Walter Lewin

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Walter H.G. Lewin, Ph.D.
Walter Lewin May 16, 2011 talk at MIT.png
Lewin giving a talk at MIT in 2011
Born (1936-01-29) January 29, 1936 (age 78)
The Hague, Netherlands
Residence Netherlands,
United States
Nationality Dutch
Fields Astrophysics, Physics
Institutions MIT
Alma mater Delft University of Technology
Notable awards

NASA Award for Exceptional Scientific Achievement (1978)
Alexander von Humboldt Award (1984 and 1991)
Guggenheim Fellowship (1984)
MIT Science Council Prize for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching (1984)
W. Buechner Teaching Prize (1988)


Everett Moore Baker Memorial Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching (2003)
Website
http://web.mit.edu/physics/people/faculty/lewin_walter.html

Walter H. G. Lewin, Ph.D. (born January 28, 1936) is a Dutch astrophysicist and professor emeritus of physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Born in the Hague Netherlands, professor Lewin achieved his PhD in nuclear physics in 1965 at the Delft University of Technology and came to MIT in 1966.

Lewin's major contributions in astrophysics include the discovery of the first slowly rotating neutron star through all-sky balloon surveys, research in X-ray detection in investigations through satellites and observatories worldwide. Lewin is well known for his popular lectures on physics and massive online courses taught on edX and MIT OpenCourseWare.

Early life and education[edit]

Lewin was born Walter Hendrik Gustav Lewin to parents Walter Simon Lewin and Pieternella Johanna van der Tang in 1936 in The Hague, Netherlands. Lewin grew up amidst the turmoil of World War II. His family went into hiding soon after the Nazis seized control of the country. Many of Lewin’s relatives were captured and sent to the gas chambers; his grandfather Gustav Lewin and his grandmother Emma Lewin were gassed in Auschwitz in 1942. Lewin's mother was Christian, but his father was from a Jewish background, so to protect the family he decided one day to simply leave without telling anyone. His mother was left to raise the children and run a small school she and her husband had started together. After the war ended, his father resurfaced. His parents continued running the school, which strongly influenced Lewin's love of teaching.[1]

Lewin earned his Ph.D. degree in nuclear physics in 1965 at the Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. From 1960 to 1965, Lewin was a physics teacher at the Libanon Lyceum in Rotterdam. During that same period he carried out research in low-energy nuclear physics at the Delft University of Technology where he received his Ph.D. Lewin went to Massachusetts Institute of Technology in January 1966 as a post-doctoral associate, and became an assistant professor later that year. He was promoted to Associate Professor of Physics in 1968 and to full Professor in 1974.[2]

Academic career[edit]

He joined the X-ray astronomy group at MIT and conducted all-sky balloon surveys with George W. Clark. Through the late seventies, there were about twenty successful balloon flights. These balloon surveys led to the discovery of five new X-ray sources, whose spectra were very different from the X-ray sources discovered during rocket observations. The X-ray flux of these sources were variable. Among them was GX 1+4 whose X-ray flux appeared to be periodic with a period of about 2.4 minutes. This was the discovery of the first slowly rotating neutron star.[3]

In October 1967 when Scorpius X-1 was observed, an X-ray flare was detected. The flux went up by a factor of about 4 in ten minutes after which it declined again. This was the first detection of X-ray variability observed during the observations. The rockets used by other researchers could not have discovered that the X-ray sources varied on such short time scales because they were only up for several minutes, whereas the balloons could be in the air for many hours.[4]

Lewin was co-investigator on the Small Astronomy Satellite 3 (SAS-3) project. He directed the burst observations and discovered several X-ray bursters, among them was the Rapid Burster which can produce thousands of X-ray bursts in one day. His group also discovered that the Rapid Burster produces two types of bursts and established a classification of bursts as type I (thermonuclear flashes) and type II (accretion flow instabilities).[5]

Lewin was Co-Principal Investigator on High Energy Astronomy Observatory 1 HEAO-1 (A4), which has yielded the first all sky catalog at high-energy X rays. With H. Pedersen and J. van Paradijs, Lewin made extensive studies of optical bursts which are associated with X-ray bursts; for X-ray detections they used SAS-3 and the Japanese Observatory "Hakucho". Their combined burst observations demonstrated that the optical bursts are a few seconds delayed relative to the X-ray bursts. This established the size of the accretion disc surrounding the accreting neutron stars.

