Walls and Bridges
|Walls and Bridges|
|Studio album by John Lennon|
|Released||26 September 1974|
|Recorded||July–August 1974 at Record Plant East, New York|
|John Lennon chronology|
|Singles from Walls and Bridges|
Walls and Bridges is the fifth album by John Lennon, issued on 26 September 1974 in the United States and on 4 October in the United Kingdom. Written, recorded and released during his 18-month separation from Yoko Ono (June 1973–January 1975), the album captures Lennon in the midst of his "Lost Weekend". Walls and Bridges was an American Billboard number 1 album and featured Lennon's only number 1 single as a solo artist during his lifetime, "Whatever Gets You thru the Night".
In June 1973, as Lennon was about to record Mind Games, Ono decided that she and Lennon should separate. Lennon soon moved to California with his and Ono's personal assistant May Pang, after Ono had egged her on, and embarked upon an eighteen-month relationship with Pang he would later refer to as his "Lost Weekend". While Lennon and Pang were living in Los Angeles, John took the opportunity to get reacquainted with his son, Julian, whom he had not seen in four years. Lennon had planned to record an album of rock 'n' roll oldies with producer Phil Spector, but these sessions became legendary not for the music produced but for the chaotic antics fuelled by alcohol. Lennon and Pang returned to New York and Spector disappeared with these session tapes. Around this time, Lennon had written several new songs during a stay at The Pierre and started recording a few home demos.
Lennon was rehearsing his new material with a handful of musicians at Record Plant East in New York City in July 1974. Several rehearsals were released on the posthumous albums Menlove Ave. and John Lennon Anthology. Musicians included Jim Keltner on drums, Klaus Voormann on bass, Jesse Ed Davis on guitar, and Arthur Jenkins on percussion. These were some of the players Lennon had been with in Los Angeles, but here they were under orders to avoid the drinking and carousing that had characterized the earlier interaction. The core players would be billed on the album as the Plastic Ono Nuclear Band, a variation on the Plastic Ono Band conceptual group moniker that many of Lennon's solo efforts were credited to.
The musicians worked out their own arrangements in a short time, and the recording advanced quickly. Ron Aprea, saxophonist from the Little Big Horns, said that: "Since he had no formal training in arranging, he would sit in the control room and let us make up our own parts. If he liked what we played , he would let us know ... If we thought we could get it better, he would say 'go for it'." Aprea also said that the brass section was done in a two-week period. Lennon later said that it had been "an extraordinary year for me personally. And I'm almost amazed that I could get anything out. But I enjoyed doing Walls and Bridges and it wasn't hard when I had the whole thing to go into the studio and do it. I'm surprised it wasn't just all bluuuuuuggggghhhhh."
The version of "Old Dirt Road" that was included on Menlove Ave. features the song in its basic shape, while the version on John Lennon Anthology shows the song in a more advanced form, similar to the master take. After the basic tracks were recorded, the process of overdubbing began. Overdub engineer Jimmy Iovine said the sessions were "the most professional I have still been on ... John knew what he wanted, he knew how to get what he was going for, he was going after a noise and he knew how to get it ... His solo thing had an incredible sound to it. And he really had his own sound." Despite Record Plant being one of the most state-of-the-art recording studios in New York at that point, Lennon's vocal overdubs were done with an old stage mic, which had been left in a bass drum for years. Iovine said that "(it) was an old beat up one ... so it was dull in a way, but John's voice was so bright, that it sounded incredible on it. It turned out to be great vocal sound, like on '#9 Dream'." After the basic track for "#9 Dream" had been recorded, Ken Ascher added the orchestral arrangement Lennon had originally written for the Nilsson track he produced, "Many Rivers to Cross."
