • Franck Vogel, a photo-essay on the Valchs published by GEO magazine (France), 2010[1]

External links[edit]