In his search for millisecond X-ray pulsations from low-mass X-ray binaries, in 1984-85 Lewin made guest observations with the European Observatory EXOSAT in collaboration with colleagues from Amsterdam and Garching, Germany. This led to the unexpected discovery of intensity-dependent Quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in the X-ray flux of GX 5-1. During 1989 to 1992, using the Japanese Observatory "Ginga", Lewin and his co-workers studied the relation between the X-ray spectral state and the radio brightness of several bright low-mass X-ray binaries.[6]

Lewin was closely involved in ROSAT observations of the nearby galaxies M31 and Messier 81. Lewin and his graduate student Eugene Magnier have made deep optical CCD observations of M31 in four colors; they have published a catalogue of 500,000 objects. Lewin initiated the successful X-ray observations within six days of the appearance of supernova SN 1993J in M81.

Since 1978, Lewin has collaborated with his close friend Jan van Paradijs of the University of Amsterdam with whom he has co-authored 150 papers.[7]

Lewin and graduate student Jeffrey Kommers have worked on data from the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO). This was a collaboration with the BATSE Group in Huntsville, AL. In early December 1995, with co-workers Kouveliotou and Van Paradijs, they discovered a new type of X-ray burst source: (GRO J1744-28) the Bursting Pulsar, and received a NASA Achievement Award for this discovery.

In 1996-1998, Lewin's collaboration with Professor Van der Klis in Amsterdam led to the discovery of kHz oscillations in many X-ray binaries.

Using the Chandra X-ray Observatory, Lewin and his graduate student David Pooley made extensive studies of supernovae and faint X-ray sources in globular clusters. This research is done in collaboration with scientists from the University of Washington, IAS in Princeton, UC Berkeley, the University of Amsterdam and Utrecht in The Netherlands, and the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington, DC. The research on supernovae produced the first X-ray spectrum with unprecedented energy resolution of SN 1989S.[8] The research on Globular Clusters demonstrated that X-ray binary stars are cooked in the cores of the clusters where the stellar density is very high.

With graduate student Jon Miller, Lewin made extensive studies of black-hole X-ray binaries in our galaxy. Evidence was found for spectral distortions of the iron line (in X-rays) indicative of the influence of general relativity on the iron-line emission in the vicinity of the "event horizon" of the black holes. This research on black-hole binaries is continuing using all available observatories in orbit: Chandra, the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE), and the European observatories XMM-Newton and Integral.

Professor Lewin has published about 450 scientific articles to date.

Society memberships[edit]

  • Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences - corresponding member(1993)[9]
  • American Physical Society - Fellow[9]

Awards[edit]

In 1978, Lewin received the NASA Award for Exceptional Scientific Achievement.

In 1984 he was the recipient of the Alexander von Humboldt Award and of a Guggenheim Fellowship and the MIT's Science Council Prize for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching.

In 1988 he received the W. Buechner Teaching Prize of the MIT Department of Physics.

In 1986 he was the Distinguished Spring Lecturer at Princeton University.

In 1993 he was elected as a Corresponding Member of the Royal Dutch Academy of Sciences.

In 1996 he was elected as an American Physical Society Fellow.

In 1997, he was the recipient of a NASA Group Achievement Award for the Discovery of the Bursting Pulsar.

In 2003, he received the "2003 Everett Moore Baker Memorial Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching" award. Some of his lectures are available online in video format.

On May 5, 2011, he received the very first OCW Award for Excellence.[10]

On April 3, 2012, he was ranked by the Princeton Review among "The Best 300 Professors in the US". He was the only Professor at MIT to make it to that list.[11]

Discovery[edit]

  • Discovery of the first slowly rotating neutron star through new X-ray sources detected by balloon surveys.[12]
  • First detection of X-ray variability observed during the observations of Scorpius X-1.
  • Rapid Burster among several X-ray bursters during burst observations through Small Astronomy Satellite 3 (SAS-3) project.[13]
  • Rapid Burster produces two types of bursts: type I (thermonuclear flashes) and type II (accretion flow instabilities).[13]
  • Intensity-dependent quasi-periodic oscillations (QPO) in the X-ray flux of GX 5-1 though Lewin's guest observations with the European Observatory EXOSAT in collaboration with colleagues from Amsterdam and Garching, Germany.[14]
  • (GRO J1744-28) the Bursting Pulsar was discovered with co-workers Kouveliotou and Van Paradijs from Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO).

