"Wang Dang Doodle" was composed by Willie Dixon during the second part of his songwriting career from 1959 to 1964. During this period, he wrote many of his best-known songs, including "Back Door Man", "Spoonful", "The Red Rooster" (better-known as "Little Red Rooster"), "I Ain't Superstitious", "You Shook Me", "You Need Love" (adapted by Led Zeppelin for "Whole Lotta Love"), and "You Can't Judge a Book by the Cover". In his autobiography, Dixon explained that the phrase "wang dang doodle" "meant a good time, especially if the guy came in from the South. A wang dang meant having a ball and a lot of dancing, they called it a rocking style so that's what it meant to wang dang doodle". Rowe writes that Dixon's song is based on "an old lesbian song" – "The Bull Daggers Ball" – with "its catalogue of low-life characters only marginally less colurful that the original". Dixon claimed that he wrote it when he first heard Howlin' Wolf in 1951 or 1952, but that it was "too far in advance" for him and he saved it for later. However, Wolf supposedly hated the song and commented, "Man, that's too old-timey, sound[s] like some old levee camp number":
Tell Automatic slim, to tell razor totin' Jim
To tell butcher knife totin' Annie, to tell fast talkin' Fannie ...
We gonna pitch a wang dang doodle all night long
Howlin' Wolf recorded the song in June 1960 in Chicago during the same sessions that produced "Back Door Man" and "Spoonful". Backing Howlin' Wolf on vocals are Otis Spann on piano, Hubert Sumlin on guitar, Dixon on bass, and Fred Below on drums.Freddy King has also been identified as possibly a second guitarist. In 1961, Chess issued the song as the B-side to "Back Door Man", however, neither song appeared in the record charts. Both songs are included on Howlin' Wolf's popular 1962 compilation album Howlin' Wolf, also called The Rockin' Chair Album and many subsequent compilations.
On June 30, 1964, Willie Dixon brought Koko Taylor to Chess Records, where she recorded "What Kind of Man Is That?". During her next session on December 7, 1965, she recorded "Wang Dang Doodle". Backing Koko Taylor on vocals are Gene Barge and Donald Hawkins on saxophones, Lafayette Leake on piano, Buddy Guy and Johnny "Twist" Williams on guitars, Jack Meyers on bass guitar, Fred Below on drums, and Willie Dixon singing with Koko. Koko's version was released in early 1966 and peaked at number four on Billboard magazine's R&B Singles chart and number 58 on the Hot 100. In 1995, her rendition was inducted into the Blues Foundation Hall of Fame in the "Classics of Blues Recording – Singles or Album Tracks" category. The Foundation noted that the song was the last blues single produced by Dixon to reach the record charts and "became Koko Taylor's signature crowdpleaser, inspiring singalongs to the 'all night long' refrain night after night."