Walt Disney World Railroad
|Walt Disney World Railroad|
|Dates of operation||October 1, 1971–Present|
|Track gauge||3 ft (914 mm)|
|Length||7,817 feet (2,383 m)|
|Headquarters||Bay Lake, Florida|
The Walt Disney World Railroad (or WDWRR for short) is a 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge railroad in the Magic Kingdom theme park at Walt Disney World Resort. Operated by Main Street Operations, the 1.5-mile (2.4 km) railroad circles the entire park with stations at Main Street, U.S.A. and Frontierland, and Fantasyland (formerly Mickey's Toontown Fair). One of the busiest steam-powered railroads, it transports over 1.5 million passengers each year.
Walt Disney was an avid railroad enthusiast, who had built a miniature steam railroad, called the Carolwood Pacific Railroad, in his backyard. A full-size, 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge railroad known as the Disneyland Railroad had been included in the design of Disneyland, and would be included at later parks in Tokyo, Paris and Hong Kong. For Walt Disney World, Disney scouts Roger Broggie and Earl Vilmer found and purchased five locomotives from Ferrocarriles Unidos de Yucatan (United Railways of Yucatan) on Mexico's Yucatan peninsula in 1969.
One of the five locomotives, deemed to be in too poor a condition to be restored, was sold and presumed scrapped. The other four were shipped by rail to the Tampa Shipyards in Tampa, Florida and restored by a crew headed by Disney Imagineer and accomplished live steam builder Bob Harpur. New boilers were constructed for the trains by Dixon Boiler Works of Los Angeles, California and the locomotives themselves were cosmetically backdated to appear older; which included the addition of diamond smoke stacks, square headlamps, boiler jackets, as well as the use of bright colors and polished brass. The tenders were also completely rebuilt from the frame up and new fiberglass cabs were manufactured and installed on the locomotives. In addition, a total of twenty open-air excursion cars were constructed at the shipyards, each of which could seat up to seventy five passengers. The trains went into service with the opening of Walt Disney World on October 1, 1971.
In 1989, a third train station was constructed as part of Mickey's Birthdayland, an expansion to the Magic Kingdom to celebrate Mickey Mouse's 60th birthday. From 1989–1990, different versions of a song called "Mickey's Birthdayland Express" and "Rollin' on the Walt Disney World Express" were played during the trip. Additionally, an automated on-board narration was added to the trains eliminating the need for the conductors to perform the spiel live. After departing Frontierland, the train traveled to Duckberg Station at Mickey's Birthdayland (later renamed Mickey's Starland and finally Mickey's Toontown Fair). During 1990 - 1991, when Splash Mountain was under construction in Frontierland, the Frontierland station was closed and demolished. Temporarily, the train had only one destination: it traveled backwards from Main Street U.S.A. to Mickey's Starland and then forward back to Main Street U.S.A.. A new Frontierland station opened in 1991.
In recent years, several of the locomotives and some of the passenger coaches have been overhauled. Key modifications to the passenger coaches have involved moving the PA system/conductor's spiel panel from a position on the rear of the third car to the rear platform on the last car. This lets the conductor see the entire train at one time which allows for safer operation. Side panels were added to the outside-facing sides of the coaches in 2009 to keep passengers from sticking their legs and feet outside of the cars. One set of coaches does not have these outside-facing panels because it is used exclusively for the park opening ceremonies that are held each morning. Characters ride the train to Main Street Station, disembark on the outer station platform and participate in the park opening song and dance performance.
On February 12, 2011, Mickey's Toontown Fair station permanently closed to make way for an expansion to Fantasyland. The Toontown Station was closed and demolished and a new Fantasyland Station was built in its place. For thirteen months between the closure of the station as Mickey's Toontown Fair and its reopening on March 12, 2012 as Fantasyland Station, a new on-board narration was introduced, which referenced the Fantasyland expansion and referred to the former Toontown Station stop as the "Watering Outpost" during construction since trains still had to stop there in order to top off the tender with water and maintain the railroad's operating schedule. The new Fantasyland Station is themed to resemble a railroad roundhouse. It features restroom facilities and a children's splash park themed to the Casey Junior Circus Train from the Dumbo animated film.
