Wangal

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Wangal tribesman, warrior, and diplomat, Bennelong, first captured in November 1789 at the behest of New South Wales Governor Arthur Phillip[1]

The Wangal people (aka Wanngal,[2] Won-gal,[2]) are the original Aboriginal custodians of the lands and waters of the current Municipality of Strathfield and surrounding areas of Sydney, New South Wales.[3]

History[edit]

Archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Sydney area has been dated back 20,000 years,[4] and is likely to date back much further (people have been dated as being present elsewhere in Australia more than 60,000 years ago - see Australian Aboriginal Prehistoric Sites).

Sydney's geomorphology 20,000 years ago was very different to what it is today. In the middle of the last ice age, the Sydney coast was approximately 15 km to the east and what is now Port Jackson (Sydney Harbour) was freshwater creeks and rivers. Wangal predecessors would have been living in the now-submerged coastal area.[4]

As sea levels rose to their present levels, peoples living on the coast would have been forced inland.[4] By 1788, the Wangal people were well established there as a fishing people.[5]

The Wangal people were among the first to encounter British settlers in 1788. While the British governor Arthur Phillip sought to establish good relationships with the local people and even befriended Bennelong, a prominent Wangal person, the differences between the groups led to tensions with both sides killing and injuring members of the other.[6]

In April 1789, just over a year after the establishment of the British settlement, smallpox broke out. There is speculation as to whether the disease was released deliberately or not but in any case the result was catastrophic.[6]

Country[edit]

Wangal people's country, Wanne, extends along the south side of Sydney Harbour, from Darling Harbour to Rose Hill

The name these people gave to their country was documented by NSW Governor Arthur Phillip in 1790 as Wann and by his successor John Hunter as Wanne.[2] Their country has been described as extending:[2]

"...along the south side of the harbour from Long Cove (Darling Harbour) to Rose Hill, which the local inhabitants called Parramatta."

Language[edit]

The Wangal people were part of the Eora (aka Dharawal, Darug, Dharuk) language speaking group, who contributed to contemporary Australian English words like dingo, woomera, wallaby, wombat, and waratah.[7]

The Wangal people and their Eora neighbours, the Cadigal people, were heavily impacted by early British settlement, many dying from smallpox or being pushed from their lands by the early settlers, and ceasing to be acknowledged and known as a viable, functioning social group within twenty years or so of 1788.[8]

The Eora / Dharawal / Darug language has since been reconstructed from the many notes made of it by the original colonists, although there has been no known oral language tradition continuing over the last one hundred years.[7]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Article (2008) describing Bennelong as a Wangal 'tribesman', Time Out Sydney. Issue 11. Retrieved on 22 March 2008.
  2. ^ a b c d Australian Museum (2002). Aboriginal People of Coastal Sydney. Retrieved on 21 March 2008.
  3. ^ Strathfield Municipal Council (2007). Aboriginal History. Retrieved on 21 March 2008.
  4. ^ a b c "The Ice Age". Marrickville Council. Archived from the original on 2007-08-30. Retrieved 2007-05-07. 
  5. ^ "Bush Tucker". Marrickville Council. Archived from the original on 2007-06-26. Retrieved 2007-05-07. 
  6. ^ a b "Smallpox Epidemic". Marrickville Council. Archived from the original on 2007-09-02. Retrieved 2007-05-07. 
  7. ^ a b Thieberger & McGregor (1994).
  8. ^ Turbet (1989).

References[edit]

  • Thieberger, N. & McGregor, W. (1994). "Sydney language" in Macquarie Aboriginal Words. Macquarie Library. Sydney
  • Turbet, Peter (1989). The Aborigines of the Sydney District Before 1788. Kangaroo Press. Kenthurst

Further reading[edit]

  • Beckett, Jeremy & Donaldson, Tamsin with Steadman, Bradley & Meredith, Steve (2003). Yapapunakirri: Let's Track Back: The Aboriginal World Around Mount Grenfell. Office of the Registrar, Aboriginal Land Rights Act 1983. Sydney
  • Guider, Michael (1997). Aboriginal History of Burwood Municipality. Michael Guider. Lithgow

External links[edit]