Personal life[edit]

Lewin is also an art enthusiast and collector. He has given a lecture at MIT "Looking at 20th Century Art through the Eyes of a Physicist - Walter Lewin (video)". In the seventies and eighties, he collaborated with the artists Otto Piene (born in Germany), who was one of the founders of the ZERO movement and the director of MIT's Center for Advanced Visual Studies, and Peter Struycken (Dutch) who is one of the leading computer artists in the world.

Books[edit]

Lectures[edit]

For about 15 years (starting in 1982) Lewin was on MIT Cable TV, with every week a different 1-hour program. They were aired 24 hours per day helping freshmen with their weekly homework assignments (they were called "Help Sessions"). Walter Lewin's 1992 lectures on Newtonian Mechanics (co-lectured with Bob Ledoux) and Lewin's "Help Sessions" have been shown for over six years (starting in 1995) on UWTV in Seattle, WA, reaching an audience of about four million people. Lewin personally responded to thousands of e-mail requests that he received per year from UWTV viewers. Videos of Lewin's 94 lectures on Newtonian Mechanics (1999), Electricity and Magnetism (2002) and the Physics of Vibrations and Waves (2004), among others, can be viewed on the MIT OpenCourseWare web site, on YouTube, on iTunes and on Earth Academic.

Lewin's physics lectures are now viewed by about 2 million people yearly. In December of the year 2007 The New York Times featured Lewin on the front page with the heading: "At 71, Physics Professor is Web Star". Below is a list of Lewin's popular lectures which can be accessed directly from his MIT webpage.

On Nov 26, 2012 Lewin gave a talk in Dutch for 1000 high school students in Delft, the Netherlands. This was the first time in 50 years that he gave a talk in Dutch. Surprisingly, the language was not a problem at all.[16]

Skype lectures[edit]

Since 2011, Lewin started giving lecture on Skype for small classes all over the world. He would talk for 30 minutes and do interesting demonstrations which are not intuitive. Then he would allow the students (age bracket 12-16) to ask questions for about 30 minutes. These lectures are very successful and very efficient for Lewin as he does not have to travel.

  • Jan 7, 2014 - Arentheem College in Arnhem, the Netherlands.

edX Courses[edit]

Lewin is presently converting 3 of his lecture courses into MITx courses. People who pass "x" courses will get a certificate from MIT. Lewin's course on Electricity and Magnetism went online in February 2013,[17] Newtonian Mechanics is online as of September 2013,[18] and the Physics of Vibrations and Waves will probably go online in February 2014.

Classes on MIT OpenCourseWare[edit]

Videos on Teaching Excellence at MIT[edit]

Videos of Lewin’s lectures on Videos on Teaching Excellence at MIT, YouTube and iTunes U have been viewed more than 12 million times by people all over the world — including Bill Gates, who has confessed to repeated viewings.[19][20]

List of MIT Videos[edit]

The following 8 lectures were for the general public - some were even for kids (and parents). They can be viewed in MIT Tech TV.

  • How to Make Teaching Come Alive? - for middle school science teachers
  • Polarization, Rainbows and Cheap Sunglasses - for kids & parents
  • The Birth and Death of Stars - for a general audience
  • The Sounds of Music - for kids & their parents.
  • The Mystery of Light - for high school students & science teachers
  • The Wonders of Electricity and Magnetism - for kids & their parents
  • Looking at 20th Century Art Through the Eyes of a Physicist
  • For the Love of Physics May 16, 2011.
  • Ice Skater's Delight

Worldwide Lectures[edit]

NHK Japan[edit]

In the summer of 2012, Lewin returned from his retirement to deliver a lecture series initiated and funded by the Japanese Broadcasting Corporation(NHK). Each lecture features a selection of physics demonstrations that Professor Lewin has used in his more than 43 years of teaching Physics at MIT. The lectures consist of 8 TV programs that were broadcast in Japanese on NHK in Japan in 2013.[21] DVDs of this series are currently available in Japanese and English version would be available later soon. (Walter Lewin - Nhk DVD Mit Hakunetsu Kyoshitsu DVD 1) (in English)[22]

Curacao[edit]

  • October 2, 2013 on the island of Curaçao - "The Birth and Death of Stars". It will be broadcast on TV in Curaçao.

