Wanaparthy was governed by a feudal ruler, Raja of Wanaparthy, Raja Rameshwar Rao II, who was a vassal of the Nizam of Hyderabad. Wanaparthy was one of the 14 major Zamindari segments in Telangana in Post-Independent India. Raja died on November 22, 1922 and his successor, Krishna Dev was a minor, so his estate was managed by the Court as his ward. Krishna Dev expired before attaining adulthood and the crown passed on to his son Rameshwar Rao III. Soon after India abolished all regal titles.
As of 2011[update]Census of India, the town had a population of 60,949. The total population constitute, 31,501 males, 29,448 females and 6,122 children, in the age group of 0–6 years. The average literacy rate stands at 77.91% with 42,713 literates, significantly higher than the national average of 73.00%.