The railroad has four different locomotives and four sets of passenger cars. The four locomotives are 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge locomotives, built between 1916 and 1928 by the Baldwin Locomotive Works for Ferrocarriles Unidos de Yucatán in Mexico.
A regular train consists of a steam locomotive, tender, and five passenger coaches with a total capacity of approximately 365 passengers and 2 wheelchairs. The tender has a capacity for 1,837 US gallons (6,954 L) of water and 664 US gallons (2,514 L) of fuel oil. The tender must be topped off with water every three or four trips (or circuits) around the park, which is done at the water tower located at Fantasyland. Prior to the construction of Splash Mountain, the water tower was located at the original Frontierland Station.
Each of the four locomotives is named after those who greatly contributed to the efforts of the Walt Disney Company and Walt Disney World.
No. 1 "Walter E. Disney"
This locomotive is named for the man behind the mouse, Walt Disney (1901–1966). Walt loved railroads and his parks have always displayed his love for trains.
- Built: 1925
- Wheel Configuration: 4-6-0 "Ten-Wheeler"
- Serial Number: 58444
- Locomotive Colors: Red cab with red boiler jacket
- Coach Color: Red with red poles
- Coach Number Series: 100
- Driver Diameter: 44 inches (1,118 mm)
- Locomotive and Tender Weight (dry): 67,000 pounds (30,390 kg)
- Status: Operational
No. 2 "Lilly Belle"
The Lilly Belle is named after Walt Disney's wife Lillian Disney (born Lillian Marie Bounds) (1899–1997). "Lilly Belle" is also the name of the scaled-down steam locomotive Disney ran in his own backyard and the parlour car of the Disneyland Railroad. It should also be noted that Lilly Belle was built in 1928, which would make it as old as Mickey Mouse and Minnie Mouse.
- Built: 1928
- Wheel Configuration: 2-6-0 "Mogul"
- Serial Number : 60598
- Locomotive Color: Green cab with green boiler jacket
- Coach Color: Green with green poles
- Coach Number Series: 200
- Driver Diameter: 44 inches (1,118 mm)
- Locomotive and Tender Weight (dry): 61,000 pounds (27,669 kg)
- Status: Undergoing Refurbishment
Due to frame issues, Lilly Belle does not run in regular service. It is used exclusively for the daily park opening ceremonies along with its original set of coaches, all of which with the exception of one have not been fitted with the new side panels to allow the characters to disembark from the train unimpeded. It is also used as a standby locomotive in the event that any of the other three locomotives should break down.
The Lilly Belle is only steamed up to bring Mickey and the other Disney characters to Main Street Station before returning to the roundhouse where it is placed on standby. Should one of the other three locomotives fail, the Lilly Belle will be uncoupled from its coaches and proceed to the stranded train. It will then replace the failed locomotive until it can be repaired, as fitting the new side panels to the engine's coaches would take too long.
No. 3 "Roger E. Broggie"
This locomotive is named after Roger E. Broggie (1908–1991), who led the effort of acquiring the locomotives for the Walt Disney World Railroad and helped build Disney's own Carolwood Pacific Railroad. Roger Broggie was also the original Disney Imagineer who worked on the EPCOT Project.
- Built: 1925
- Wheel Configuration: 4-6-0 "Ten Wheeler"
- Serial Number: 58445
- Locomotive Colors: Red cab with green boiler jacket
- Coach Color: Yellow with red poles
- Coach Number Series: 300
- Driver Diameter: 44 inches (1,118 mm)
- Locomotive and Tender Weight (dry): 67,000 pounds (30,390 kg)
- Status: Operational
No. 4 "Roy O. Disney"
The Number 4 locomotive is named after Walt Disney's older brother and business partner, Roy Oliver Disney (1893–1971). Roy saw to the completion of his brother's dream after Walt's death in 1966 and completed the construction of then named "Disney World." Roy renamed the resort to "Walt Disney World" in Walt's honor and died just shortly after the Magic Kingdom opened in late 1971.