India[edit]

  • Febr 27, 2014 "Birth and Death of Stars", IIT Delhi, India
  • March 1, 2014 "Birth and Death of Stars", Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopal, India
  • March 6, 2014 "Birth and Death of Stars", IIT Kanpur, Kanpur India
  • March 14, 2014 "Birth and Death of Stars", BITS Goa, Goa India
  • March 22, 2014, "Birth and Death of Stars", PEC Chandigarh, India
  • March 26, 2014, Lecture "How do I prepare my lectures?" for the entire Physics Faculty at Birla Institute of Technology and Science Pilani, India.
  • March 27, 2014, "Birth and Death of Stars", BITS Pilani, Pilani, India

Media appearances[edit]

TV Performances[edit]

  • 1998 A Science Odyssey, WGBH, Boston, Produced by PBS
  • 2003, The Elegant Universe, NOVA, Produced by PBS
  • 2005, Einstein's Unfinished Symphony, BBC
  • 2011, The Fabric of the Cosmos, NOVA, Produced by PBS
  • 2011, "De Wereld Draait Door" VARA, the Netherlands, Oct 24[23]
  • 2012 "De Wereld Draait Door", VARA, the Netherlands, May 9[24]
  • 2012 "De Wereld Draait Door", VARA, the Netherlands, May 9 part II[25]
  • 2012 "De Wereld Draait Door" VARA, the Netherlands, November 27[26]
  • 2013 January–February, 8 one-hour lectures, TV NHK, Japan.
  • 2014 September, French TV Canal+ series of documentary - "Special Investigations", on Online Education

Interviews[edit]