"Surprise Surprise (Sweet Bird of Paradox)" originally was a short piece, which featured Lennon on electric guitar, that later became the song's middle 8. On another demo for the song, the song had been reworked, to a similar form to the final version, featuring Lennon on acoustic guitar. When Lennon went into Record Plant to record the song, however, parts of the demos were dropped. The song features vocal overdubs from Lennon and Elton John. Lennon's piano demo for "Steel and Glass" has completely different lyrics to the finished version, while a rehearsal from Menlove Ave. has the song with a slower tempo and Lennon on acoustic guitar, with incomplete lyrics. During one of his frequent visits from England to visit his father during this period, eleven-year-old son Julian Lennon attended the recording sessions and they did a casual cover of the Lee Dorsey oldie "Ya Ya". Lennon surprised Julian by including it as the album closer with the credit: "Starring Julian Lennon on drums and Dad on piano and vocals". Pang recalled the younger Lennon's response, telling his father "If I'd known, I would have played better!" Lennon also sends a message to publisher Morris Levy, who was expecting Lennon's next release to be the Oldies album, in the introduction to the song ("Ya Ya" was part of Levy's song catalogue, which Lennon was obligated to begin recording songs from due to a settlement of an earlier lawsuit). Cut from the album at the last minute was a track called "Move Over Ms. L"[nb 1] which was placed between "Surprise Surprise" and "What You Got" before Lennon changed the track list. It would eventually appear as the B-side to the single "Stand by Me". The song would also be given to Keith Moon for his only solo album, Two Sides of the Moon. Also recorded during the session was a demo for Ringo Starr: "Goodnight Vienna".
Music and lyrics
The title of the album refers to the barriers that Lennon had constructed between himself and others and to his hope that those barriers could be surmounted. Lennon said, "Walls keep you in either protectively or otherwise, and bridges get you somewhere else."
Walls and Bridges has a variety of musical stylings and many of the lyrics make it clear that Lennon both enjoyed his new-found freedom and also missed Ono. "Going Down on Love", "What You Got" and "Bless You" address his feelings toward Ono, the last one the most explicitly, while the first track that Lennon wrote when he and Pang went to New York, "Surprise Surprise (Sweet Bird of Paradox)", was about Pang. "Steel and Glass" included a sinister riff reminiscent of "How Do You Sleep?", Lennon's audio argument with Paul McCartney from the Imagine album, though the digs this time were directed at former Beatles manager Allen Klein.[nb 2] "Scared" is a haunting track exploring Lennon's fear of ageing, loneliness and the emptiness of success. The album also includes some of Lennon's most uplifting songs, namely its two singles "Whatever Gets You thru the Night" (which features Elton John on piano and harmony vocals) and "#9 Dream" (the instrumentation evokes a dream, as well as reflective Beatles songs such as "Strawberry Fields Forever" and "Sun King"). Another is "Beef Jerky", an R&B-inspired instrumental. "Old Dirt Road" uses the road as a metaphor for a point of stability in an unstable world and a life subject to variability.
The lyrics of "Going Down on Love" reflect Lennon's feelings during his so-called "lost weekend" separation from wife Yoko Ono. The song's title incorporates a sexual pun. After the release of Walls and Bridges, Lennon called the jazzy "Bless You" the "best piece of work on the album ... that seems to be the best track, to me." The lyrics of "Nobody Loves You (When You're Down and Out)" describe the emptiness he felt as well as his disillusionment with show business.
Recalling the recording of the album, in an interview the following year with Pete Hamill in Rolling Stone, Lennon recalled: "Elton sort of popped in on the sessions for Walls and Bridges and sort of zapped in and played the piano and ended up singing 'Whatever Gets You Thru the Night' with me. Which was a great shot in the arm. I'd done three quarters of it, 'Now what do we do?' Should we put a camel on it or a xylophone? That sort of thing. And he came in and said, 'Hey, I'll play some piano!'" Another notable track is "Nobody Loves You (When You're Down and Out)", although written in 1973 shortly after Lennon was in Los Angeles, was later remembered by Lennon in an interview for Playboy magazine as expressing his feeling for the whole lost weekend period. Lennon imagined Frank Sinatra singing it: "I don't know why. It's kind of a Sinatraesque song, really. He would do a perfect job with it. Are you listening Frank? You need one song that isn't a piece of nothing. Here's one for you, the horn arrangement and everything's made for you. But don't ask me to produce it."