Roy was offered to have the second 4-6-0 (which is now the "Roger Broggie") named after him, so that the Walt Disney and Roy Disney engines would be alike, but he refused because he "didn't want to be compared to all the great things Walt had done." The Roy O. Disney was the only WDWRR locomotive that was not running at the park on Opening Day 1971. Its restoration was not finished until December of that year, shortly after Roy's Death, thus allowing the company to name the locomotive in his honor.
- Built: 1916
- Wheel Configuration: 4-4-0 "American"
- Serial Number: 42915
- Locomotive Colors: Green cab with red boiler jacket
- Coach Color: Blue with blue poles
- Coach Number Series: 400
- Driver Diameter: 46 inches (1,168 mm)
- Locomotive and Tender Weight (dry): 51,000 pounds (23,133 kg)
- Status: Operational
The railroad operates daily, taking on its first passengers at 9:00 AM, year-round. For safety reasons, the railroad is closed during the evening fireworks show due to the tracks' close proximity to the fireworks staging area, which is located approximately 100 yards (91 m) or so behind Fantasyland. Typically, the trains are moved back to the roundhouse one hour before the fireworks show begins. Additionally, the railroad does not operate during special events such as Mickey's Pirate and Princess Party, Mickey's Not-So-Scary Halloween Party and Mickey's Very Merry Christmas Party. A round-trip on the WDWRR takes approximately twenty minutes to complete.
There are three crew members on each train; a Conductor, an Engineer, and a Fireman. The engineer is charged with operation of the locomotive, the fireman is responsible for maintaining the fire as well as the water level in the boiler, and the conductor is responsible for the operation and safety of each station and train. Additionally, each station is manned with one or two station attendants.
Duties as a station attendant involve keeping track of passenger counts, answering questions and assisting passengers on and off of the trains. While on the train, the conductor runs the spiel box and makes safety announcements. Trains cannot move without approval from the conductor. The conductors work in a rotation, each of which is assigned to a specific train. There are three different rotations to which conductors may be assigned. Conductors are in each spot of the rotation for twenty minutes. The two main rotations, called "Roundhouses", are called Roundhouse 1 (RH1) and Roundhouse 2 (RH2). A third rotation, called Roundhouse 3 (RH3), is only added when a third train is needed during peak crowd days at the park.
The RH1 rotation is responsible for the Frontierland Station platform, Frontierland Station Greeter, RH1 Train Conductor and RH1 Breaker. The RH2 Rotation is responsible for the Main Street Station platform, the Fantasyland Station (formerly Mickey's Toontown Fair Station) platform, RH2 Train Conductor and RH2 Breaker. When there is a third train in operation, it only requires at RH3 Conductor..
Early in the morning, the first train crew arrives at the roundhouse to get the first train ready to depart. The maintenance crew will mark on a board which trains are going to be used and the order they are to be removed from the roundhouse.
The first crew will prep and take out the first train listed on the board. Safety and readiness checks are performed by the conductor as the enginemen prepare the locomotive for a day of operation.
As the atomizer requires around 30 pounds/inch² (200 kPa) of steam pressure to operate, a compressed air line must be tapped into the atomizer line when the fire is first lit until enough steam has been raised to re-light the fire atomizing on steam. The conductor, who is in charge of the train and its motion at all times, will inspect the track and arrangement of the switches in the yard outside of the roundhouse to ensure the train will have safe passage from the roundhouse to junction with the main line near Fantasyland.