  • The Guardian - Sept 10, 2007[27]
  • The Washington Post - Oct 31, 2007[28]
  • Washington Post - November 4, 2007[28]
  • The Gazette - Nov 18, 2007[29]
  • New York Times - Dec 19, 2007[30][31]
  • International Herald Tribune - Dec 19, 2007[32]
  • CBS News - Dec 20, 2007[33]
  • Wired Science - December 20, 2007[34]
  • UK - Guardian - Dec 20, 2007[35]
  • Germany - Dec 21, 2007[36]
  • Italy - Dec 22, 2007[37]
  • Sweden - Svenska Dagbladet - Dec 23, 2007
  • New York Times - Dec 31, 2007[38]
  • Boston Globe - Jan 2, 2008[39]
  • U.S. News & World Report - Volume 144, Number 2, Jan 10, 2008[40]
  • Greece - Jan 13, 2008[41]
  • MIT's Tech Talk - January 16, 2008[42]
  • Guardian - January 22, 2008[43]
  • Spain - Publico - January 29–30, 2008[44][45]
  • Tailrank[46]
  • TV - Riz Khan Show - Al Jazeera - January 31, 2008[47][48]
  • Science Metropolis - Febr 28, 2008[49]
  • Poland Przekroju - March 5, 2008[50]
  • MIT's TechTalk March 5, 2008[51]
  • Yahoo - video - March 11, 2008[52]
  • Columbia Chronicle - April 7, 2008
  • Alteridade - April 28, 2008[53]
  • Zeit Online - May 8, 2008[54]
  • Martha Stewart Show - May 14, 2008[55]
  • Brazil VEJA magazine
  • Observer Magazine (UK)
  • Australia (interview 2/13 Robyn Williams)
  • Al-Arabi (Arabic newspaper - interview 2/19)
  • Positive Thinking Magazine - May/June 2008 issue
  • Oprah "0" magazine, September 2008 issue
  • NY Times, September 21, 2008[56]
  • MIT Press Release, October 9, 2008[57]
  • UniStandard, Austrian Newspaper - October 2008, page 18.
  • The Brown Daily Herald - October 22, 2008
  • TechTalk - December 17, 2008[58]
  • Time Magazine, April 27, 2009, page 44
  • "A Few of Our Favorites. These lecturers engage and entertain", November, 2009, Wired Magazine[59]
  • Weekblad van de Technische Universiteit Delft - May 27, 2010[60]
  • Brilliantlessons.com[61]
  • Sunday, November 28, 2010[62]
  • New York Times, January 13, 2011.[63][64]
  • US Airways - April, 2011[65]
  • OCW Award May 5, 2011[66]
  • Boston Globe - May 15, 2011[67]
  • May 16, 2011 at MIT - "For the Love of Physics", special lecture with book signing![68]
  • MIT News May 18, 2011[69]
  • Education-Portal.com - May 2011[70]
  • MIT Tech, June 3, 2011[71]
  • For the Love of Physics[72]
  • Los Angeles Times, July 3, 2011[73]
  • July 2011, #47, Voltreffer (Monthly) published by the Libanon Lyceum in Rotterdam, where he taught physics five years (1960-1965).
  • De Oud Hagenaar, July 26, 2011, year 3, Vol. 5[74]
  • Christian Science Monitor, July 27, 2011[75][76][77]
  • Talk Radio Network - 45 minute Interview with Professor Michio Kaku. Sept. 7, 2011
  • October 24, 2011, De Wereld Draait Door, Dutch TV[23]
  • October 26, 2011, Hart Van Nederland TV[78]
  • TU Delft, Nov 18, 2011[79]
  • Delft Intergraal, December 2011[80]
  • January 20, 2012, German Review of "For the Love of Physics" ("Es Funktioniert")[81][82]
  • Febr 2, 2012 1 hour 50 min interview at MIT - Related to the fact that MIT was founded 150 years ago.[83]
  • Interviews - Febr 14, 2012 in Barcelona, Spain[84]
  • EFE Agency
  • La Vanguardia/La Contra - Most important Newspaper in Catalonia
  • El Mundo Daily - 2nd main Spanish paper
  • El Pais - this is the First Spanish Newspaper
  • ABC Daily National Newspaper - 3rd main paper in Spain
  • Interviews - Febr 15, 2012 in Spain[85]
  • meeting with 6 bloggers.
  • Febr 15, 2012, Museum of Science in Barcelona, Spain. "The Birth and Death of Stars"[86]
  • NEWSPAPER ARTICLES IN SPAIN Febr 15-17, 2012.[87][88][89][90][91][92][93][94][95]
  • Febr 21, 2012 issue of MIT's Technology Review, The Professor Who Brings Physics to Life[96]
  • March 6, 2012, Review by Bill Gates of my book "For the Love of Physics"[97][98]
  • April 3, 2012, he was named one of the Best 300 Professors[11]
  • May 9, 2012[24]
  • May 9, 2012 his 2nd demo[25]
  • May 12, 2012, Large Interview - Nieuwe Rotterdamse Courant, NRC, the Netherlands, pages 24–25
  • May 12, 2012, Article in the Volkskrant (The Netherlands)
  • May 28, 2012 - Spanish Newspaper[99]
  • May 28, 2012 - Spanish Fantasymundo[100]
  • June 2012 issue, Interview in Quest (The Netherlands)
  • July 4, 2012 Interview/docbrumentary, "WaraKora" Nippon TV network in Japan[15]
  • July 5, 2012, Scientific Reports nature.com[101]
  • July 11, 2012, The Tech (MIT). Recommended by Bill Gates[102]
  • July 21, 2012[103]
  • July 27, 2012[104]
  • August 2012 issue, Nederlandse Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde
  • August 8, 2012[105]
  • Mid August 2012. Interview in "Know How" (Dutch Magazine 3rd edition, time of release mid August[106]
  • August 17, 2012, Radio 1 The Netherlands 3:50-4 PM (Boston time)
  • August 30, 2012, Blindwrolds[107]
  • November 21, 2012, Interview - Daily Newspaper The Asahi Shimbun, author: Shiro Namekata, published in December 2012
  • November 26, 2012, Delt's Studenten Blad
  • November 27, 2012, TV Performance in the Netherlands on "De Wereld Draait Door" Viewed by 1.5 million people[26]
  • 8 lectures on NHK TV in Japan, taped at MIT June/July-2012, Jan-March 2013 on TV in Japan[108]
  • Excellent Long Interview, Jan 4, 2013, Nijmeegs Studentenblad[109]
  • Jan 20, 2013 Japanese Newspaper[110]
  • Jan 20, 2013 Japan[111]
  • Jan 22, 2013 UK Magazine - University of Groningen - Interview.[112][113]
  • Jan 24, 2013 Interview with Harvard Crimson
  • Jan 30, 2013 Interview with Euronews TV. Anna Bressanin of the BBC interviewed him.[114]
  • Febr 1, 2013 Interview with USA Today
  • Feb. 7-13, 2013 The Times Higher Education, London, England, p. 18-19
  • June 13, 2013 Interview in Dutch. Will be published in September 2013 in VertrekNL.[115]
  • Sept 30, 2013 CBA TV, Curaçao.[116]
  • Sept 2013 VERTREK issue number 13, 3rd year, Long interview in Dutch.[117]
  • NOV 12, 2013 Skype interview with "WMO Arts & Science College", Wayanad, Kerala in India.
  • Febr 8, 2014 8:30 - 9:30 EST, one hour interview via Skype with 80 students at BITS-Pilani, Goa Campus in India.
  • Feb 10, 2014 Physics World How do figure skaters exploit Newtonian physics when they spin?[118]
  • March 18, 2014 Physics World[119]
  • April 4, 2014 at Lewin's home, Interview for French TV "Canal+" (documentary about teaching), due to be broadcast in September 2014
  • May 7, 2014 Nederlandse Christelijke Radio Vereniging, Dutch TV