Originally, Lennon planned to use some of his childhood drawings for the cover of an oldies album he had begun in 1973, but when Lennon put that on hold to record Walls and Bridges, he decided to use the artwork already in production. The album's elaborate outer jacket featured some of his drawings, including one portraying a game of football (with a player wearing 9, foreshadowing his lifelong fascination with that number), and a series of photos of his face with different expressions. The front cover contained two flaps which, when folded, would create several interchangeable "Lennon faces", some of them silly.
The full-size booklet inside included a front photo of Lennon with no glasses and a back photo of Lennon with five pairs of glasses piled on top of one another, both by American photographer Bob Gruen. The inner sleeve contained another portrait as well as a horizontal melange of the other photos.
Inside the booklet were lyrics and instrumental credits for the songs, which conveyed Lennon's trademark sense of humour, with many aliases for himself including Rev. Thumbs Ghurkin, Dwarf McDougal, Hon. John St. John Johnson, and Dr. Winston O'Boogie. More 1952 colour drawings from the 11-year-old Lennon were included, with subjects varied from the American Old West (dedicated to his aunt and guardian, Mimi Smith) to landscapes to a portrait of his schoolteacher, Mr Bob. (In 2005, an art exhibit was held at 251 Menlove Avenue in Liverpool that showcased these and other early efforts.) Also included was a genealogical treatise on the surname Lennon and related forms from one of Edward MacLysaght's books. While mentioning the British sailor John Lennon and the American labour leader John Brown Lennon of many decades past, the entry ends with a slight about the surname family generally being undistinguished, to which Lennon offered a hand-written "Oh Yeh?". Finally, the booklet contains a claim that Lennon saw an unidentified flying object on the evening 23 August 1974.
Walls and Bridges received mixed reviews from contemporary music critics. It did garner Lennon his most-favourable reviews since his 1971 album Imagine. Ben Gerson of Rolling Stone magazine, in a three out of five star review, said he felt that songs on side two such as "#9 Dream" and "Surprise Surprise" make the album "diverse and spirited", but that side one's songs about Lennon's emotional loss are inconsistent. Gerson also said that only "Scared" "throbs with the primal fear and sense of confinement of his earlier solo LPs." Robert Christgau, writing for The Village Voice, gave it a "C" (retrospectively raised to a "B-") and attributed the songs' lack of quality to Lennon's "disorientation and lost conviction". In a positive review, Billboard found the album's production "superb", its ballads "marvelously handled", and all songs "done in a skillfully professional style." The magazine cited it as possibly Lennon's "most versatile and musically excellent album yet."
In 1975, music journalists Roy Carr and Tony Tyler characterised the album as "generally lacklustre", saying that the lyrics "seem mechanical, cranked-out, like well-worn conversational gambits," while praising the "abrasive" quality of his voice and the "excellent" musicianship. Pete Hamill wrote in 1975 that the album's music was "wonderful" and that "the songs were essays in autobiography, the words and music of a man trying to understand a huge part of his life." Nicholas Schaffner wrote in 1977 that the album's "searing emotional intensity" recalled Lennon's 1970 John Lennon/Plastic Ono Band, while the "richly textured arrangements and melodic diversity" harkened back to Imagine. In The Rolling Stone Record Guide first edition of 1979, Greil Marcus gave the album two stars out of five, saying that it, along with Mind Games, lacked a real point of view and that "what with appeared to be panic, [Lennon had] substituted production techniques for soul, building a bridge to his listeners with his sound but erecting a wall around himself with empty music."
In a retrospective review, William Ruhlmann gave Walls and Bridges four out of five stars in The All-Music Guide to Rock (1995) and called it "craftsmanlike pop-rock" with "some lovely album tracks." Uncut also gave it four stars and asserted that "Whatever Gets You Through the Night" "remains one of Lennon's best post-Beatles achievements." In his three-and-a-half star review, Allmusic senior editor Stephen Thomas Erlewine found the album "decidedly uneven", "containing equal amounts of brilliance and nonsense," with the lesser tracks "weighed down by weak melodies and heavy over-production." In the 1999 MusicHound album guide, it received two and a half stars out of five. In The New Rolling Stone Album Guide of 2004, the album received three stars out of five, with "#9 Dream" being singled out for praise. Lennon biographer Philip Norman wrote in 2008 that "Most of the tracks had an upbeat, brassy feel, strangely at odds with John's recurrent, often desperate admissions of longing for Yoko," and that the chord sequences used often echoed those from his previous work with Ono.