Once the boiler has reached working pressure and the engineers are ready to go, they will give two short whistles to indicate the train is about to start moving forward. After a reply from the conductor's buzzer (2 short buzzes) recognizing the whistle signal, the train will proceed out of the roundhouse, the length of one car at a time, so that the maintenance crew can complete the morning inspection of the running gear from a maintenance pit below the train.
At different times during the trip into the park the engineers will test the safety systems on the train. The two main tests include intentionally popping the safety valves and purposely running the train past a red block light. The safety valves are set to release excess steam to maintain the boiler's maximum certified working pressure and running the block light will automatically trigger the train brakes. These systems are tested daily to insure that they are working properly. These two tests are considered the most important to ensure safe operation of these steam trains. After the first train is on the main line, the second train is not far behind. As this process is going on, other conductors are arriving at the stations in the park and prepare for the trains' arrival.
When the park opens, the first train departs from Main Street Station. The second will be just behind; at the block light between Fantasyland and Main Street Stations or at the Fantasyland Station. Typically, two trains are used daily, with a third sometimes put into service on busy days later in the morning.
Each lap around the Magic Kingdom should be completed in approximately twenty minutes. This timing is established and maintained by the first train that is brought out onto the main line in the morning. The second and third trains keep up with the first train as much as possible. The goal is to have the first train arrive at Main Street Station at the top of the hour and at :20 and :40 past. If any of the other trains fall behind, they will need to catch up or drop behind a lap to get the first train back on schedule. This is necessary to facilitate proper closing procedures on the park's schedule.
The block signals let the engineers and train conductor know the position of the trains on the system. The block signals on the WDWRR resemble a typical traffic light with three lights that are green, yellow, and red. On the main line there are six blocks. Three of them are the stations which include some length of track before the station. The other three blocks are spread out with one between each station.
The lights typically change in this order in both directions: Green <--> Yellow/Green <--> Red <--> Yellow/Red
- Green Only: The next 2 blocks are completely clear. It is safe to proceed.
- Yellow and Green: The next block is clear, however, the block beyond is occupied. It is safe to proceed, but be prepared to stop at the next block.
- Red Only: The next block is occupied and it is not safe to proceed past this point.
- Yellow and Red: The next 2 blocks are both occupied; it is not safe to proceed past this point.
In a two train operation the conductors will not allow the train to proceed on a Yellow/Green signal. This keeps the trains spaced for more consistent service to the stations and prevents the train from having to stop in between stations. In a three train operation conductors can dispatch trains on the yellow/green signal. The reason for this is because there will almost always be a train in the second block ahead. Four train operations are not possible as there is not enough space on the main line, nor are there enough blocks to do so safely.
As with any railroad, the whistles all have a meaning as they are warning/signaling devices. Many guests are unaware that a train whistles' primary purpose is in fact communication. On the WDWRR, engineers use distinct whistle patterns to communicate while the conductor uses the same patterns with a button which activates a buzzer in the cab of the locomotive.
While the train is operated as a team, the conductor has the final say in the operation of the train; he/she is in command. At the stations, engineers will request to depart by signaling with two short whistles. The conductor will signal it is safe to do so by buzzing the cab with two short buzzes. The common whistle patterns used on the WDWRR are as follows:
- One Short – Attention
- Two Short – Forward Movement
- Three Short – Reverse Movement
- One Long, One Short – Approaching a Station
- One Long, Two Short – Crew spotted along track (also used as a general greeting)
- Two Long, One Short, One Long – Public Crossing ahead
- Two Long, One Short – Meeting Point (junction)
- One Long – Stop Immediately / Emergency stop.
- Four Long – Train in distress.
- Two Short, One Long, One Short – Engineer is acknowledging the maintenance crew
The train bell is rung upon the train's arrival at a station when the train is due to pick up passengers (therefore it is not rung on the last trip when the station platforms are clear of guests). As with the whistle, the bell being rung is an official and mandatory signaling sequence. The same whistle and bell signaling system is also in use at the Disneyland Railroad.