Articles[edit]

  • May 18, 2011 - MIT New, A labor of love[1]
  • January 23, 2013 - MIT OpenCourseWare (OCW), New MITx course by Walter Lewin has potential to be the largest MOOC ever[120]
  • October 8, 2013 - MIT Department of Physics, Naval aviator powers up his education with MIT OpenCourseWare[121]

Videos[edit]

  • A compilation of Lewin drawing dashed/dotted lines on chalk boards during lectures at MIT has become a viral video.
  • A fan video comparing Lewin and Miley Cyrus riding on wrecking balls.

Selected publications[edit]

Professor Lewin has published about 450 scientific articles, below are a selected few.

  • J. Miller, A. Fabian, R. Wijnands, R. Remillard, P. Wojdowski, N. Schulz, T. Di Matteo, H. Marshall, C. Canizares, & W. Lewin (2002). "Resolving the Composite Fe K-alpha Emission Line in the Galactic Black Hole Cygnus X-1 with Chandra". Astrophysical Journal 578: 348–356. arXiv:astro-ph/0202083. Bibcode:2002ApJ...578..348M. doi:10.1086/342466. 
  • D. Pooley, W. Lewin, L. Homer, S. Anderson, B. Gaensler, B. Margon, F. Verbunt, J. Miller, D. Fox, V. Kaspi & M. v.d. Klis (2002). "Optical Identifications of Multiple Faint X-ray Sources in the Globular Cluster NGC~6752: Evidence for Numerous Cataclysmic Variables". Astrophysical Journal 569: 405. arXiv:astro-ph/0110192. Bibcode:2002ApJ...569..405P. doi:10.1086/339210. 
  • C. Kouveliotou, J. van Paradijs, G. J. Fishman, M. S. Briggs, J. Kommers, B. A. Harmon, C. A. Meegan, W. H. G. Lewin (1996). "Discovery of a New Type of Burster from the Galactic Center Region". Nature 379 (6568): 799. Bibcode:1996Natur.379..799K. doi:10.1038/379799a0. 