Promotion and aftermath
Unsure of which track should be the lead-off single, Lennon enlisted the help of Al Coury, vice president of marketing for Capitol. Lennon was impressed with the "magic" Coury displayed in the success of McCartney's Band on the Run album. Coury chose "Whatever Gets You thru the Night" as the first single. The album was released on 26 September 1974 in the US, and on 4 October 1974 in the UK. Walls and Bridges rose quickly up the US album chart, debuting on 12 October and reaching the top ten on 2 November. On 22 October 1974, Walls and Bridges was awarded gold record status in the US by the Recording Industry Association of America. Both the album[nb 3] and the single[nb 4] reached number 1 on the US charts the same week (16 November), while the album[nb 5] reached number 6, and the single[nb 6] reached number 36 in the UK. The album spent 27 weeks on the US album chart altogether.
The album was also released in quadrophonic but only on 8-track in the US.[nb 7] "#9 Dream", backed with "What You Got", was released as a single in the US[nb 8] on 16 December 1974, while a month later in the UK[nb 9] on 24 January 1975. The single peaked at number 9 in the US, and number 23 in the UK.
During the recording of "Whatever Gets You thru the Night", Elton John bet Lennon that it would top the charts. Never believing it would, Lennon agreed to perform live with John if it did. Having lost the wager, Lennon appeared at John's Madison Square Garden show on 28 November, performing Lennon's current number 1 hit together as well as the Beatles' "I Saw Her Standing There" and "Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds". All three tracks were later released as an EP, 28th November 1974, in 1981.[nb 10] Lennon later played tambourine on John's "The Bitch Is Back". This was Lennon's last major live performance.
Walls and Bridges had a popular ad campaign (created by Lennon) called "Listen To This ..." (button, photo, sticker, ad, poster, and t-shirt). The backs of 500 New York City buses were plastered with "Listen To This Bus." Television and radio commercials featuring a voiceover from Ringo Starr depicted the album jacket with its many 'Lennon' faces. Lennon would return the favour and do the voiceover for the commercials for Starr's Goodnight Vienna album. Shortly after its release, Lennon personally mixed a true quadrophonic version of the album ("for the 20 people who buy quad", he joked in his 1974 WNEW-FM radio interview in New York). In the UK, EMI released an interview single,[nb 11] between Bob Mercer and Lennon, produced by Lennon for the EMI sales representatives.
Walls and Bridges would be Lennon's last album of original material until 1980's Double Fantasy, though a follow-up titled Between the Lines was planned for late 1975. Tony King, an Apple vice president, confirms this. King also says that Carlos Alomar was to hire a group of black musicians, and that Lennon had written the song "Tennessee" for the album. In a 1975 interview for the Old Grey Whistle Test, Lennon indicated he was planning a new album and a TV special.
Walls and Bridges was first re-released on vinyl in the US in 1978, then again in 1982, and 1989, on Capitol. After Lennon's death, the album, along with 7 other Lennon albums, was reissued by EMI as part of a box set, which was released in the UK on 15 June 1981.[nb 12] It was re-released on vinyl in the UK in 1985, on the Parlophone label.[nb 13] It was first released on CD on 20 July 1987 in the UK,[nb 14] and nearly a year later in the US on 19 April 1988.[nb 15] The album was released again on vinyl, this time as part of EMI's limited edition "The Millennium Vinyl Collection" series, in 1999.[nb 16]
Walls and Bridges was released in a remixed and remastered form in November 2005[nb 17][nb 18] (though four of the original tracks: "Old Dirt Road", "Bless You", "Scared" and "Nobody Loves You" were not remixed). The remastered version featured an alternative cover. This new cover retained Lennon's signature and hand-written title, but used one of the portraits Bob Gruen took for the album instead of Lennon's childhood drawings. The bonus tracks for the reissue include "Whatever Gets You thru The Night" performed live with Elton John, a previously unreleased acoustic version of "Nobody Loves You (When You're Down And Out)" and a promotional interview with Lennon.