At the end of the evening the conductors at each station announce the departure of the last train. All guests may ride until the train arrives back at Fantasyland Station. Upon arrival, the conductors walk the length of the train to clear the train of remaining passengers, and any items accidentally left on board are unloaded and brought to lost and found by the station attendant. This procedure is the same for all trains.
After the train is cleared for departure, the conductor will signal the engineers with the reverse movement signal, at which time the train departs backwards to the roundhouse. The conductor will step off and throw the switch to allow the train to back into the roundhouse. At this point the engineer relies on the conductor to guide the train to back towards the roundhouse, which they do from the rear platform of the last coach. If other trains are still in operation, the fireman will throw the Fantasyland switch back to main line to allow trains to continue running; otherwise the switch is left aligned for the roundhouse spur. At each switch and grade crossing the conductor will signal to let the engineer know that the train successfully cleared it and can continue backing up. This continues until the train is backed completely into the roundhouse.
- The Walter E. Disney and Roger E. Broggie locomotives have serial numbers that are sequential (58444 and 58445). These locomotives were on the shop floor at the same time in 1925 as they were being built for the United Railways of Yucatan and still operate together to this day. Because of this, they are referred to as the "twins".
- During locomotive refurbishments, it is not uncommon to see the passenger cars from one locomotive being pulled by another. While most guests don't notice such a switch, WDWRR cast members often refer to these trains with a hybrid name amongst one another. Examples include - "Roger Disney”, "Walter Broggie", "Walter Belle" and many other confusing combinations.
- The Magic Kingdom offers a behind the scenes tour of the Walt Disney World Railroad on select days of the week, called "The Magic Behind our Steam Trains Tour". It is recommended that guests reserve spots in advance if they wish to attend (park admission is required).
- Originally, a fifth locomotive was brought up from Mexico. It had been displayed in a park across from the railroad tracks in Mérida and brought to Tampa with the other four, however, was found to be in poor shape and was not restored. It was sold to a party in California and it is presumed that it has since been scrapped.
- In 1995, Southern California railroad enthusiast Bill Norred traded his 1927 Davenport locomotive (a 2-4-4 Forney type) to Disneyland in exchange for the five retired clerestory-roofed "Retlaw One" coaches. The locomotive was instead sent to Walt Disney World after it was deemed too large to operate in California and was dedicated as #5 "Ward Kimball". The WDWRR, however, felt that its four engines were sufficient for regular service, and expressed little interest in acquiring a fifth. Moreover, the #5 was found to be far too small for operation on the WDWRR. As a result, the engine never operated in regular service and, except for being displayed at Epcot during Black History Month in 1996 for a short time, remained stored in the fifth bay of the WDWRR enginehouse. It was traded in 1999 to Cedar Point for a smaller Forney locomotive which was restored and now operates as the #5 "Ward Kimball" on the Disneyland Railroad.
- Previously, during the trip from Mickey's Toontown Fair to Main Street U.S.A., "Night Fire Dance" by Andreas Vollenweider from the old Tomorrowland area music could be heard during the narration.
- Several show scenes were built specifically for viewing from the trains, including a jungle-themed railroad crossing in Adventureland, the Tumbleweed section of Big Thunder Mountain Railroad, a Plains Indians camp and various small vignettes featuring woodland wildlife such as deer, moose, alligators, frogs and rattlesnakes. Just before arriving at Frontierland Station, trains pass through Splash Mountain, where the ride's finale scene (along with a "Hidden Mickey") can be seen from above through a large plate glass window.
- Main Street Station was modeled after and closely resembles the former Victorian era railroad depot at Saratoga Springs, New York.
- The former Mickey's Toontown Fair was demolished to make way for a new expansion of Fantasyland. The new Fantasyland Station was built on the former Toontown Station site and opened on March 12, 2012.
- A new on-board narration debuted in February 2011 which features a new narrator, eliminates the themed music, references more attractions within each land and highlights the new Fantasyland expansion.
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