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b http://web.mit.edu/newsoffice/2011/walter-lewin-lecture-book-0518.html
  2. ^ Instructor Profile: Walter Lewin at MIT OpenCourseWare (archived 2009)
  3. ^ "1971ApJ...169L..17L Page L17". Adsabs.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  4. ^ "1970ApJ...162L.109L Page L109". Adsabs.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  5. ^ "ESA Science & Technology: X-ray light curve of the Rapid Burster in a very active Type II burst state". Sci.esa.int. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  6. ^ "Quasi-periodic oscillations in low-mass X ray binaries". Adsabs.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  7. ^ "[astro-ph/0105344] My Quarter Century with Jan van Paradijs". Xxx.lanl.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  8. ^ "SN 1989S – Wikipedia, wolna encyklopedia" (in (Polish)). Pl.wikipedia.org. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  9. ^ a b http://authors.simonandschuster.co.uk/Walter-Lewin/49822352
  10. ^ "MIT TechTV – Inaugural Awards for OpenCourseWare Excellence". Techtv.mit.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  11. ^ a b "MIT Department of Physics". Web.mit.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  12. ^ http://adsabs.harvard.edu/full/1971ApJ...169L..17L
  13. ^ a b "ESA Science & Technology: X-ray light curve of the Rapid Burster in a very active Type II burst state". Sci.esa.int. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
  14. ^ "Quasi-periodic oscillations in low-mass X ray binaries". Adsabs.harvard.edu. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
  15. ^ a b "NHK MIT白熱教室 番組概要". Nhk.or.jp. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  16. ^ "Mediasite Player Loading". Collegerama.tudelft.nl. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  17. ^ "About 8.02x". Edx.org. 2013-02-18. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  18. ^ "MITx 8.01x: Classical Mechanics (Sept 2013)". Edx.org. 2013-09-09. Retrieved 2013-09-17. 
  19. ^ http://www.thegatesnotes.com/Books/Personal/For-the-Love-of-Physics
  20. ^ http://www.valuewalk.com/2012/03/for-the-love-of-physics-book-review-by-bill-gates/
  21. ^ http://teachingexcellence.mit.edu/must-see/walter-lewin-gravity-pendulums-and-the-conservation-of-energy
  22. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Walter-Lewin-Hakunetsu-Kyoshitsu-POBD-25047/dp/B00BUBZS3C
  23. ^ a b "Natuurkundige Walter Lewin, Diederik Jekel - 24-10-2011 - Uitzending Gemist". De Wereld Draait Door. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  24. ^ a b "Walter Lewin - 9-5-2012 - Uitzending Gemist". De Wereld Draait Door. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  25. ^ a b "Extra proef (2): Walter Lewin - 9-5-2012 - Uitzending Gemist". De Wereld Draait Door. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  26. ^ a b "Walter Lewin - Wet van behoud lading - 27-11-2012 - Uitzending Gemist". De Wereld Draait Door. 2012-11-27. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  27. ^ Maxton Walker (2007-09-10). "Maxton Walker on iTunes university | World news". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  28. ^ a b Selingo, Jeffrey (2007-11-04). "Is iTunes U for You?". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  29. ^ Chute, Eleanor (2007-11-18). "How to take a course at MIT free - at home - Pittsburgh Post-Gazette". Post-gazette.com. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  30. ^ Rimer, Sara (2007-12-19). "At 71, Physics Professor Is a Web Star". The New York Times. 
  31. ^ Rimer, Sara (December 19, 2007). "At 71, Professor Is a Pendulum and a Web Star". The New York Times. p. 1. Retrieved April 20, 2013. 
  32. ^ Clark, Melissa. "The New York Times - Breaking News, World News & Multimedia". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  33. ^ "Meet YouTube's Physics Prof - CBS News Video". Cbsnews.com. 2007-12-20. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  34. ^ Rowe, Aaron (2007-12-20). "Lecture Videos by an Amazing MIT Physics Professor | Wired Science". Wired.com. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  35. ^ Dan Glaister in Los Angeles (2007-12-19). "Top of the iTunes chart: meet the professor who's making physics cool | Technology". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
  36. ^ http://www.sueddeutsche.de/,ra7l1/jobkarriere/artikel/584/149227/
  37. ^ "Che fisico questo professore! Corriere della Sera". Corriere.it. Retrieved 2013-04-20. 
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]