Capitol again reissued the album on 4 October 2010. This version was a remaster of the original album mixes and used the original cover art, the album was available separately[nb 19] or as part of the John Lennon Signature Box.[nb 20]
All songs were written by John Lennon, except where noted.
- Side one
- "Going Down on Love" – 3:54
- "Whatever Gets You thru the Night" – 3:28
- "Old Dirt Road" (Lennon, Harry Nilsson) – 4:11
- "What You Got" – 3:09
- "Bless You" – 4:38
- "Scared" – 4:36
- Side two
- "#9 Dream" – 4:47
- "Surprise, Surprise (Sweet Bird of Paradox)" – 2:55
- "Steel and Glass" – 4:37
- "Beef Jerky" – 3:26
- "Nobody Loves You (When You're Down and Out)" – 5:08
- "Ya Ya" (Morgan Robinson, Lee Dorsey, Clarence Lewis, Morris Levy) – 1:06
- 2005 bonus tracks
- "Whatever Gets You thru the Night" – 4:23
- Live with the Elton John band
- "Nobody Loves You (When You're Down and Out)" – 5:07
- Alternative version
- "John Interview (by Bob Mercer)" – 3:47
Credits were adapted from the album booklet.
- John Lennon – arrangements, vocals (lead, harmony, and background), lead guitar, rhythm guitar, acoustic guitar, piano, whistling, percussion, production
- Plastic Ono Nuclear Band
- Ken Ascher – electric piano, clavinet, Mellotron
- Jim Keltner – drums
- Arthur Jenkins – percussion
- Nicky Hopkins – piano
- Klaus Voormann – bass
- Bobby Keys – tenor saxophone
- Jesse Ed Davis – acoustic guitar, lead guitar
- Eddie Mottau – acoustic guitar
- Additional personnel
- Strings and brass musicians from The Philharmonic Orchestrange – arranged and conducted by Ken Ascher.
- Little Big Horns – brass section, arranged and conducted by Bobby Keys.
- Julian Lennon – drums on "Ya Ya".
- Elton John – piano and harmony vocals on "Whatever Gets you thru the Night" and Hammond organ and background vocals on "Surprise, Surprise (Sweet Bird of Paradox)"
- Harry Nilsson – backing vocals on "Old Dirt Road".
- The 44th Street Fairies: Joey Dambra, Lori Burton and May Pang – background vocals on "#9 Dream".
- Shelly Yakus – engineer
- Jimmy Iovine – overdub engineer
- Roy Cicala – remix engineer
- May Pang – production coordinator
- Roy Kohara – art direction
- Bob Gruen – photography
|United Kingdom (BPI)||Silver||60,000^|
|United States (RIAA)||Gold||500,000^|
*sales figures based on certification alone
- An alternate take was included on John Lennon Anthology.
- Despite Lennon's animosity towards Klein, he was staying at Klein's home when he wrote "Steel and Glass". Whenever Lennon was asked if the song was about Klein, Lennon denied it.
- US Apple SW 3416
- US Apple APPLE 1874
- UK Apple PCTC 253
- US Apple R 5898
- US Apple Q8W-3416
- US Apple APPLE 1878
- UK Apple R 5903
- UK DJS 10965
- UK Apple PSR 369
- UK EMI JLB8
- UK Parlophone ATAK 43
- UK EMI CDP 7 467 68 2/CD PCTC 253
- US EMI CDP 7 46768 2
- Europe Apple MILL 99/4994641
- Europe Apple/Parlophone 0946 3 40971 2 3/340 9712
- US Capitol CDP 0946 3 40971 2 3
- US Capitol 5099990650321
- Europe EMI 5099990650925
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Wrap Around Joy by Carole King
|Billboard 200 number-one album
16–22 November 1974
It's Only Rock 'n' Roll by The Rolling Stones
Not Fragile by Bachman–Turner Overdrive
|Canadian RPM Chart number-one album
30 November 1974
Photographs & Memories by Jim Croce